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Full text of "The history of the sufferings of the church of Scotland from the restoration to the revolution, with an original memoir of the author, extracts from his correspondence, and preliminary dissertation"

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VOL. I. 






K KtltJI.t AND S0.\, fUINlERS, 8, 1,A3T CLYDE STREET. 


Mr. Jasies Wodrow, the father of the His- 
torian, was born at Eaglesham in the neigh- 
bourhood of Glasgow, on the 2d of January 
1637. He passed through the regular 
course of study at the university of Glasgow, 
and took his degree of A. M. in 1659, with 
the high approbation of pi-incipal Gillespie, 
and the other members of the senatus. He 
forthwith entered on the study of divinity 
under professors Baillie and Young, and 
was soon distinguished by his high attain- 
ments in theological literature. Although 
ready for license in the course of a few years, 
his ideas of the sacred office were so solemn, 
and the difficulties attending its right dis- 
charge appeared to him so numerous and so 
great, especially in those days of persecution, 
that it required the earnest expostulations 
of some of the most eminent ministers of 
the day to induce him to become a candidate 
for the holy ministry. Among those who 
urged him to take license in the presbyterian 
church, then passing into the vale of tears, 
was the justly venerated Mr. Robert Blair, 
one of the ministers of St. Andrews, who 
after hearing one day from Mr. Wodrow 
the reason of that self-diffidence which kept 
him back from the public service of the 
church, thus addressed him in reply ; " Be 
not discouraged : your timidity will gradually 
lessen, and although it should not entirely 
wear off, yet it will not marr you," adding in 
an easy facetious manner, " I'se tell you for 
your encouragement, I have been now nearly 
forty years in the ministry, and the third 
bell scarce ever begins to toll when I am to 
preach, but my heart plays dunt, dunt, dunt." 
A solemnly affecting inter\'iew wh' "h he had 
with Mr. James Guthrie of Stirling, in the 
tolbooth of Edinburgh, on the night before 
his execution, appears to have had a very 
salutary effect on the mind of Mr. Wodrow ; 
and although the persecuted state of th^ 
church, consequent on the restoration of the 

Stuarts, opposed additional obstacles to 
his entrance on the public ministry, he was 
most usefully employed in the prosecution 
of his private studies, while residing for 
some considerable time at Car-donald near 
Paisley, as tutor to the yoimglord Blantyre. 
It was not till the 29th February, 1673, 
that he received license from a class of per- 
secuted presbyterian ministers in the west 
of Scotland ; whose high testimony to his 
eminent attainments and character is re- 
corded in the memoirs of his life, and stands 
as a very interesting memorial of the good 
men of those troublous times. He preached 
with great acceptance and usefulness among 
the persecuted presbyterians of the west ; 
associated freely with ministers of both the 
well known classes of indulged and not in- 
dulged; and met with much opposition 
from the common enemy, making many 
very narrow escapes from his iron grasp. 
In 1687, he settled in Glasgow, at the 
request of the synod of the bounds, and 
took charge of a small class of students in 
divinity who were preparing for the ministry 
among the presbyterians of Scotland. In 
May 1688, he was called to be one of the 
ministers of the city, and this office he held 
with distinguished reputation for four 3'ears. 
In 1692, he was elected to be professor of 
divinity in the college ; and in consequence 
of this, resigned his pastoral charge. The 
same diligence and pious zeal which distin- 
guished his ministrations, continued to char- 
acterize him as a theological professor. In 
the various departments of public lecturing 
examination of students, hearing and cri- 
ticising discourses, discussing cases of casu- 
istry, daily conference with students on the 
subject of personal religion, and correspon- 
dence with them when absent, on the pro- 
gress of their studies ; — he found enough, 
and more than enough, to engage all his 
powers and all his lime. From 1692 to the 



period of his death in 1707, nearly 700 
students passed througli his hands, exchi- 
sive of nearly 200 from England and Ire- 
land. In order to lessen the burden of 
th(3 laborious office of the professorship, the 
college were pleased to elect his son 
Alexander, a most promising young man, to 
be his colleague. While the process for his 
induction or installation was going on, death 
deprived the church of the services of one 
who promised to prove the worthy successor 
of an eminent fafher. Tiie professor con- 
tinued to discharge the duties of the chair 
with growing reputation, till the 25th Sep- 
tember, 1707, when he died full of hope, and 
leaving a noble testimony to the faith which 
he adorned by his life, and whose principles 
he had so ably inculcated by his preaching 
and by his professional labours.* 

Robert Wodrovv, the second son of the 
professor, was born at Glasgow in the year 
1679. His mother's name was Margaret 
Hah", daughter of William Hair, proprietor 
of a small estate in the parish of Kilbarchan, 
who married a daughter of James Stewart, 
commonly called tutor of Blackball. Mrs. 
Wodrow was a woman of considerable 
strength of mind, great discretion, and emin- 
ent piety. The year of Mr. Wodrovv's birth 
is perhaps the most eventful in the annals 
of the history of the Covenanters, and the 
violence of persecution raged during this 
period with more than ordinary fierceness. 
At the time of the birth of her son, Mrs. 
W. was in the 51st year of her age; and her 
death, though it did not happen for several 
years after, was then fully expected. Her 
excellent husband, obnoxious to a tyrannical 
government, narrowly escaped imprisonment 
or something worse, in attempting to obtain 
a last interview with her. As he passed the 
town guard-house he was watched, and soon 
followed by the soldiers into his own house, 
and even into his wife's bedchamber where 
he was concealed. The officer on command 
checked this violence ; sent the men out of 
the room, and left the house himself; placing 

* The above particulars of the life of professor 
Wortrow, are selecle'l from a MS. life of him 
by the Historian ; a valuable document, which 
ought, beyond all question, to be given to the 

however sentinels both within and without 
till the critical event should be over. In 
half an hour after, Mr. Wodrow, at his wife's 
suggestion, assumed the bonnet and great- 
coat of the servant of the physician then in 
attendance ; and carrying the lantern before 
him, made an eas}^ escape through the 
midst of the guard. They soon renewed 
their search with marks of in-itation, thrust- 
ing their swords into the very bed where the 
lady lay; who pleasantly desired them to 
desist, " for the bird," said she, " is now 

Our author went through the usual course 
of academical education at Glasgow, having 
entered the university in 1691 ; and studied 
the languages and different branches of 
philosophy, according to the method then 
generally adopted in the colleges of Scot- 
land. One master or regent was in the 
habit of carrying his pupils through the 
whole of the university cmTiculum ; a 
custom long ago changed for the more ra- 
tional and usefi-il plan of assigning to each 
professor his own appropriate field. In this 
way, each science obtains its own suitable 
kind and measure of talent and learning; 
while the student in the course of his studies 
enjoys the benefit of profiting by the diversi- 
fied labours of different minds. Condensa- 
tion of energies on the part of the teacher, 
thus secures, or may be reasonably expected 
to secure, a higher measure of literary quali- 
fication ; while the pupils may be expected 
to profit by the concentration of talent thus 
wisely diversified. 

While a student of theology under his 
father, Mi\ Wodrow was chosen librarian to 
the college, an office which he held for foQr 
years. He had very soon displayed a pecu- 
liar talent for historical and bibliographical 
inquiry; and this recommended him as a 
person admirably qualified for the situation. 
He accepted of it not from considerations 
connected with its pecuniai-y emoluments, 
then exceedingly slender; but because it 
gave him a favourable opportunity of access 
to books and other facilities for his favourite 
studies. It was immediately on his nomina- 
tion to this office, he entered with ardour 
on those researches which in the course of 
his life he prosecuted to such an extent, 


into every thing connected with the eccles- 
iastical and literai-y history of his country. 
Here also he unbibed that taste for the 
study of medals, ancient coins, inscriptions, 
and whatever tended to throw light on 
Konian, Celtic, and British antiquities. His 
collections of this kind were very extensive 
and valuable ; and it is matter of deep regret, 
that in his case as in that of others, the 
results of uncommon research and anti- 
quarian skill, should not have been preserved 
entire for the benefit of posterity. 

The study of natural history, then scarcely 
known in Scotland, seems to have attracted 
him with no ordinary interest; and before 
he had arrived at the years of majority, he 
had opened a correspondence with a number 
of celebrated men in this and the kindred, 
departments. Among his correspondents 
we find the names of bishop Nicolson, the 
distinguished author of the " Historical 
Libraries;" Mr. Edward Lhuyd, keeper of 
the Ashmolean closet at Oxford ; Sir Robert 
Sibbald, so well known as a naturalist and 
antiquarian of the first order; lord Pitmedan ; 
Messrs. James Sutherland, professor of Bo- 
tany at Edinburgh ; Lauchlan Campbell 
minister of Campbeltown, and many others. 
With these gentlemen he was in habits of 
intimacy, and they exchanged with each 
other their curiosities in natural history and 
geology. In a letter to IVIr. Lhuyd, dated 
August 1709, Mr. Wodrow tells him that 
his manse was but at a little distance from 
a place where they had been lithoscoping 
together during a visit of Mr. Lhuyd to 
Scotland. " My parochial charge " he con- 
tinues " does not allow me the same time I 
had then for those subterranean studies, 
but my inclination is equally strong, perhaps 
stronger. I take it to be one of the best 
diversions from serious study, and in itself 
a great duty to admire my Maker's works. 
I have gotten some fossils here from our 
marlc, limestone, &c. and heartily wish I 
had the knowing Mr. Lhuyd here to pick 
out what he wants, and help me to class a 
great many species which I know not what 
to make of." He informs him in the end 
of the letter, that he had 5 or 600 species 
of one thing or another relative to natural 
history. His collections were at his death 


1 divided among his friends, or found their 
way into the cabinets of private collectors 
or of public institutions. 
I The physical and historical pursuits of 
Mr. W. were all subordinate to his great 
business, the study of theology and the 
practical application of its principles in the 
discharge of the duties of the pastoral office. 
To these he showed an early and a decided 
partiality, and he desired to consecrate all 
his talents, and all his varied pursuits, to 
the glory of (Jod and the good of his church. 
From a pretty extensive examination of his 
correspondence, it appears that his pursuits 
in natural science engaged his leisure hours, 
only during the earlier part of his life, and that 
after he had framed the design of writing 
the history of the church of Scotland, every 
thing seems to have been relinquished for 
the sake of an undivided attention to that 
great subject* 

IMi-. Wodrow when he left the library of 
Glasgow, and on finishing his theological 
career, resided for some time in the house of 
a distant relation of the family, Sir John 
Maxwell, of Nether Pollock, then one of the 
senators of the college of justice, a man of 
great vigour of mind, and exalted piety. 
While resident in his house, he offered him- 
self for trials to the presbytery of Paisley, and 
was by them licensed to preach the gospel 
in March 1703. In the summer following, 
the parish of Eastwood, where lord Pollock 
lived, became vacant by the death of Mr. 
Matthew Crawfurd, the pious and laborious 
author of a history of the church of Scotland, 
yet in MS. Mr. Wodrow was elected by 
the heritors and elders, with consent of tl;e 
congregation, to supply the charge ; and he 
was ordained minister of that parish on the 
28th October, 1703. Wliile he did not 
feel himself called on to relinquish liis 
favourite studies in histor)', and antiquities, 
he nevertheless devoted the strength of his 
mind, and of his time, to the more imme- 
diate duties of the pastoral office. The 
parish of Eastwood was at that time one of 
the smallest in the west of Scotland ; and it 
was, on this account more agreeable to Mr. 
Wodrow, inasmuch as it aflfbrded him more 
time to prosecute his favourite studies, in 
perfect consistency with a due regard to his 



official vocation. It was for this very good 
reason that he never would consent to be 
removed from the retirement and leisure of 
a small country parish, to the more con- 
spicuous, but at the same time more labor- 
ious and difficult situation, of a clergyman 
in one of our larger cities. Glasgow in 1712, 
and Stirling, first in 1717, and again in 1726, 
did each solicit and with earnestness, the 
benefits of the pastoral services of this ex- 
cellent individual ; but after serious delibera- 
tion, accompanied with earnest prayer for 
divine direction, he saw it to be his duty to 
decline all these solicitations. In a letter, 
from the gallant and worthy Colonel Black- 
adder, the deputy governor of Stirling castle, 
there occurs towards the end, the following 
passage : " There is no place you will be more 
welcome to than the castle of Stirling, 
and you may come freely now, without being 
suspected to be 7-eus ambitus; for you will 
have heard that Mi*. Hamilton is trans- 
ported and to be settled here on the 2d 
of February next. My wife joins with me 
in our kind respects to you and spouse. 
She regrets your obstinate temper (as she 
calls it) that you resolve to live and die at 
Eastwood ; but we see that every minister 
is not of that stiff temper." He also felt 
attached to Glasgow as the field of his 
father's life and labours; and the scene of his 
earliest and dearest associations. The advan- 
tages which its university library gave him, 
also influenced him in his wish to remain 
where he was ; and he enjoyed the singularly 
strong affection of a loving and beloved 

While he was assiduous and constant in 
all the duties of the pastoral office, preaching 
the gospel publicly, and from house to 
house, and going in and out before his 
people, in all the affectionate intercourse of 
Christian and ministerial service ; his cha- 
racter as a preacher rose remarkably high 
in the west of Scotland. Good sense ; dis- 
tinct conception and arrangement of his 
thoughts ; scripturality of statement and of 
language ; solemn and impressive address ; 
these constituted the charms of his public 
character as a ])reacher. He composed his 
sermons with great care ; and the frequent 
habit of regular composition gave him, in 

this, a remarkable facility. Besides his 
regular labours on Sabbath, he frecjuently 
preached week day sermons and lectures, 
and even these were the result of accurate 
and well arranged study. His countenance 
and appearance in the pulpit were maniy 
and dignified; his voice clear and com- 
manding; his manner serious and ani- 
mated; and the whole impression on the 
minds of his hearers, was heightened and 
sweetened by the complete consciousness of 
his perfect sincerity, in all he spoke and in 
all he did for their benefit. He became one 
of the most popular preachers of his day ; 
and the crowds which resorted on sacramen- 
tal occasions to Eastwood, proved the eager- 
ness with which these seasons were hailed 
and enjoyed as a kind of spii-itual jubilee. 
To quote the words of the author of his life 
inserted in the Encyclopedia Britannica : 
" Humble and unambitious of public notice, 
he was well entitled to distinguished reputa- 
tion by his conscientious and exemplary 
piety ; his learning, not only in professional, 
but in other branches of knowledge; his 
natural good sense and solid judgment ; his 
benevolent obliging spu'it to all ; his warm 
attachment to his friends, who formed a 
wide cii-cle around him ; and especially his 
deep concern for the best interests of his 
people, and active exertions for their in- 
struction and improvement." 

The sentiments of cotemporaries regard- 
ing him, may be safely appealed to as valid 
evidences in his favour. The repeated 
invitations which he received from large and 
respectable congregations to become their 
pastor, afford very clear proofs of his ex- 
tended reputation, and the letters of his 
correspondents both in this country and in 
other countries, speak the same language of 
affectionate veneration. As a small speci- 
men, I shall quote the following passage 
from the letter of a pious and excellent 
young minister then newly settled in a 
small country parish in the south of Scot- 
land, the reverend IVIr. Thomas Pollock, 
minister of Ednani. It bears date. May 
23d, 1726. " You, with others of my very 
reverend fathers, were encouraging to me, 
in setting forward to the work and office of 
the ministry, and therefore, I hope, will 


be concerned for me, that I may be both 
diligent and successful in it. 'Tis required 
of a servant that he be found faithful and 
diligent, and if my lieart deceives me not, 
I would be at approving myself, to my 
great Lord and Master, by a patient con- 
tinuance in well doing : for ' blessed shall 
that servant be, whom, when his Lord 
Cometh, he shall find so doing. Their 
labour shall not be in vain in the Lord.' 
Sir, it is now a considerable while, since 
you, by a kind Providence, entered upon 
that great work, which (blessed bo God) 
you are continued in, and take pleasure in, 
and have been successful in ; and long may 
you live to be useful and successful, in 
making ready a people for the Lord, and 
espousing them to Jesus Christ : and I 
hope, that when the Lord comes to count 
the people, you shall have many to be your 
* crown of rejoicing in the day of the Lord.' 
The lively sermons, the close and earnest 
calls, the pressing invitations, which you 
have been helped to deliver in the parish 
of Eastwood, in and about sacramental 
occasions, is what some remember and 
look back upon with pleasiu-e. I need not 
tell you, that you have been remarkably 
assisted at these times ; and no doubt, you 
have given the glory of it to him that 
makes his grace sufficient for us." 

As became a conscientious and enlight- 
ened clergyman of the church of Scotland, 
he was most punctual in his attendance on 
her various courts of presbytery, synod, 
and general assembly. Of the assembly, 
he was very frequently chosen a member ; 
and on occasions of public interest, such 
as the union of the kingdoms in 1707, he 
was nominated as one of a committee of 
presbytery to consult and act with the 
brethren of the commission in Edinburgh, 
in order to avert the evils which that 
measure was supposed to portend to the 
church and people of Scotland. On oc- 
casions of this kind, he took a lively interest 
in the proceedings ; kept regular notes of 
them ; corresponded with friends of in- 
fluence in London and elsewhere ; and has 
preserved in his manuscript records, most 
authentic and interesting details of the whole 
procedure of the comts. Ilis desire to search 

the records in the public offices, and the MSS. 
and ancient documents in the Advocates* 
Library, rendered his visits to Edinburgh, 
necessarily frequent, and this naturally 
pointed him out as a very proper person to 
aid in conducting the public concerns of 
the church. On occasion of the accession 
of George L he was the principal corre- 
spondent and adviser of the five clergy- 
men, who were deputed by the assembly to 
go to London, for the purpose of pleading 
the rights of the church, and particularly 
for petitioning the immediate abolition of the 
law of patronage, which had been revived 
two yeai-s before, by the influence of an 
ultra tory ministry, aided by a lai-ge Jacobite 
party in the country, hostile to the interests 
of the Hanoverian succession. The third 
volume of his MS. letters contains several 
long and able statements and reasonings on 
this and collateral topics ; and these throw 
no small light on the views of both parties at 
the time regarding this momentous question. 
No man could be more decided than he 
was on the " unreasonableness and un- 
scripturality" of the law of patronage ; and 
he contended for its abolition, and for the 
revival of the act 1690, as essential to the 
faithful maintenance of the terms of the 
union, and as necessary to the preservation 
and usefulness of our ecclesiastical establish- 
ment. A man of peace, as Mr. W. beyond all 
question was, would never have argued and 
struggled in this way, had he known, and 
know it he must, if true, that the mode of 
settling ministers by the act 1690, was pro- 
ductive, as its enemies affirmed, of " endless 
tumults and contentions." 

It is the part of candom* at the same 
time to notice, that when, contrary to his 
solemn and matured judgment, the law of 
patronage was revived, and a decided dis- 
inclination to abrogate it, manifested by the 
highest legal tribunal in the kingdom, he did 
not think it either right or expedient, to resist 
the execution of the law, by populai* force 
or by ecclesiastical insubordination. He 
yielded to the storm which he could not 
avert, and on one or two occasions, he 
thought it his duty to countenance the 
settlement of an unpopular preacher. At 
the same time, he never hesitated to de- 


clare his sentiments on the matter, and he 
did not despair of the return both of the 
country and of the church, to sounder con- 
stitutional principles. 

The same enlightened zeal for the public 
interests of his church and country, which 
led him to take such a deep interest in the 
question of patronage, influenced him in 
his sentiments and measures regarding the 
political state and government of Great 
Britain. Tenderly alive to the liberties of 
the people ; intimately acquainted with the 
genius of that execrable system of church 
and state policy, which, during the reign of 
the Stuarts, had deluged his native land 
with the blood of her noblest citizens; 
and alarmed at the ascendancy of tory and 
Jacobitish principles dm-ing the latter part 
of Queen Anne's reign, he, in common 
with the great body of zealous Scottish 
presbyterians, resisted the imposition of 
what was termed the abjuration oath, whose 
terms and language, seemed to them hostile 
to the elector of Hanover's newly acquired 
right to the crown, conferred on him by the 
parliament and people; and at variance 
with their avowed sentiments on the subject 
of ecclesiastical polity. They steadily re- 
fused to take this oath, and thus exposed 
themselves to considerable peril and diffi- 
culty. But Mr. Wodrow was of too catholic 
and liberal a mind, to take oiFence at those 
whose consciences allowed them to comply 
with the order ; and he exerted all his in- 
fluence in attempting to reconcile the people 
at large to such of the clergy as had gone 
into a measure thus peculiarly unpopular. 
With the firmness of the recusant clergy, 
the forbearance of the public officers admir- 
ably harmonized. The obnoxious oath, was, 
after an ineffectual struggle, not keenly 
pressed on scrupulous minds. The penalties 
for noncompliance were remitted; and the 
Scottish administration seemed to rest satis- 
fied with the assurance that the loyalty of 
the recusants was beyond all question. 
Twenty-five years had effected a wonderfid 
change in public feeling ; and bigoted in- 
tolerance, it was now at length discovered, 
was not the most likely way of securing 
the attachment of the subjects, and the 
stabilitv of the throne. 


The rebellion in 1715, was to Mr. 
Wodrow a subject of deep and painful 
interest. In common with all truehearted 
Scottish presbyterians, he stood forward as 
one of the warmest defenders of the Hano- 
verian interest; and the deep anxiety of 
his mind at this critical era, may be fairly 
inferred from the voluminous collection of 
letters to him, by correspondents in all 
parts of the country, which remain among 
his MSS. There are at least four quarto 
volumes of these; and the minute and 
curious details which many of them contain, 
throw no small light on what may be termed 
the internal history of that momentous 

To a man thus admirably qualified by 
principle, by extensive information, by a 
habit of persevering and accurate research, 
and by a native candour of soul, v/hich bade 
defiance to all the arts of chicanery, no 
literary undertaking could be more appro- 
priate, than that of the " History of the 
Sufferings of the Church of Scotland," during 
the days of prelatical persecution. To the 
undertaking of this work, he seems to have 
been led at a pretty early period of his life ; 
and from the year 1707, down to the time 
of its publication, all his leisure hours seem 
to have been devoted to it. His friends 
'encouraged the laborious undertaking, con- 
vinced of the incalculable value of such a 
work, if properly executed, both as a record 
of the sufferings and of the worth of many 
excellent men, and as filling up an im- 
portant niche in the ecclesiastical and po- 
litical annals of the countrj'. There had 
been published, it is true, various authentic 
details of the leading events of the cove- 
nanting period, and biographical sketches 
of the principal characters who figured in 
it. But there was still wanting a com- 
prehensive digest of the whole into chron- 
ological order ; together, with what might 
be held up to future ages, as a fair and 
impartial exhibition of events, which could 
not fail to interest the feelings of the im- 
mediate actors in them. Mr. Wodrow 
lived at a time sufficiently distant from 
the persecuting era, to allow of his forming 
an unbiassed opinion of its scenes, under 
the moderating influence of more liberal 



times, and a more tolerant administration. 
lie had access to the best sources of in- 
formation, and his ardent but temperate 
zeal in the great cause for which his fore- 
fathers suffered, presented an edifying con- 
trast to that cold, and supercilious, and 
infidel temper, which has led some other 
historians to look upon the whole scene 
either with absolute contempt, or with the^ 
frigidity of a cold-blooded Stoicism. The 
design of the history, was, not so much to 
give a regular, connected narrative of the 
events of the period, as to exhibit a distinct 
sketch of the characters, both of the prin- 
cipal sufferers and their persecutors; the 
springs of the persecution, in the unjustifi- 
able plans and measures of an arbitrary 
government ; with the motives of its chief 
advisers and executors. " The unfortu- 
nate, but innocent sufferers, our author 
viewed in the light, not of a set of wild 
fanatics, as they were called by their 
cotemporai-ies, and frequently too by later 
historians. Many of them were most re- 
spectable for their rank in society, as well as 
for their talents and virtues ; but even those 
in the lower ranks, oiu- author thought 
worthy of some public notice, as confessors 
and martyrs in the noble cause which they 
had espoused, the supporting of the rights of 
conscience, and of national liberty." 

Among the friends to whom Mr. Wodrow 
was indebted for encouragement and aid 
in the preparation of his grand work, we 
may particularly notice his venerable patron 
lord Pollock, who had himself suffered in 
the covenaiiting interest, and who nobly 
exemplified in his character, the holy prin- 
ciples of the religion he professed ; lord 
Poltoun, one of the senators of the college 
of justice, and the representative both of 
the Durham and Calderwood families ; lieu- 
tenant colonel Erskine of Carnock; lord 
Grange ; Mr. James Anderson, the celebrat- 
ed author of Numismata, and other well 
known works in history and antiquities ; and 
particularly Mr, George Redpath, esteemed 
at the time, as the author of several 
very able tracts on the union, and who 
is entitled to more notice than he has 
obtained, as a severe sufferer in the cause 
of independence and Scottish nationalit\. 

This person seems to have been an inde- 
fatigable collector of old records, and lie is 
said to have possessed one of the largest 
collections of the kind, of any private 
individual in Britain. To this friend, Mr. 
Wodrow submitted his proposal, and a 
specimen of the history, in autumn 1717, 
Mr. Redpath embarked with all his soul in 
the undertaking, and in the following letter, 
gave iNIr. W. every encouragement to pro- 
ceed, while he suggests some hints that well 
deserve the attention of every inquirer into 
ecclesiastical antiquities, and the value of 
which, was no doubt duly estimated by his 
amiable and candid friend. 

"London, August 3d, 1717. 
" Reverend and worthy Sir, 

" I have perused your manuscript, sent by 
Colonel Erskine, with very great satisfac- 
tion, and am heartily glad that a person of 
your ability and industry, has undertaken 
that necessary pai't of our history, which has 
been so long wanted, and nothing yet done 
in it that can be thought complete or suffi- 
ciently vouched. As I am very ready to 
give you what assistance is in my power, I 
presume that you will not take it amiss, 
if I give my advice freely, as I should be 
willing in the like case that another should 
use freedom with me. 

" I need not inform you, that the style of 
our country is not w hat is acceptable here ; 
nor indeed grateful to those of rank at home; 
which is not our crime but our misfortune, 
since our present language is derived from 
our neighbours in England, who alter theii's 
every day ; and it is not to be supposed that 
our countrymen, who live at home, should 
be sufficiently versed in it. Therefore, 
though I am of opinion that our own way of 
expression is more emphatical, yet as it is 
the interest of our church and country, that 
the history should be writ in a style, which 
will give it a greater currency here, and may 
be equally well understood at home, I shall 
be very ready to contribute my endeavours 
for that end; and though I never studied 
what they call a polite style, yet I doubt 
not to make it intelfigible, for a plain and 
natural way of writing is what is fittest for 
a historian : what is called flowers and em- 
bellishments must be left for poets ; which 


huinour prevails so mucli here, that the lan- 
guage has become too periphrastical, and has 
akeady lost a great deal of what was mas- 

" As to the matter, my opinion is thus ; — 
that it is like to swell too much upon our 
hands, because the subject is copious. As 
this will make the history too bulky and 
chargeable, it must be avoided as much as 
possible. To this end I would humbly 
propose • — 

" First, That what is merely circumstantial, 
might be left out, except where it is neces- 
sary, for illustrating the matter, or aggravating 
the crimes of our enemies. 

" Secondly, That the names of meaner per- 
sons may be omitted in the course of the 
history, except where the case is very flag- 
rant, cr of special note ; and yet that none 
of our suiferers may want having justice 
done them, I think it would be a good 
expedient either at the end of the work, or 
of some remarkable period when sufferers 
abounded most, to draw up their names and 
abodes in one column, and the causes and 
time of their sufferings in another, so that 
the same may be seen at one view in due 
chronological order. 

" Thirdly, That acts of parliament being 
matters of record, and already in print, a 
short abridgment of those acts so far as 
they relate to the case in hand, may be insert- 
ed in the body of the history ; and not at 
large in the appendix, unless such acts be not 
already in print. 

" Fourthly, That the same method be 
taken as to proclamations, except such as are 
extraordinary ; and the same as to acts of 

" Fifthly, I am of opinion, that though 
many of the speeches of our martyrs be 
printed in Naphtali, &c. the most remarkable 
of them should be inserted in the appendix ; 
because those books may come to wear out of 

print, and it is a pity that any of those noble (/Mr. David Hume, from 1658 till after Both 

speeches should be lost. But for others 
•ihat are less material, I conceive it will be 
enough to give a short hint of them in the 
catalogue of the sufferers, or in the course 
of the history, viz. that such and such 
persons gave their testimony so and so, when 
the subject of theii* testimonies agrees. 

'' Sixthly, That where matters of fact are 
not well attested they should be entirely 
left out, or but slightly touched as common 
reports, and not even noticed but where the 
case is extraordinary. 

" Seventhly, I think it necessary that the 
state or cause of the sufferings, in every 
period should be distinctly, though briefly 
set down. I need not hint, that there are 
very great helps to be had in the ApologeticaJ- 
Relation, Na2)htali, The True Nonconformist, 
supposed to be the late Sir James Stewart's, 
Jus Populi, The Hind Let Loose, and 
other accounts of those named Cameronians ; 
though the latter should be touched with 
great caution, as I find you have done the 
unhappy controversy about the indulgence, 
wherein I applaud your moderation and 

" These things I conceive will be neces- 
sary, both for the information of posterity 
and our neighbours in England, who are 
very great strangers to the state and causes 
of our sufferings. 

" Eighthly, I judge it highly necessary 
that a brief account, of what has been done 
against religion and liberty, in this country, 
and likewise in Ireland, should be intermix- 
ed in their proper periods with our suffer- 
ings : for that will not only make the book 
more acceptable to the dissenters and the 
state whigs, here and in Ireland, but give more 
credit to the history, when the reader sees 
that the designs of popery were uniformly 
carried on in all the three nations, though 
with variet)' of circumstances. To that 
same end some brief hints of the persecution 
in France, and elsewhere, and particularly 
of the war of our court, and Louis XIV 
against Holland, will be necessary. 

" I have made some progress in forming a 
part of your manuscript according to this 
model, towards which I have the assistance 
of manuscripts, writ by the late reverend 

well bridge (1C79): if you don't know his 
character, 'tis proper to inform you that he 
was minister at Coldingham in the Merse, 
a person of known zeal, piety, courage, and 
ability. His manuscripts are by way of 
Journal, and contain many remarkable 
things ; but as that way of writing oblige- 



a man to take in many current reports, 
wliicli arc not sufficiently recorded, I have 
put a query in the margin, upon such things 
as I doubt, tiiat you may either continue or 
cancel them as jou shall think fit, upon fur- 
ther inquiry. He was himself at Bothwell 
bridge, and is very particular in his account 
of that fatal affair, and of the reasons of its 
miscarriage. I shall transmit the specimen 
of what I have done to you, with the first 
opportunity, and submit to what alterations 
or amendments you and others of yoiu- 
brethren shall think fit to make. 

" There are some of the records of our 
council here, with letters to and from our 
princes, which perhaps may not be found 
with you. I doubt not of an opportunity to 
consult them at om* secretary's office, and 
therefore should be glad to know what you 
want upon that iiead." (Here follow some 
suggestions as to the style of printing, &c. 
which are omitted as of secondary moment.) 

" Mr. Crawford wrote to me some years 
ago, about helping him in the style of his 
father's manuscripts. I agreed to it, but 
never had any return : therefore shoidd be 
glad to know what is become of those man- 
uscripts, and whether you have the use of 
them, Mr. Semple of Libberton was like- 
wise about a history, and had encouragement 
from the Treasury here to go on with it, but 
I have heard nothing of that matter since, 
and should be glad to know whether he goes 
on. You are best able to judge whether 
either of these interfere with your design, 
and I doubt not that you will take your 
measures accordingly." 

In another letter of the 10th of the same 
month, he expresses his sentiments farther 
in the following terms : " I wish you had 
commenced from the reformation, for that 
necessary part of our history has never been 
well done. Buchanan, Knox, and Calder- 
wood, are very brief and lame on that 
subject. Petry gives some good hints, but 
still imperfect. I have many original papers 
that set it in a clearer light; such as letters 
from queen Mary and her ministers, besides 
some things in print that are very scarce. 
These, with the MSS. of Calderwood, would 
make the thing as complete as can be ex- 
pected at this distance o( time. I have a MS. 

of Siiottiswoode'b that was the duke oi 
Lauderdale's, and diflLrs much from the 
print ; the interlineations ai'e in the arch- 
bishop's own hand. I have also an authentic 
copy of the acts of our general assemblies, 
from the reformation to 1G09, signed by T. 
Nicholson theii" clerk ; Mr. William Scot of 
Couper's MS. history ; and many other 
things which would be great helps. I can 
also have access to the lord Warriston's 
MSS. in the hands of his son, formerly 
secretary; so that we might carry on the 
thread through king James VI. time, to the 
restoration, especially through that im- 
portant period, 1638 to IGGO." 

The idea of " a complete history " fi-om 
the reformation in 1560, to the revolution 
in 1688, was strongly urged on Mr. Wod- 
row's attention both by Mr. Redpath, and 
by a very intimate literary friend of both, 
principal Stirling of Glasgow ; but the plan, 
however magnificent and interesting, opened 
a field by far too wide for any one man to 
undertake. Later historians have success- 
fully occupied a part of it, but a " history ol 
the Covenanters " in Scotland, upon some- 
thing like the plan of Keal's " History ot 
the Puritans" in England, still remains a 
desideratum in the literar}' and ecclesiastical 
annals of our country. 

Another literary friend with whom Mr. 
Wodrow particularly consulted regarding 
his history, was the learned and amiable 
Dr. James Fraser of London, formerly of 
Aberdeen, and so well known as the liberal 
patron of King's college and university in 
that city. It does not appear indeed that 
Dr. Fraser was consulted by Mr. W. previous 
to the actual composition of a large part of 
the work; for this very good reason, that 
Dr. Fraser was not at that time so particularly 
conversant in the history of MSS. and 
ancient records, as to render his services so 
necessary in the eai'lier periods of the under- 
taking. His patronage was of more import- 
ance in the way of a successful introduction 
of the work when finished, to the notice of 
those, who, from their stations in society, 
and extensive influence in public life, had it 
in their power to give it a most wide circu- 
lation. Few Scotsmen in London, I mean 
in private life, have ever had more in their 


power in Ibis respect, than Dr. Fraser. 
His talents and varied accomplishments and 
polite manners, united with liberality of 
sentiment and most correct moral deport- 
ment, combined with favourable local cir- 
cumstances to introduce him to the society 
of some of the first men of the age, and to 
render him a favourite at the court of George 
I. To this gentleman Mr, W. transmitted 
the MS. of the history for inspection, and 
he received from him an answer bearing date, 
at Edinburgh, September 25th, 1718, from 
which the following is an extract. 

" Reverend and much honoured su', 
" This is in short with all thankfulness to 
acknowledge the favour you were pleased to 
do me when at Glasgow, in trusting me with 
so valuable monuments of your great labour 
and useful pains, as the three volumes of the 
history of the persecutions the presbyterians 
suftei'ed from the restoration to the revolu- 
tion ; all which I have read with great atten- 
tion and satisfaction : wherein I cannot but 
observe the sincerity, honesty, and faithful- 
ness, requisite in a historian ; and that the 
methods invented and practised in those 
times to distress and ruin that party, do 
by much exceed the severities used by the 
heathens against the primitive Christians ; 
or by the Goths, Huns, Vandals, Saracens, 
or Turks, in succeeding ages ; or even by 
the papists, or inquisition in Spain and 
Portugal, in many things. So that in the 
general sentiment of all persons that I 
have conversed with on that matter, it is 
very necessary that so useful a work 
should be published to the world, as soon 
as possible : considering the clamour the 
other party make daily about their present 
sufferings, which they say far exceed any 
known in former reigns, and that all who 
suffered before the revolution was on the 
account of rebellion, and not of religion and 
conscience, as Sir George Mackenzie in his 
book of the vindication of the government 
in king Charles and king James H. reigns, 
does confidently assert and endeavour to 
prove. And besides that there are many now 
alive who were witnesses of these cruelties 
then exercised and suffered under them: 
and if delayed till this generation is gone, 
ihoy will not be ashamed to deny there 

were any severities used. I think it is 
proper and useful, that when your occa- 
sions oblige you to come to Edinburgh, 
that you would allow yourself some time to 
see some honest and knowing persons that 
frequently meet at the Low Coffeehouse 
here, where you may receive certain infor- 
mation of very remarkable instances of un- 
heard of severities in those times, that may 
have escaped your knowledge, very well 
attested. And also to make a visit to the 
good and worthy lady Cardross, the earl of 
Buchan's mother, with whom I had the 
honour of an hour's conversation last week ; 
from whose mouth you may receive a most 
distinct information of all the particular 
steps and cu'cumstances relating to her and 
her husband's sufferings. There is one Mr. 
James Nisbet son to Nisbet in Hardhill, 
who was executed in December, 1685, and 
is now sergeant in the castle of Edinburgh, 
and has lately published the history of his 
father's sufferings, and his last testimony 
and dying speech; wherein there is a remark- 
able prediction of the abdication of the 
name of Stuart from ever reigning in Britain. 
I have had some hours' conversation with 
the said James Nisbet, who told me many re- 
markable things of persons and actings in that 
time, he having been intimately acquainted 
with Mr. Peden, Cargill, and others of the 
suffering party, having been several years 
in the woods, caves, and deserts, with 
them. And Mr. Johnston minister at 
Dundee, told me some sm'prising instarces 
of the barbarity used in Dunfermline, by 
one Mr. Norry, now a Jacobite and virulent 
conventicle preacher at Dundee, which I 
have communicated to some of your friends 
here to be imparted to you at meeting. I 
could heartily wish a way could be found of 
printing, as soon as possible, so useful and so 
necessary a work ; and I shall not be back- 
ward in contributing all in my power towards 
the promoting it." 

Specimens of the history were submitted 
also to a variety of eminent literary and re- 
ligious characters in England, and particularly 
to the celebrated Dr. Edmund Calamy, then 
at the head of the Dissenting interest, and 
who from his intimacy with many of our 
countrymen both on the contment and in 

Scotland, was considered a most impartial 
judge of the merits of the work. .Although 
the correspondence regarding tlie critical 
iaspection of the work is on record, and 
abounds with a number of important parti- 
culars, it does not appear that the critics 
of the south contributed any thing material 
to its improvement, or attempted to dispute 
the accuracy of the statements it made. 
Nor does it appear that Mr. Wodrow was 
indebted in Tiny considerable degree to those 
ministers in various parts of Scotland, to 
whom he applied as probable sources of 
information. With the exception of a few 
venerable indi\aduals, who from personal 
experience, or immediate relationship to the 
sufferers themselves, took a peculiar in- 
terest in the work, and most readily lent 
their acceptable assistance, in the furnish- 
ing of materials ; it would seem from the 
complaints which the historian makes in 
some of his letters, that in his expectations 
of help from a variety of quarters, he had 
met with a painful disappointment; so that 
for the work such as it is — and "achiiirable 
and faithful" Dr. Fraser justly terms it — 
we must consider oimselves as indebted to 
the single exertions of its indefatigable 
author. In May, 1719, the matter was 
submitted to the general assembly, when 
that venerable body gave their cordial 
and unanimous approbation to the work, 
and recommended it to ministers and pres- 
byteries, as richly deserving of encourage- 
ment ; and instructed their commission to 
correspond with presbyteries on the subject, 
and to report their diligence to next assem- 
bly. With all these encouraging considera- 
tions, the work had many obstacles to sur- 
mount, before it made its appearance from 
the press ; and this will not be surprising to 
any one who knows the real state of Scot- 
land, in what may be called, the infancy of 
her literary progress. The idea of pecuniary 
advantage by literary labour, would have 
been held in those days as a chimera ; and 
some of our ablest treatises on divinity and 
moral philosophy, would never have seen the 
light, had it not been for the fostering aid of 
wealthy patrons, and of a society formed 
for the encouragement of learning. In these 
circumstances it was not to be expected that 
a work of such size and price as the " History 


of the Sufferings of the Church of Scotland," 
would all at once be ushered into the world 
without one serious obstacle to overcome. 
Very little did the worthy author receive by 
way of compensation for all the labour and 
expense he had bestowed upon it ; — but to 
him the satisfaction that he had done some- 
thing to serve his God " in his generation," 
and that he had reared a monument to his 
country and to his church, on which was 
inscribed in legible characters, " .^re peren- 
nius," — was to him a better return than the 
gains of fine gold. 

The w'ork was published in two large 
volumes at separate times, in 1721 and 1722; 
and it soon met with exactly that kind of 
treatment which might have been antici- 
pated, as the likely portion of an impartial, im- 
varnished, and independent, historian of the 
persecuting period. With the exception of 
a few worthy individuals belonging to the 
Cameronian class, who thought, and perhaps 
with some measure of truth, that the author 
had not on some occasions shown sufficient 
decision of mind, and on others had awarded 
rather a measured meed of praise to the 
noble heroes of the olden time ; — the general 
and high approbation of all the friends of li- 
berty and of presbyterianism, both in Scotland 
and in Britain, cordially went along with 
the work ; and the value of it was felt by all 
who had learned to prize the civil and 
religious interests of their country. On the 
other hand, the abettors of persecution and 
the fierce adherents of the Stuart dynasty, 
smarted keenly under the expose which 
was made of the " mystery of iniquity," and 
felt the more tenderly, because, alas ! it was 
"no scandal." "Facts," observes Mr. 
Wodrow in one of his letters to a friend in 
London, " facts are ill naturcd things ;" and 
it was precisely because the facts of the 
case could not be set aside, that the assault 
became the more fierce against the temper 
and spirit and style of the author. Anony- 
mous and threatening letters were sent to 
him. Squibs and pasquinades were liberally 
discharged, under masked batteries, against 
the obnoxious book that told so much un- 
welcome truth. Various attempts were 
made before and after its appearance, to 
vindicate the reign of the Stuarts : but Sir 
eorge Mackenzie is, I believe, the single 



hapless individual, at least of Scottish name, 
who to this day enjoys the " base glory," of 
having fallen in the trenches of such an 
inglorious cause. 

Dr. Fraser had the honour of presenting 
cop ies of the work to their Majesties, and 
the Prince and Princess of Wales. These 
were most graciously received. The book 
was, by these illustrious individuals, care- 
fully read and studied; and the king, to 
whom the work was dedicated, generously 
ordered ^£105 sterling, to be given to the 
author, in token of his cordial approba- 
tion. The order for this sum on the ex- 
chequer of Scotland, is still preserved, and 
we give it entu-e, for the satisfaction of our 
readers :— " George R. Trusty and well be- 
loved, we greet you well. Whereas, our 
trusty and well beloved * * # Robert 
Wodrow, minister of the gospel in Glasgow, 
did some time since, dedicate and present 
unto us, his History of the Persecutions in 
Scotland, from the Restoration to the Revo- 
lution, consisting of two large volumes in 
folio : now, we being minded to certify our 
esteem of the said author and his works, 
by bestowing on him some mark of our 
favour and bounty : in consideration thereof, 
oiu- will and pleasure is, that we do hereby 
authorize and empower you, to issue your 
warrant to the receiver general of our 
treasury, to pay, or cause to be paid, out 
of any monies, that are, or shall be in his 
hands, for the use of our civil government, 
unto the said Robert Wodrow, or his 
assigns, the sum of one hundred and five 
pounds, as of our royal bounty, for the 
consideration aforesaid, and for so doing, 
this shall be, not only to you, but also to 
our said receiver general, and to all others 
that shall be concerned in passing and 
allowing the payment upon his account, a 
sufficient warrand. Given at our coiu-t at 
St. James', the 26th day of April, 1725, 
in the eleventh year of our reign. 

By his majesty's command, 

R. Walpole. 
To our trusty and well beloved, 
our Chief Baron, and the rest 
of the Barons of our court of 
exchequer in Scotland. 

George Baillie, William Yonge, 
Cjiahles Tl'kneu, Gf.ouge Dodington." 

Thus, while the bigoted adherents of a 
persecuting dynasty, were crying out most 
lustily against the humble Scottish pres- 
byter and his book, the highest personage 
in the empire was pubHcly conferring on 
the said presbyter, a most substantial mark 
of his regard, just because he had written a 
l)ook, which at once exposed the hon-ors of 
former reigns, and displayed by reflection 
and by contrast, the blessings connected 
-with the Hanoverian succession. 

The work, is beyond all question, exactly 
what it undertakes to be, a faithful and 
impartial record of facts and of characters. 
Its extreme accuracy has been tested by the 
best of evidence, that of documents, public, 
official, and uncontradicted. Its facts will 
not be relished by timesemng historians, who 
have prostituted the dignity of history to the 
low ends of a mean and drivelling partisanship ; 
and the proud march of the smooth surface 
narrator, may not stoop to the minutiae of its 
private and domestic details. Nevertheless, 
its value as a record is beyond all praise ; and 
the picture which it gives of the manners and 
spirit of the age is graphical and instructive. 
Says Chalmers, the learned author of the 
Biographical Dictionary — " It is written with 
a fidelity that has seldom been disputed, and 
confirmed at the end of each volume, by a 
large mass of public and private records." 
" No historical facts," says Mr. Fox, in his 
historical work on the reign of James II., " are 
better ascertained, than the accounts of them 
which are to be found in Wodrow. In every 
instance where there has been an opportunity 
of comparing these accounts with the records 
and other authentic monuments, they appear 
to be quite correct." 

Mr. Wodrow did not discontinue his his- 
torical researches after the publication of his 
great work. His indefatigable and perse- 
vering mind, acting on the suggestions of 
his friends Redpath and Stirling, planned 
the scheme of a complete history of the 
church of Scotland, in a series of lives. 
With this view, he set to work in enlargin l; 
and completing his already ample collection 
of manuscripts, ancient records, and well 
authenticated traditions ; and actually drew 
out at great length, and with minute accu- 
racy, biographical sketches of all the great 
and good men, who had figured from the 

earliest dawn of the reformation, down to 
the period when his history takes its rise. 
These lives arc extremely valuable. They 
form the principal mine of information re- 
garding their several subjects; and taken 
together, exhibit a comprehensive and accu- 
rate view of the leading events in one of 
tlic most interesting periods of our national 
history. It does not appear that they had 
received the finishing stroke of the author, 
although they bear all the marks of un- 
common research, and most minute speci- 
fication. The manuscripts of this volumi- 
nous work, partly in the handwriting of 
the author, and partly copied by an aman- 
uensis, are preserved in the library of the 
university of Glasgow. 

It was a favourite wish of our author, 
that biographical memoirs should be re- 
gularly drawn up and preserved, of all the 
more eminent ministers and private Christ- 
ians in Scotland who had been distinguished 
for their piety and the faithfulness and suc- 
cess of their Christian labours. Acting on 
this idea, he employed his leisure moments 
in writing down the various articles of 
information, which his own times brought 
within his reach, regarding the lives and 
labours of eminent individuals, together 
with the ordinary or more remarkable 
occurrences of the period, during which he 
lived. These memoranda are preserved in 
six small and closely written volumes, under 
the general name of Analecta, and they 
embrace a period of twenty-eight years, from 
170.5, down to 1732. The information they 
contain, is, as might have been expected 
from the nature of the work, exceedingly 
various, both as to subject and degree of 
importance. The notices are often exceed- 
ingly curious ; and taken as a whole, the 
work exhibits an interesting picture of the 
history and manners of the period. It is in 
such private and unsophisticated memo- 
randa as these, we often meet with those 
minute and undesigned coincidences, and 
those unstudied allusions to matters of a 
more public nature, which throw light on 
subjects otherwise dark and mysterious. 
To bring out these private memorials to the 
light of open day, would be extremely in- 
judicious; but the occasional consultation 


of them for the purpose of historical or 
general illustration, is not beside the pro- 
vince, or beneath the dignity of the most 
fastidious analytical inquirer. 

Besides writing the " history," the " bio- 
graphy," and the " analecta ;" the labours of 
his parish, and two days every week regu- 
larly appropriated to his preparation for 
the pulpit ; nmch of his time must have 
been occupied in epistolary correspondence. 
Many of his letters resemble rather disserta- 
tions on theological and literary and histori- 
cal subjects; and he corresponded with a very 
wide cu'cle of acquaintances and friends in 
Scotland, England, Ireland, America, and 
the continent of Europe. With regard to 
the continent, his anxiety to become thor- 
oughly acquainted with its literary and re- 
ligious state was peculiarly great, and he fre- 
quently imported at his own expense, the 
best publications that could be obtained, 
particularly those in the Latin and French 
languages. He also transmitted, from time to 
time, lists of queries respecting the state 
of matters in the different countries. Of 
these I shall insert a very small specimen, 
out of many now before me. 

" Memorandum of Inquirenda in Holland, 
to G. B. April 21st, 1731. What is the 
state of the protestant churches in Silesia ? 
What numbers of the reformed may be 
there ? if they are Calvinists ? if they have 
judicatories, discipline, &c.? what is the state 
of the protestants in Hungary — what num- 
ber of ministers may be there, — and prot- 
estant schools ? If there be any Socinians 
among them ? what are their present hard- 
ships from the papists, — every thing as to 
their government, discipline, doctrine, judi- 
cature and usages. The same as to the 
churches in Bohemia. The same as to Tran- 
sylvania. The same as to the Palatinate, as 
also an account of their present grievances 
from the papists. All you can learn as to 
the state of things in Geneva, — their doctrine, 
discipline, government, and learned men. 
All the accounts you can get as to the prot- 
estants in the valleys of Piedmont, — what 
numbers are of late in the valleys, — the hard- 
ships of the king of Sardinia upon them, — the 
pretences he uses in his own defence, — and 
if any number of ministers and protestants 



continue in the valleys? — The character of to the mother country — and the history of 

the present pope, — what you can learn of the 
differences between him, and the king of 
Sardinia. — How the difference stands betwixt 
the court of Rome and the king of Portugal. 
— The state of learning in Portugal and 
Spain. — What is in the accounts we have in 
the prints, of the manuscripts 12 or 1400 
years old, found in an island in the Red Sea 
by some Portuguese, and sent, I think, to 
Lisbon, or extracts of them. What may be ex- 
pected from the press at Constantinople, and 
the copies of manuscripts taken by the king 
of France's interest there and brought to 
Paris ? All the accounts you may have of 
the state of Christianity in the Dutch settle- 
ments in the East Indies. — The translation 
of the Bible into the Malayan tongue, — 
the success of the Danish missionaries in 
the East Indies, What you can gather 
as to the state of the Greek churches in 
Asia under the Turks; the Greek Christians 
in Egypt, Palestine, Syria, &c. — Is learning 
and knowledge penetrating into Muscovy? — 
All the discoveries made of Greek MSS. by 
the late Czar, and the progress made by 
the academy at Petersburg. — Let me have 
a list of the professors at Leyden and 
Utrecht ; and the most considerable men at 
Fratieker and Groningen ; and the most 
famed learned men in the Protestant univer- 
sities in Germany. Let me have a hint of 
the new books, that are most talked of, &c. 
&c." It is certainly matter of regret that 
the replies to these queries, were by no means 
so full as might have been wished ; and yet 
there are in the MS. letters entitled " For- 
eign Literature," many valuable articles of 
miscellaneous information. 

His chief correspondents in America were 
the celebrated Dr, Cotton Mather, the friend 
and patron of Benjamin Franklin ; Mr. 
Benjamin Colman, president of Harvard 
college, Boston ; Mr. Wiggles worth, professor 
of divinity there; together with the minis- 
ters of the Scots churches in Pennsylvania, 
New Jersey, and New York. The intelli- 
gence communicated by these correspond- 
ents embraces chiefly the state and progress of 
literature, religion, and manners in the states, 
— the disputes regarding political and theolo- 
gical questions, — the relations of tht states 

I the Scottish presbyterian cliurches in the 
new world. The letters of Mr. Wodrow to 
these individuals, and their replies, form 
together a mass of correspondence that is 
' extremely interesting. Not the least curious 
of these dociunents, are, a letter of some 
length, from a converted Jewish Rabbi who 
taught Hebrew in Harvard college, together 
with a most truly Christian reply by our 
excellent author. The name of the Jew 
was Rabbi Jiidah Monis ; and of his future 
history one would wish to obtain some 
farther information. The letter is writ- 
ten in pure Hebrew, and also in Rabinnical 
characters and dialect. The original is now 
before me. It is a beautiful specimen of 
penmanship ; and forms altogether a literary 
curiosity. Its date is " Cambridge 4. Stas 
mensis 1723." The reply bears date, July 
23, 1724. 

There is one subject which engaged the 
mind of Mr. Woihow, in common with all the 
zealous friends of evangelical truth through- 
out the empire, for a considerable number of 
years ; I allude to the well known case of 
professor Simpson of Glasgow. This gentle- 
man was the immediate successor of Mr. 
Wodrow's venerable father ; and this cir- 
cumstance seems to have touched the 
delicacy of our author's feelings, while it by 
no means prevented him from taking a very 
active share in the ecclesiastical process, 
which was instituted against the professor. 
It would be foreign to the design of this 
brief sketch, to enter at all into the merits 
of the controversy, either in regard to its 
subject matter, or the mode in which it was 
carried on. Professor Simson appears from 
his defences to have been a man of con- 
siderable acuteness ; and in learning probably 
not inferior to his opponents. He seems to 
have been a decided Arian ; but his wish to 
retain his place led him to throw a veil of 
mystery over his sentiments. After a tedious 
and disagreeable process, he at length suc- 
cumbed to the general voice of the church, 
and avowed his belief in the catholic doctrine 
of the trinity, as held in our public stand- 
ai-ds. Still an impression remained on the 
minds of all parties in the question, that 
he was either not sincere in his averments, 

or that he had not capacity sufficient, to 
draw the exact line of distinction between 
opposite systems. Tlic tardiness also, with 
which he brought out his real creed, and the 
dubious complexion, to say the least of it, 
which his theological prelections had long 
exhibited, convinced the general assembly, 
that he was not a fit person to be charged 
with the theological tuition of the sons of 
the church, and he was therefore suspended 
from his charge, while the emoluments of the 
office were still reserved, with an amiable, 
but mistaken liberality, to the man, who 
was, with one voice, declared unfit to do 
that duty, which forms the only claim to 
these emoluments. During the period of 
his suspension, and even to the day of his 
death, the whole duties of the professorship 
devolved on principal Campbell, who was 
ex officio, primarius professor of theology. 

Mr. Wodrow was a very efficient, and 
certainly a most moderate and judicious 
member of the assembly committee for 


Barony church of Glasgow, on Isaiah ix. 6. 
in which he took occasion to illustrate at 
length, the great doctrine of the divinity of 
our blessed Saviour, in opposition to the 
sentiments of Arians and Socinians. These 
sermons seem to have made a considerable 
noise at the time j for on the day following, 
a challenge to a public or private disputa- 
tion or to a written controversy, was sent 
him by one Mi-. William Paul, a student of 
theology, and known to be tinctured with 
Arian sentunents. The letter is on the 
whole, respectfully written; but while it 
" wisheth to INIi-. W. charity and impartial 
reasoning," it throws out some dark but harsh 
insinuations against Mr. John M'Laurin and 
Mr. George Campbell, two of the ministers 
of Glasgow ; the latter of whom was well 
known and respected as a zealous and 
pious labourer in the vineyard; while the 
former, by the confession of all parties, 
stands at least as high in the ranks of 
theology, as his brother Colin does in the 

purity of doctrine, to whom the case off scale of mathematics. It is pretty certain 

professor Simpson was referred ; and both 
by correspondence, and by personal ex- 
ertion, he contributed much to save the 
church of Scotland from a tide of hetero- 
dox)^, which threatened to overwhelm it. 
Among clerical coadjutors, he had very 
able assistants in Mr, John M'Laurin of 
Glasgow, and Mr. James Webster of Edin- 
burgh; and amongst the lay brethren, on 
this trying occasion the names of lord 
Grange, and lieutenant colonel Erskine of 
Oamock, both elders of assembly, stand 
conspicuous. The letters addressed by the 
former to Mr. Wodrow, and which form 
a leading part in his voluminous corre- 
spondence, display a talent of no ordinary 
kind, combined with a profound knowledge 
of divinity, and a power of clear and 
discriminating statement. Mr. W.'s own 
accounts of the various steps of the process, 
in his private minutes of committees, and 
assemblies, throw much light on the minutiee 
of the controversy, and still afford a rich 
repast to any one who intends to write a 
history of that interesting, but critical period 
of our church. 

On the 10th and 11th June, 1727, Mr. 
Wodrow preached two sermons in the 

that Ml-. W. did not accept the challenge, 
but whether he made any return to it, or 
what measures he felt it his duty to pursue, 
we have no means of determining. He was 
not at all fond of disputation ; and he prob- 
ably saw, that the mind of the young man 
was not in a proper tone for the serious and 
successful investigation of spiiitual truth. 

On the subject of the Marroiv controversy 
which was keenly agitated at this period, 
and which indirectly led the way to the 
secession in 1733, Mr. Wodrow held a 
middle course. He thought that Mr. Bos- 
ton, and the other divines who patronized 
the doctrines contained in " the Marrow of 
Modern Divinity," went rather far in their 
attempts to \dndicate sentiments and modes 
of expression, wliich seemed to him some- 
what unscriptural and antuiomian in their 
complexion. On the other hand, he thought 
that the assembly had busied themselves 
too much in the criticism and condemnatior 
of the book, and had anticipated evil too 
readily. He disliked the whole contro- 
versy; and recommended those virtues of 
which his own example afforded a most 
consistent pattern, charity and mutual for- 



On the grand question about subscription 
to articles of faith, then keenly agitated 
in Ireland and in England, our historian 
assumed a more bold and determined part. 
The Marrow controversy, he deeply de- 
plored, because it tended to divide the 
fi-iends of the Redeemer, who, in the main, 
were " of one heart and of one mind." 
The question regarding subscription, he, 
along with all the tried friends of orthodoxy 
in Scotland, held to be a vital one. He saw 
ranged on opposite sides, with very few 
exceptions, the friends and the enemies of 
the Deity of the Saviour ; and the design 
of the nonsubscribers he knew could not 
be favourable to the cause of evangelical 
Christianity. With eminent ministers both 
in England and in Ireland, he held on this, 
as on other topics, a regular and extensive 
correspondence. Dr Eraser, who seems in 
his latter days to have gone in to the 
Arian hypothesis ; Dr. Calamy, Dr. Evans, 
Dr. Abraham Taylor of London; Mr. Mas- 
terton. Mi'. Samuel Smith, Mr. M'Racken, 
Mr. William Livingston, Mr. L-edale, Mr. 
Gilbert Kennedy, ]Mi-. M'Bride of Ireland, 
are among his leading correspondents on this 
and kindred subjects. The letters from these 
gentlemen are very numerous, and in general 
very minute, and apparently candid in their 
statements. The minutes of Irish presby terian 
synods are given at length, together with 
private accounts of the transactions of com- 
mittees. Any person who wishes to write a 
narrative of presbyterianism in Ireland — a 
desideratum in ecclesiastical history — will 
find a treasure of information in these letters. 
The results of the controversy are highly 
instructive. The Arians and Unitarians, 
ranging themselves under the banners of 
the nonsubscribing and liberal party, have for 
upwards of a century displayed the dead- 
ening tendency of their system in the an- 
nihilation of many flom-ishing churches : 
while evangelical doctrine, taking an oppo- 
site direction, has shed upon the north of 
Ireland, those pmifying and ennobling in- 
fluences which contributed so powerfully to 
render Scotland in her better days, " a praise 
in the whole earth." 

It need not surprise us that labours so 
numerous and severe, as those in which Mr. 

Wodrow was incessantly engaged, should 
have told upon his bodily health and even 
shortened his days. His constitution was 
naturally good, and in the earlier part of 
life he enjoyed excellent health. But his 
studious habits of constant reading and 
writing, together with the vast variety of 
concerns both public and domestic, which 
pressed upon his mind, would soon have 
told upon a frame even more robust than 
his. It appears that in the course of the 
year 1726, he first began seriously to com- 
plain, for in that year we find his friend 
colonel Blackadder inviting him to Stirling, 
by way of relaxation and for the recovery of 
his health; and farther recommending aii- 
and exercise on horseback, as among the 
most likely restoratives. It is interesting to see 
the affectionate sympathy of his friends on 
this occasion. His correspondent the Rev. 
Thomas Mack, minister of Terregles, after 
noticing the symptoms of his disorder, and 
strongly recommending a trial of the Bath 
waters, thus expresses himself: " Your letter 
does signify to me you are yielding too much 
to despondence. I hope you will guard 
against melancholy, the fruit of too much 
confinement. None that love our cause 
will neglect to have sympathy with you, 
and if my letters can divert you, you shall 
always have the use of them. I am sorry 
for your affliction. I hope you bear it 
patiently, and study a resignation to the 
will of God. My advice is, you divert from 
all study as much as possible, and if you 
can go out, preach to yoiu* people, though 
you do not write : it wUl ease your mind. 
Suffer not your spirits to sink. Prepare 
to go to the Bath, or to some mineral water." 
" I saw," says Mr. John Erskine, afterwards 
professor of Scots law, and the father of 
the late venerable Dr. Erskine of Edinburgh^ 
" I saw Ml-. Warner (of Irvine) this night 
with my father (colonel Erskine) who came 
to town this evening. I'm exceedingly con- 
cerned to hear from him that your trouble 
is not abated; and though I'll make no 
promises, I may venture to say this, that if 
I was to follow my inclinations, I would be 
at Eastwood this spring, to bear you com- 
pany for some days in your distress." 
(Edinburgh, 15th January, 1726.) "I am 

mi:moiu of 

heartily sorry" says Mr. Walter Stewart 
" to heai- l)y yours, that your iudisposition 
still continues. I pray God may restore 
you to your wonted health, and preserve 
you a lasting blessing to your friends and 
charge." (January 19th, 172G.) 

It is not unlikely that Mr. Wodrow took 
the advice of his friends in regard to his 
health, but, although he so far recovered as 
to be able to go on with his usual labours 
for several years after this period ; it does 
not appear that he ever completely recovered 
liis former strength. A species of rheuma- 
tism or gout seems to have given him great 
uneasiness, while it occasioned many inter- 
ruptions in his favourite studies. In the 
latter end of the year 1731, a small swell- 
ing appeared on his breast, which gradually 
increased till April 1732, when an unsuc- 
cessful attempt was made to remove it by 
caustic. The effect on his bodily frame was 
very injurious. He became greatly emaciated, 
and gradually declined till his death, which 
happened on the 21st of March, 1734', in 
the j5th year of his age. He bore this long 
continued distress with admirable fortitude, 
and unabated piety. The faith of the gospel 
supported his mind " in perfect peace ;" and 
he gave a testimony in his practical ex- 
perience to the efficacy of those holy truths, 
which he had preached so faithfully, and 
vindicated so nobly by his writings. His 
dying scene was tnily edifying. The day 
before his death, he gathered his children 
around his bed, gave each of them his dying 
blessing, with counsels suitable to their age 
and circumstances. The two youngest boys, 
(James, afterwards minister of Stevenston, 
and Alexander who died in America,) were 
both under four years of age at this time, 
and of course too young to understand and 
feel those marks of his affection ; yet after 
the example of the venerable patriarch, 
(Gen. xlviii. 15.) he drew them near to him, 
laid his hands upon their heads, and devoutly 
prayed, " that the God of his fathers, the 
Angel who had redeemed him from all evil, 
would bless the lads." He carried with 
him to the grave the affectionate regrets of 
3 strongly attached people ; of a large circle 
of friends ; and of the whole church of God. 
His death was felt as a public loss ; and the 


, removal of such a man in the critical state 
of the church of Scotland at the time, was 
felt as a severe dispensation of the Almighty. 
His growing infirmities had prevented him 
from taking any part in the disputes which 
had just arisen relative to the secession. 
His views were directed to a better country ; 
and the rising troubles of the church mili- 
tant on earth, led him to pant with greater 
ardour of spirit after the serenity and peace 
of the church triumphant in heaven. 

Mr. Wodrow was married in the end of 
1 708, to Margaret Warner, grand daughter 
of the venerable William Guthrie of Fen- 
wick, author of the " Trial of a Sa\T[ng 
Interest in Christ ;" and daughter of the 
Rev. Patrick Warner of Ardeer, Ayrshire, 
and minister of Irvine; a man who had 
borne his full share in the troubles of the 
persecuting era, and whose name stands 
deservedly high among the worthies of our 
church. Mrs. Wodrow was the widow of 
Mr. Ebenezer Veitch, youngest son of the 
celebrated Mr. WiUiam Veitch of Dumfries; 
and a young minister of uncommon piety. 
He was settled minister at Ajr, in 1703; 
and died after a short but severe illness, 
when attending his duty at the assembly 
commission in Edinburgh, December, 1706. 
His wife, afterwards Mi's. Wodrow, was a 
lady remarkable at once for personal accom- 
plishments, and for exalted piety ; she had 
sixteen children to Mr. Wodrow, nine of 
whom with their mother, sur\ive(l their 
venerable pai'ent. The following is a brief, 
but authentic account of the family. — There 
'were survi\'ing at the time of the historian's 
death, four sons, and ^ve daughters. The 
eldest son, Robert, was his successor in the 
parish of Eastwood, but retired from the 
charge by reason of bad health, and other 
infirmities. He was twice married, and had 
six or seven children. His eldest son settled 
early in America, and his only surviving 
daughter went there also about 20 years 
ago, with her husband and family. The 
second son, Peter, was minister at Tar- 
bolton ; married the youngest daughter of 
Mr. Balfour of Pilrig, near Edinburgh ; and 
left one son. His third son, James, became 
minister of Stevenston ; married Miss 
Hamilton, daughter of Mr. Gavin Haniil 


ton, a distinguished bookseller in Edin- 
burgh, and son of Mr. William Hamilton, 
professor of divmity, and afterwards prin- 
cipal of the college of Edinburgh ; and left 
one daughter. Miss Wodrow, now residing 
at Saltcoats in the parish of Ardrossan. 
His fourth son, Alexander, settled in America, 
.lad an estate there, and died about the end 
of the first American war. After the death 
of the historian his widow and daughters 
lived in Glasgow, and were much respected 
for their enlightened piety, and agreeable 
manners. Mrs. Wodi'ow died in 1759; 
leaving behind her in her eminently Christian 
example, a legacy to her family, far more 
valuable than all that the wealth of India 
can command. After her death, the eldest 
daughter, Mary, acted as the head of the 
family, and managed its concerns with great 
prudence and discretion. She was confined 
mostly to bed seven years before her death, 
and exhibited to all around her, a distin- 
guished pattern of cheerful resignation and 
lively hope. The second, Margaret, was 
married to Mr. Biggar, minister of Kirk- 
oswald, and left four daughters ; the youngest 
of whom is at present the amiable spouse 
of Mr. Inglis, the worthy pastor of the 
parish. The third daughter, Marion, kept 
house with her brother at Stevenston, till 
his marriage, when she retiu-ned to her 
sisters in Glasgow, whom she attended with 
affectionate care through life and in death. 
She had a literary turn; corresponded in 
the magazines of the day ; and wrote some 
popular Scotch songs, a small collection of 
which are still extant in manuscript. The 
fourth daughter, Janet, was a most singular 


character in those days, though Mrs. Fry, 
and some other distinguished daughters of 
benevolence in modern times, render her 
character not so uncommon now. Her 
days and nights were devoted to the poor, 
to whom she gave her personal but unosten- 
tatious attendance, as her deeds were not 
known, even to her sisters, till after her 
death. She visited the haunts of the poor, 
the sick, the helpless, and the dpng ; and 
kindly ministered both to their temporal 
comforts, and their spiritual welfare. She 
died at the early age of forty, and her 
funeral was attended by an unusual crowd 
of afflicted mourners. The youngest 
daughter, Martha, died early, after a long 
course of very infiiin health, during which 
she exhibited much amiable and Christian 
resignation. — The surviving male represen- 
tative of the family in this country, is Mr. 
Wodrow of Mauchline, Ayrshire; whose son 
William is at present the accomplished and 
pious pastor of the Scots chiu^ch. Swallow- 
street, London. 

Mr. Wodrow's mortal remains lie interred 
in the church-yard of Eastwood, where no 
stone as yet appears to mark the sacred 
deposite. Be it so. " The memory of the 
just is blessed," and to our venerable eccles- 
iastical Historian, may the sublime words of 
the Apocalypse be emphatically applied — 
" Blessed are the dead which die in the 
Lord, from henceforth ; yea, saith the Spirit, 
they rest from their laboius, and their works 
do follow them" 

R. B. 

Paisley, January \lth, 1828. 



From the voluminous and valuable correspond- 
ence of the Historian still in MS. we have 
selected a few specimens for the gratification 
of our readers. 

Letter I. 

To Mr. George Redpath, London, in reply to 
the letters inserted in the body of the Memoir. 

Dear Sir, 

When I had answered yours of the 3d., and 
was waiting an opportunity to send it to you, 
I am favoured with yours of the 10th of August, 
which is a new tye laid on me ; and our com- 
mon friend the Principal of Glasgow (Stirling) 
tells me, I shall have an occasion of sending 
my answers to both these safe to you by some 
acquaintances of yours to be in this country in 
a few days. 

I forgot in my former to desire you, when 
you got access to the Secretary's office, particu- 
larly to look after that letter of the king in the 
time of the Pentland executions, ordering a stop 
to be put to the executions. It is December 
1666. It is generally believed here, that such a 
letter was writ, and came to the Archbishop of 
St. Andrews as President of the Council in the 
Chancellor's absence, and that he kept it up till 
a good many more were execute. 

No doubt you may fall upon a great many 
important papers there, which we can have no 
access to here, and you are fully able to judge 
which of them will be proper for the design of 
the History of the Sufferings : and what are not 
here, you will know by my papers, in which I 
took care to insert every thing of importance [ 
found in the registers ; and I shall, as soon as 
occasion offers, and I have your address, send up 
some more of them to you. 

It is most certain, our History, since the Re- 
formation, is not writt as were to be wished. 
A great many very considerable discoveries have 
been made since the Revolution, and some before ; 
\vhich Buchanan, Knox, and Calderwood, had 
aot access to know ; and many helps are now in 
our hands these good men had not. Besides, 
wc have a long blank from the death of James 
the Vlth. to this day, during which interval we 
have nothing of a History. But I never enter- 

tained any thoughts of beginning so high, or 
essaying any thing like a complete History. The 
account of our Sufferings from the Restoration to 
the Revolution, was truly too much for my share, 
and only undertaken with a view to set matters 
under a just light as to Presbyterians' Suffer- 
ings, and not to be a complete History even of 
that very period. Indeed, there was little thing 
else but oppression, barbarity, and perfidy, in 
that black interval ; and the account of Presby- 
terians' Sufferings is almost all that a Church 
Historian has for his subject for these 28 years. 
Wherefore, despairing almost to see any tolerable 
History of our church, and having my spirit a 
little stirred with the thoughts that posterity 
would not credit the one half of what was fact, 
and that since the Revolution we have been so 
much in the wrong to ourselves, the cause we 
own, and our children, in not giving the world 
some view of what this church underwent for 
religion, reformation rights, and the cause of 
liberty ; and likeways the vile aspersions of our 
malignant and Jacobite enemies, who will be a 
dead weight on the government as well as this 
church, if not looked after; — wants not its 
weight. These things made me essay a work 
of this nature. 

Sometimes 1 have thought, the History of this 
Church is too vast a field for one man to enter 
upon, unless he could give himself wholly to 
it ; and could it be parcelled out in its different 
periods among proper persons, it would certainly 
be the best way of doing it. You see, the black 
part, I don't well know how, hath come among 
my hands. 

Far be it from me to dissuade you from what 
youpi'opose in your last, of completing our His- 
tory. Since 1 heard of your design of continuing 
Buchanan, I still reckoned you had your heart 
on this necessary work ; and I was extremely 
pleased to hear it was among your hands,' and 
grieved that other things had so long diverted 
you from it. We must certainly do things as 
we can, when they are not like to be as we 
would, in a time when the public interests are 
but too little regarded ; and I beseech you to go 
on to do all you can this way for your mother- 
cliiu'ch and country. 

If ever my History of the Sufferings comes to 



any Ijoariiig, so as IVieinls tliiiik it worth tlie 
))iihli.shiiig, it will shorten your work from the 
Restoration to the Revolution. The design of 
it being precisely upon the Sufferings, I can 
scarce think it will be out of the road to publish 
it separately when ready for that ; and I wish it 
may stir up others to give us the other branches 
of our History we need so much. 

You may assiu'e yourself of the outmost assist- 
ance in the work of our complete History I am 
capable to give you, and you shall want nothing 
I have in my small collection this way. Since 
I was capable of remarking this lamentable de- 
fect, I still picked up any thing that came in my 
way which I thought might give light to our 
History, without any thoughts of ever being in 
case to do any thing myself; but mostly from an 
Athenian spirit, and, I hope, some regard to the 
interests of this church and the Reformation ; 
and if you desire, you shall have a complete list 
of what I have got in my hands this way. 

In your former letter you desired to know 
what is become of Mr. Crawford and Mr. 
Sempill's Histories, and I shall give you what 
I know anent them. Mr. Crawford was my 
immediate predecessor in this congregation, and 
a zealous, worthy, and diligent person, for 
whom I shall still have a great value. His 
History I read over many years ago. I hear 
nothing of his son, who is co-presbyter with 
me, his publishing it now, these several years. 
The largest half of it, as far as our printed his- 
torians go, contains not much, which I observed, 
distinct from them, except a few remarks upon 
Spotswood here and there. Neither do I remem- 
ber, and I talked with its author upon his ma- 
terials, that he had any papers of that time come 
to his hands, distinct from our printed histo- 
rians, except Scot of Coupar, and the MSS. of 
Calderwood, at Glasgow ; and I dont remember 
if his many infirmities of body suffered him to 
go through them all either. This made me 
advise his son to shorten that part of his father's 
work, and give us only an abstract of the History 
already in print, refeiTing to the authors and 
principal papers in them, which Would have 
reduced the first volume to a few sheets ; and to 
intei'sperse a good many things that have not 
yet been published. But nothing of this is yet 
done so far as I know. 

After king James' death, Mr. Crawford is 
very short till the 1637 ; and from thence to the 
lamentable division, 1650, he gives a very dis- 
tinct and large account of matters, which I 
heartily wish had been long since published. 
Indeed, his style needs to be helped very much : 
but he hath many valuable things, and a good 
many of them from Mr. Robert Baillie's Letters, 
which I shall speak somewhat of before I end. 
He overleaps from 16.')0 to the Restoration, as 
unfit to be raked into at the Revolution, and a 

little after it when he wrote, lest these unhappy 
divisions should kindle again by dipping into 
them. From the Restoration to Both well, where 
he ends, he hath not completed ; and there are 
but a few hints of things which he would no 
doubt have extended, had he been spared to 
finish the work. 

What Mr. Semple hath done I cannot give 
you so good an account of, having never seen any 
part of it. He told me about a year ago, that he 
had the first volume, if my memory fail me not, 
to the union of the crowns, perfected, and ready 
for the press ; and that he designed speedily to 
publish it. But since I hear nothing of it. This 
I know, he hath had very great advantages iu 
point of material. One night I was his guest, 
and he let me see a vast many papers, upwards 
of thirty quire, he had caused copy out of the 
Bodleian and Cotton libraries, and other coUec- 
tions in England. I looked over an Index of 
them he had formed, and found they related 
mostly to our civil affairs. Besides this, I know 
he hath got great assistances from Sir James 
Dalrymple, Sir Robert Sibbald, Mr. James 
Anderson, and others about Edinburgh ; but I 
imagine they relate mostly to the period before 
the union of the crowns. What his materials 
are since, I cannot say ; only I know he hath 
had the advantage of Mr. Baillie's Letters. I 
showed him a list of what papers I then had rela- 
tive to our History, and it was but very few of 
them he had met with, and he designed to come 
and stay some weeks with me, and go through 
them : but though this be six or seven years 
since, I have not had the benefit of his company. 
He knows of my design upon the Sufferings, 
and has had a copy of the first part from the 
Restoration to Pentland, to read, and presses me 
to go on. This is all I know a doing here as to 
our History. And after all, I am of opinion, 
you ought to go on in your design. If you 
should be prevented by another well writt His- 
tory, I promise myself it will be satisfying to 
you ; and if not, it were good to have things in 
readiness, and still be going on. 

It is, perhaps, too much for me to propose any 
thing upon the method of this work to one whw 
is so good a judge, and hath far more ripeness iu 
this matter than I can pretend to. But ac- 
cording to my plain rough way with my friends, 
I just dash down what strikes me in the head 
when writing. In an Introduction, I would 
have the matter of our Culdees handled, which 
I own nobody yet hath done to any purpose, 
save the hints Sir James Dalrymple hath given 
us in his collections ; and yet I am assured by 
one who has considered this matter, and under- 
stands that old part of our History as well as 
any in this country, that much more might be 
gathered about them ; and I am assured, Mr. 
Anderson, our General Post-master, whom I 



suppose you know, liatli niuJc sonio valuable 
advances witli regard to them. I take them to 
have entertained a noble struggle, not only for 
religion and its purity, against Komi», but even 
for liberty, against the encroachments of our 
princes ; and I sometimes fancy, that brave 
manly temper that appeared before and after the 
Reformation, and till the union of the crowns, 
among Scotsmen, was in part owing to them, 
and the seeds and principles they left before their 
utter extirpation ; of which you have given so 
good evidences from our old constitution in the 
valuable paper you published about the 1703. 

As to the period from the Reformation to the 
union of the crowns, I would not be for reprint- 
ing much of what we have already in Calder- 
wood and Knox, (whom I should have begun 
with) Petrie and Spotswood. The line and 
thread of matter of fact would be continued, and 
references for fuller accounts made to them. 
But I wish the unlucky turns that Spotswood 
gives to matters, and the facts which, as a com- 
plete p<arty man, he suppresseth, were to be taken 
notice of, and his disingenuity exposed ; which 
you will be in case to do from the MSS. of his 
you have. Besides the large MSS. of Calder- 
wood, you may have considerable helps in this 
period from several accounts wrift in that time, 
and before king James' death. I have Mr. 
James Melvil's Memoirs, of forty or fifty sheet ; 
another History, said to be Mr. John IJavidson's, 
about thirty sheet ; IMr. John Forbes Account 
of the Assembly at Aberdeen, and the trial of 
the ministers at Linlithgow, with the reasonings 
at full length, about twenty sheet; Mr. John 
Row of Carnock's History, which is pretty 
large, and contains many valuable hints as to 
the lives and characters of our ministers and 
others, before the union of the crowns, I have 
not met with elsewhere. You have Mr. Scot 
of Coupar's Apologetical Narration ; and the 
Authentic Acts of Assembly. Balfour's Annals 
are at Glasgow, but it is mostly as to civil mat- 
ters. I have just now got copies of a good many 
letters 'twixt queen Elizabeth and king James, 
which Sir James Balfour doubled of the origi- 
nals, with some other papers relative to that 
time. I have likewise a large History from the 
Reformation to the 1610, writt at that time, I 
know not by whom, of near two hundred sheet, 
which is only ecclesiastical, and has the proceed- 
ings of our Assemblies imbodied with it ; and 
Archibald Simson, minister at Dalkeith, his 
Annalet Ecclesicc Scoticana, written in a noble 
style of Latin, about thirty sheet. It reaches 
from the Reformation to king James' death. 

There are some hints, not despicable, in Mr. 
Blair and Livingston's Life f<ir the period 'twixt 
the 1625 to the 16.37. And in the 1637-8-9, we 
have great numbers of papers, narratives, and 
controversies, about the Service Book. I have 

the Proceedings of the Assemblies 1()3S and 1639, 
with the reasonings at great length, twenty to 
thirty sheet each. From thence to the 1660, 
there is no want of materials. I have the Auto- 
graph Acts of Assembly from the 1G42 to 1646, 
in two folios, but wanting some leaves. The 
rest of them are at E^dinburgh with the Regis- 
ters of the Commission. I have a large ac- 
count of the Assembly at Aberdeen, 1640 or 1641. 
Bishop Guthrie's Account of this period is 
printed ; and I have Sir James Turner's remarks 
upon him, which are but short. A valuable 
MS. is lately come to my hands, which was once 
in Mr. Robert Douglas's possession, A History 
of the Church and State of Scotland, from the 
1638 to 1647, upwards of one hundred sheet, in 
a fair hand ; and two volumes in folio, entitled, 
" Register of Letters, Actings, and Proceedings," 
from 1654 to 166 J, copied by Mr. Ker, the church 
clerk. It contains nothing but copies of letters 
'twixt our Scots noblemen and ministei's, and 
Cromwell and the English managers and minis- 
ters. It came to me only within this fortnight ; 
and I can only say, it's a rich treasure. Out of 
it I hope to get some considerable accounts of the 
overturning of our religion and liberty at the 
Restoration. The two volumes will contain 
about five hundred sheet. 

After the Restoration I mind nothing save Mr. 
Kirkton's MS. History, which I have, and it 
was of use to me as far as he goes, which is only 
to Bothwell. Thus you have a list of what is~ 
in my hands. I have forgot what I reckon the 
most valuable thing we have remaining 'twixt 
the 1638 and 1660, and that is, four large folios 
of Mr. Robert Baillie's Letters, and the most 
considerable public papers, not in print, inter- 
spersed, which I have by me, from his grand- 
children. He wrote almost every post when in 
England, and you know he was much there 
from the 1641 to 164S, and he gives the best ac- 
count of the Assembly at Westminster I ever saw. 

Wherein I can be helpful to you from any of 
these you may freely command me, and I shall 
most cheerfully communicate with you copies of 
any of them that are my own, or copy for m)'- 
self, and extracts out of others of them in any 
point you desire to be satisfied in ; and I'll pre- 
sume you'll not grudge me copies of any things 
you have that are communicable ; and as large 
an account as you can give me of the MSS. and 
papers in your hands. IMy Lord Warriston's 
papers, if they be his Diary, which I am told is 
in his son's hands, were I as loose footed as I 
have been, I could come to London to have the 
benefit of reading it, not so much for the histori- 
cal hints, which no doubt are valuable, but espe- 
cially for his religion, and close living with his 
God, and his rare experiences in prayer. I have 
a good many of his letters and papers about the 
unhappy difterences, in MS. 



To be sure by this time I have -(vearied you 
with two long scrawls. I very much long to 
hear from you, and will assure myself you can- 
not weary me. Principal Stirling tells me you 
are beginning the Atlas for Scotland, and if I 
can give you any assistance from a collection I 
made long since of fossils and formed stones, 
curious enough in their kinds, I gathered here- 
abouts, and some Roman coins and instruments, 
in my hands, dug up here, they shall be com- 
municate to you. I must break off with my 
best wishes that you may be preserved in health 
long to be useful for your God and country ;— 
and am, dear Sir, yours most smcerely and aifec- 

Sept. 23, 1717. 

Letter II. 

To the Rev. Mr. James Hart, one of the Minis- 
ters of Edinburgh. 

R. D. B. 

I was much pleased to have another letter from 
you the 4th of Oct. though it contains a reproof. 
You have writt so seldom these ten or twelve 
months, that I fancied you had some other from 
whom you expected accounts of matters here ; 
and when I ara for some time out of the road of 
^vriting, I find myself ready to forget my friends 
even when matter offers, which makes me ear- 
nestly wish to have my correspondence with you 
more stated and customary. I know wel' you can 
never want matter, though many times I may. 

"The visitors of the College, in September, de- 
clared the election of a new Rector irregular and 
unwarrantable ; admonished Mr. Uick, one of 
the Regents, to be more diligent in his work; 
and received and read a paper of gi-ievances 
against the Principal, but went through only 
two articles of them : the first about a bond of 
2500 merks, which was paid in the time of the 
confusions at Glasgow in the framing of the 
Union, and no distinct account can be given of 
the money. It lands on Mr. Law and the Prin- 
cipal. All the masters who signed the accompts 
that year are found liable to the College, and to 
have their relief as law accords. The other 
article was an act of faculty, excluding Mr. 
Loudon from meddling with the College ac- 
compts, because of some things he insisted on 
before he would engage in approving or disap- 
proving them, in which the rest would not yield. 
Tills act is rescinded. The management of 
affairs, till a new Rector be chosen, at the ordi- 
nary time next year, as to their tacks, accounts, 
&c. is committed to the Principal, Professor of 
Divinity, and Dean of Faculty, and Mr. Car- 
michael and Mr. Loudon. The rest of the griev- 
ances are reserved to the meeting of visitors at 
Editiburgh, Oct. 28th. None of the sides, they 
say, are entirely pleased at what is done, and 

therefore such as pretend to be indifferent say 
the determination is the juster. But the main 
points are yet to come, and what is done is pre- 

Our Synod, last week, had the Presbytery of 
Glasgow's reference of Mr. Anderson's call be- 
fore them ; the Ministers' reasons of dissent and 
the Town's answers were read, and the Minis- 
ters' answers to them heard, viva voce. The 
advice given at the close of the last SjTiod, when 
the house was thin, (to faU from Mr. Anderson) 
was disliked by the Synod now when full, and 
it was agreed not to be recorded. It appeared 
plain, that the particular and general Session 
were for Mr. Anderson, but the debate ran upon 
the form of the call. The Ministers are not 
named in it, because they had dissented. The 
Magistratescall, innameof the whole town; and 
some other singularities not used in former calls. 
The Ministers disclaimed a negative, and yet 
insisted on a share in calling, as colleagues. We 
had long debates upon the nattu-e of particular 
and general Sessiotis, and the ministers (except 
Mr. Clerk) insisted mostly on this reason, that 
the general Session, not the particular Session, 
were the proper callers ; whereas, in this case, 
they are but consenters, because when particular 
sessions were set up, 1649, the power of calling 
was reserved to the general Session, till altered 
by the Assembly ; and allege they have still been 
callers since. They insisted further, that the 
particular Session being but nine or ten, and the 
Council thirty-two, if the power of calling were 
lodged in the Council as heritors, and the Session, 
the last would still be overruled, and the magis- 
trates might bring in whom they pleased. The 
magistrates declared they never had (nor would) 
overruled the particular Session ; that they still 
allowed them to meet and agree on the persons 
to be called, whom they had still agreed to ; and 
alleged in the present case, both the Council, 
general and particular Session, were agreed ; and 
the ministers, by their standing out, were essay- 
ing to overrule them all. The vote came to be 
stated, — concur with the call, and transmit it to 
the Presbytery of Dumbarton, or refer to the 
Assembly ; and it carried ; — concur 63 ; refer 41; 
whereon the ministers and four or five of the ■ 
Presbytery appealed to the Assembly, and gave 1 
in a complaint verbally against Mr. Anderson, 
which the Synod obliged them to bring in in 
write, signed, to-morrow. To prevent this, a 
committee for peace was proposed for to-mor- 
row, who heard the ministers and Mr. Anderson 
upon the heads of the affair, but in vain; when 
their complaint was given in in Synod, and 
referred to the next Synod to be considered. It 
runs all on Mr. Anderson's printed letter to 
Pardovan, which no doubt you have : the min- 
isters deny all the marginal notes, and Mr. 
Anderson offers to prove them. 



Thus you have an answer to botli queries. I 
have writt to cm- brethren as you desire. Pray 
send nie an account of that soldier in Flanders 
who had occasion to see king William at bis 
private devotions. My service to Mr. Flint. 
Alillar, Maclaren. Write frequently to me. I 
hope to see you in November. I am yours most 

Eastwood, Oct. 8th, 1717. 

Letter III. 

To Mr. James Anderson, General Post-master 
for Scotland. 

Dear Sir, 

It is with the utmost pleasure that I send you 
the coins we were talking about, P. Ch. Bap- 
tisme piece ; one of James the I. very rare ; and 
another of James the II. with odd hair and 

The old seal of ivory seems to have been the 
buckle of a belt. It was found in a grave in the 
Isle of Tyrie. I read Sigillum Ducts, but can 
make no more. 

If any of these can be any way useful to you 
in your noble design, De lie Diplomatica, I'll 
be mightily pleased. I'U have a copy of Mr. 
Martin's History of Saint Andrews for you as 
aeon as may be. Any other MSS. I have you 
may freely command as if they were your own. 

When you get Whiston's papers, and have 
done with Bradbury's Sermon, I'U be fond of 
them and of any other Pamphlets you get from 
London, when you and your friends have perused 
them. I own this is too much to propose ; but 
my Athenian spirit makes me impudent. 

Above all, allow me to put you in mind of 
sending me all you can recoUect about that great 
man Jerviswood. I am just novr essaying some 
account of him. 

Accept of my humble thanks for all your 
favours, and give my humble duty to your lady ; 
and am impatient to hear from you. I am 
yom's, &c. 

Eastwood, Nov. 19, 1717. 

Letter IV. 
To Mr. James Trail, Minister at Montrose. 

Feb. 27, 1718. 
R. D. B. 

I return you my kindest thanks for your com- 
municating to me what you know of a new pro- 
jected rebellion; and had it been with fewer 
apologies, it had been so much the more kind. I 
have accounts from several other places, of the 
extraordinary stirrings of the Jacobites, and their 
elevation, especially since our wrath-like divi- 
sions at court. 

It was a little after harvest, that I was both 
fretted, vexed, and alarmed, with an account I had 

(when the bird was flown, and no reaching him,) 
of u lUghlandman, who came into a country 
house in a neighbour parish, in habit mean 
enough, and got lodging. There happened to 
be a Highland sei"vant in the house, and accord- 
ing to their clannish way, in some few hours 
they turned very big; and next day when he 
went off, he took out a pock, as she says, which 
would have held a peck of meal, full of letters, 
and told her he was come from their king, and 
he would be here against next May or summer ; 
and was going to their friends in the Highlands, 
that they might make ready for him. This the 
servant discovered that day to a sister of hers in 
great concern, but too late, for some days passed 
before it came to my hands. 

W^hen our unhappy divisions broke out in a 
flame, which, by a line from your brother Wil- 
liam, I find some in that country take for a poli- 
tick, but if so, it is from hell and Rome ; my 
fears increased, and now your distinct account 
of matters heightens all to me. I have not got 
much time to reflect on things since sending my 
answer with our friend. We have been sup- 
porting one another with things of which wc 
are not good judges : the good terms Spain and 
king George are in, and how much it wiU be 
against the Regent's interest, who appears no 
great bigot to any religion, to connive at such a de- 
sign ; with the late accounts we have of Sweden's 
being off his former projects and on a new lay. 

These are all guesses, and scarce so much, and 
moral prognosticks in our case, for dreadful judg- 
ments, I own, do more than outbalance them. 
To those indeed I have no answer, but what 
for my share I tremble to misapply, and I fear 
we have too little observed it, and I am sure far 
less improved it : Its Hosea xl. 8. " I wiU not 
execute the fierceness of mine anger : for I am 
God and not man : the Holy One in the midst 
of thee." 

I am ready enough to hope, that our Jacobites 
do magnify matters and all they can to support 
one another in their vfickedness ; especially now 
that they have so promising a game from our 
own divisions. And I cannot but wonder that 
the government, who you seem to apprehend are 
apprized of the danger, do not think fit to take 
other measures ; and none of our parliament 
men come down, when some of them have parts 
where their presence is necessary. 

But if the Lord be to send us to the furnace, our 
sins are great enough to provoke him to infatu- 
ate us, and leave us to our own councils. How- 
ever, Dear B. let us be still at our proper work, 
that when he comes, we may be found so doing, 
and essay to keep up our trembling confidence 
in Scotland's God, who, I hope will not make 
an utter end, but correct us in measure. 

AU the improvement I can make of your 
accounts is, to stir up myself, and any of God's 



praying remnant I have access to, to stand in the 
gap, and earnestly be"; you may not despond, nor 
faint imder your many damps. I know your 
soul is among fierce lions ; and I assure you, you 
^vaiit not some here who allow tliemselves to 
bear burdens with you, and get leave to do it. 
I fear the Lord has a peculiar reckoning with 
the west of Scotland, and we may come as soon 
to feel the fruit of sin as you. However we are 
in God's hands, and let us still venture our all 
upon him. 

I have some letters lately from New England 
and Holland, which I must defer till my next. 
Onlj' let me beseech you by our friendship to 
write as soon as possible again with all freedom, 
and to write as frequently as may be ; let us at 
least, while we may, have the satisfaction of un- 
bosoming ourselves one to another. Great grace 
be with you. I am yours most affectionately. 

Letter V. 
To the very Reverend and learned Cotton Mather, 
D. of D. and Minister of the Gospel at Boston, 
(N. E.) 

R. and D. Sir, 

Your most obliging letter of the 4th day of the 
10th month came to my hand some weeks ago, 
with the valuable packet of what you published 
since I had the favour of hearing from you. 

Your " JVIalachi," with its companions, were 
most acceptable to my lord Pollock, who re- 
turned to his country-seat here some weeks ago, 
entered into his 70th year, and is very much 
refreshed with yours to me, and gives his kindest 
respects to your venerable parent and yourself. 
He is much weakened through his close and 
conscientious application to the business of the 
nation ; and I fear we shall be in some little time, 
may it be late, deprived of this excellent person. 

It refreshes my spirit to find your hope still 
continuing, that anon we shall see Joel's pro- 
phecy fulfilled. I remember, about the 1713, or 
thereby, you assured me Obadiah's prophecy was 
near to its execution upon the highfliers, and 
in part we have seen it verified; and the great 
thing we want after such wonderful deliverances, 
you have so graphically described in your Token 
for Good, is the downpouring of the Spirit from 
on high. May it be hastened ! O why do the 
chariot wheels of our Lord tarry ! 

The tendencies in popish coimtries to shake off 
the yoke of popery, are indeed very remarkable j 
and we have strange accounts from France, 
which, I persuade myself, you have from better 
hands than mine. Sometimes it's damping to 
me, that at the appearance of Jansenius, there 
was no small stir, and the appearances of a break 
of the day then, yet all was stopped by politicks, 
which I wish may not be the event of the present 
commotions thei'e also. 

I have presumed once more to pay my duty to 
your very reverend and excellent parent, and 
enclosed it in yours. 

Some years ago, I had the pleasure of reading 
in the Transactions of the Royal Society, some 
extracts of your Letters, 1712 and 1713, to Dr. 
Woodward, in whom I presume to have some 
interest, and Mr. Waller, which, indeed, raised 
my appetite rather than satisfied it ; and I don't 
know how, but till this time it still escaped me 
to write to you anent some of them, of which 
larger accounts would be extremely satisfying. 
Some things pointed at there I think I met with 
in your excellent " Magnalia," and your father's 
Essay on Remarkable Providences. But such 
is my Athenian temper, that I covet much to 
have many of the things of which we have but 
scanty accounts, from yourself, when your leisure 
allows. It is my loss, and that of many others, 
that we have not the full copies of your valuable 
Letters referred to in that short abstract. 

Next to the things accompanying salvation, I 
have been for some time wishing earnestly for 
some account of Remarkable Providences ; and 
next to these, the Wonders of God in his Works, 
as we call them, of Nature. The hints at the 
macula materna ; the particular discoveries made 
in dreams, which the publisher of the abstract of 
your Letters very much overlooks ; the Indians' 
knowledge of some constellations by the names 
we use, before the accession of any European 
knowledge ; your peculiar method of finding out 
the Julian period ;— are subjects I would be most 
fond to have large hints of, but am ashamed to 
ask them. And especially the inscription on a 
rock at Taunton, in unknown characters that 
seem hieroglyphical, and of kin to tho Chinese; 
with your latter remarkables of nature and pro- 
vidence. I have for some time been much en- 
deared to Natural History, and the wonders of our 
God in his works of creation and providence, and 
take both to be a noble tra^^yot, and accessory to 
our more important studies. 

It is high time I should come to give you some 
hints of matters with us ; and it is but a very 
melancholy account I can offer in many respects. 
We have mismanaged our wonderful deliverances, 
and forgotten God's wonders at the sea, even 
the Red Sea. Iniquity abounds, and the love 
of many waxeth cold. Unheard of provoca- 
tions abound in this country these five or six 
months past. A flood of impurity and whore- 
doms prevails in city and country ; and since I 
wrote to you last, there have fallen out, in, and 
about our neighbouring city, eight or ten mur- 
dei's, and attempts that ^vay; and " blood touch- 
eth blood" in a frequency we have known nothing 
of since the Reformation. Satan is come down 
in great wrath, O may his time be short ! 

AU societies among us almost are misera])]y 
torn, and the anger of the Lord hath divided 



us. We are biting and devouring one another, 
and like to be consumed ono of another. In our 
neighbouring city of Glasgow, where, since the 
Revolution, unity and harmony, and conse- 
quently vital religion, flourished, now, heat and 
strife, and every evil work abound. The Uni- 
versity is split and broken. The magistrates 
and ministers are at present in no good terms : 
and in other societies through this nation we are 
but too much in the same circumstances ; and 
what of this sin and shame is in our most 
elevated societies, no doubt you have the melan- 
choly accounts. These open a door for new 
attempts of our enemies, and the Jacobites have 
taken new life from those favourable sjinptoms 
as to them. Multitudes of them are returned 
from abroad, and they ai'e meditating new dis- 
turbances; and the clemency of the government 
is so far from moving them, that the rebels are 
more uppish than before this last attempt. 

Such things among us call aloud for your sjin- 
pathy and prayers, and it is for this end I lay 
before you what otherwise I would choose to 
draw a veil over. I know we have had your 
deep concern, when formerly brought low for 
our iniquity, and now we need it as much as 

Dear Sir, I rejoice matters are in better bear- 
ing among you. May the kingdom of our Lord 
be upon the growing hand, and may the accounts 
j'ou shall be in case to send support me and 
others under our sorrows here. May the Lord 
preserve you long for eminent services, and 
strengthen you more and more for them. 

I'll presume to hope you'll take all occasions 
which offer to this country, and oblige me with 
as large notices of matters with you, and com- 
munications from your learned and extensive 
correspondence, and favour me with the produc- 
tions of Boston from time to time. Meanwhile 
believe that I am, reverend and very dear Sir, 
your very much obliged, and most affectionate 
brother and servant, R. W. 

April 8, 1718. 

Letter VI. 

To the very Reverend and Venerable Mr. Increase 
Mather, Minister of the Gospel at Boston. 

Very Reverend Sir, 

It was with a great deal of pleasure that by 
your son the doctor's last kind letter, I find that 
you are still labouring in our Lord's vineyard, 
and bringing forth much fruit in your old age ; 
and I could not but once more presume to 
acquaint you how much I take myself to be 
indebted to our common Lord for his preserving 
in bis churches such old disciples and faithful 
ministers, who have seen the glory of the former 
house ^ as you, through grace, are. 

Ajxd besides the valuable blessing there is in 

this providence to the dear churches of New 
England, I Iiave now for several years since I 
had the honour of writing to you and your son 
promised tayself a share in your prayers and 

I should take it as a peculiar favour to have 
another line from you with your directions and 
advices, and your ripe and mature thoughts 
upon the present appearances of providence as to 
the Reformation, and the state of things through 
all the protestant churches, and your hopes of 
the coming kingdom of our Lord, before you get 
to heaven. 

We have many melancholy appearances among 
us in this country ; and as to these I have un- 
bosomed myself in part in mine to your son. I 
could add much to you. In short, serious piety 
among us is under a sensible cloud, and our God 
is in a great measure removed from us. O ! im- 
portune him to return with healing under his 
wings ! 

The controversy 'twixt the bishop of Bangor 
and his adversaries is what hath made much 
noise, and is like to make more in our neigh- 
bouring nation ; and as the Bishop's papers are 
sensibly inclining to some of the worst parts 
of popery, so amidst many excellent advances 
towards liberty, and against persecution, I am 
mightily apprehensive the Bishop's tenets flow 
from, or incline to, libertinism, and smeU rank 
to me of the author of the " Rights of the Chris- 
tian Church." No doubt you have the papers 
pro and con, and I would most willingly have 
your sentiments upon it. I hear likewise Whis- 
ton's abominable heresy spreads mightily in 

But I fear I may be consuming your valuable 
time, which you employ so well ; and must break 
off with my earnest requests, that your comfort 
and usefulness may be as the path of the just, 
still growing more and more until the perfect 
day, that you may be long a burning and a shin- 
ing light. It will be a great comfort to me to 
hear from you while you are able. Any thing 
you have published since your last valuable pre- 
sent, of which you have doubles by you, will be 
most acceptable ; and if you will lay your com> 
mands upon me as to any thing in this country 
wherein I can serve you, you'll extremely obb'ge 
me. I am, reverend and very dear Sir, your 
most humble and very much obliged, R. W» 

Letter VI f. 

To Mr. John Erskine, at Edinburgh, (after- 
wards Professor of Scots Law, and the father 
of the late venerable Dr. Erskine. J 

Deal Sir, Feb. 7, 1718. 

J Yours of the 4th was more than satisfying. 
Without any compliment, I never had any ac- 
count that satisfied me so much as this ; and I 



now understand more of the constitution of the 
church of Holland than ever. Their Synods are 
delegate meetings, like our General Assemblies; 
and they have delegates of delegates, like our 
commission, which I own is the branch of our 
constitution most liable to exception. Let me 
luiow how many Presbyteries, or classes, there 
may be in every Synod. Are there ruling elders 
iTom every congregation in their classes? Do 
their parochial Sessions agi'ee with ours? Do 
their appeals lie from the Deputati Synodi to 
the next Synods ? Let me have the minister's 
name, and subject of the book at Rotterdam 
that hath made such noise. Give all you can 
further recover as to Fagel's Testament, and the 
foundations alleged for patrons. It seems, 
being so very late, they cannot found on the old 
claim, Patronum faciunt dos edificatio donum. 
I would likewise know their method of calls ; 
if heads of families consent, and the Session 
call ; if they have written and signed calls ; if 
there be presentations by the magistrates or the 
Amhachtsheers in write. 

Give me the state of the Universities; the 
balance 'twixt Cocceiansand Voetians; the state 
of real religion in the provinces; the success of 
the East India Company in propagating Chris- 
tianity; the method of dispensing the Sacra- 
ment of the Supper ; if at tables, the minister 
speaks at the time of communicating ; if the 
words of institution are pronounced at the distri- 
bution ;— the accounts of the care of the poor; their 
correction houses ; if any societies for reformat 
tion of manners, or charity schools ; and what- 
ever you remarked singular in their civil policy 
and economy ; their present divisions, and the 
strength of the Barnevelt and Arminian party. 
You'll have heard of Mr. Anderson's aflfair at 
Dumbarton, and that he was countenanced. I 
am youi's most affectionately. 

To the Reverend Mr. Benjamin Coleman, Minis- 
ter of the Gospel at Boston, N. A. f afterwards 
President of Harvard College. J 

R. Dear Sir, 
With great satisfaction I received yours of the 
9th of December, transmitted by Mr. Erskine 
to me, and with grief I perceive that yom' favour 
to me hath lost its way ; for nothing ever came 
to my hand but the note Dr. Mather sent me, else 
I had not failed to have acknowledged it. » • * 
There is too much occasion in one place or two, 
for the accounts have been given you, of the un- 
frequency of public baptism among us. In 
Edinburgh, I mean, there is a scandalous com- 
pliance with a custom, I don't know how, come 
down to us from the South, of baptizing the in- 
fants of most people of fashion in their houses 
and this mtfthod is creeped in too much in Gla» 

gow our neighbouring city. In the first named 
place, our brethren go entirely into the ill habit, 
and have brought themselves under no small toil; 
under which I sympathize very little with them. 
In Glasgow oui' brethren stand firmly out against 
this innovation, and baptize no children but in 
the church, or at public teaching ; however, some 
ministers come in from the country and do it in 
private houses. Except in these two cities, we 
know nothing of private baptism. Through this 
national church we have w^itnessed against it 
since the reformation, and since the revolution 
we have a standing act of Assemblj' against it, 
which I am sorry is Ln any measure disregarded. 
The gi'eat pretext some make use of for comply- 
ing is, that if we refuse to baptize in families, 
people will go to the tolerated party and the 
exauctorate episcopal clergy, and leave our com- 
munion ; l)ut really by our compliance with 
their humours we have brought this yoke upon 
ourselves ; and had we all stood our ground, 
there could have been no hazard this way, but 
many times we raise difficulties, and then turn 
them over into arguments against plain duty. 

I am sorry to add, that we have got a greater 
iiTegularity among us than even those private 
baptisms, and that is, especially in cities, parents 
ai'e not dealt with in private, and admonished 
and exhorted before they be permitted to present 
their children, and ministers in our principal 
towns know not who are to be admitted to that 
solemn ordinance till the name be given up after 
sermon is over. This is quite wrong, and what 
I have been regretting for several yeai's. Other 
sponsors I cannot away with, when parents 
mediate or immediate can be had. But enough 
of this. I hope it wiU raise your sympathy with 
us, and accent your prayers for us. You have 
reason to be very thankful to God, for the free 
choice the Christian people among you stiU en- 
joy with respect to their pastors. When we had 
this before the miserable turn of affairs 1712, I 
cannot say we improved it as we should. There 
were parties and combinations sometimes of the 
heritors and people of rank against the meaner 
people in a parish. And sometimes these last 
would oppose a worthy entrant, because people 
of sense were pleased with him ; yet I must say, 
these were but rare. But now, if the Lord open 
not a door of relief, we are in the utmost hazard 
of a corrupt ministry ; and our noblemen and 
gentlemen, members of the British parliament, 
being all patrons, we are in the worst case possi- 
ble, for our judges are parties. 

For several years I have had very little save 
general accounts of the state of religion in the dear 
churches in New England, from my very worthy 
friend Dr. Mather. His correspondence is very 
extensive, and I reckon myself extremely in his 
debt for the short hints he favours tne with, and 
the notices he refers me to in some of his printed 



sermons. But I eai'nestly beg you'll favour me 
with every thing you'll please to think, were 
you here and I at Boston, you would wish to 
have ; the success of the gospel ; the state of real 
vital religion; the number of your churches; 
the progress of Christianity among the Indians ; 
the order and method of teaching in the college; 
the number of students; remarkable provi- 
dences; conversions, and answers of prayer; and 
multitudes of other things I need not name ; and 
let me know wherein I can satisfy you, in any 
thing relative to this church, and I shall not be 
wanting, iu as far as my information goes, to 
give you the state of matters with us. 

I bless the Lord with ai( my heart for the new 
set of worthy young ministers God is sending 
V) his vineyard among you. It's certainly one 
■ if the greatest tokens of good you can possibly 
have. I thank you for the printed account you 
sent me, a copy of which, in manuscript, I had 
sent me from London about a year and a half 
ago, with a letter, which came along with it to 
your friends at London, whereat with pleasure 
I observe my dear brother Coleman's hand. 

Please to accept my most hearty thanks for 
the valuable sermons you send me. I have read 
them with delight, and should I speak my senti- 
ments of them, perhaps you would suspect me 
of flattery ; and I shall only pray that there may 
be a blessing upon them, and upon j'our further 
labours in the pulpit and press. 1 had none of 
them before, but I take care to communicate 
vrhat of this kind I receive to my dear brethren 
in the neighbourhood; and you'll favour me very 
much if you send me any other thing. Since 
my last I mind very little published in this 
country, unless it be the three letters I with this 
send you, designed against a set of people which 
withdraw from our communion, because of 
ministers their taking and holding communion 
with such as have taken the oath of abjuration. 
I beg you'll let me know whei'ein I can serve 
you in this country. 

; I have very lamentable accounts of the pre- 
valency of Cocceianism and Roel's opinions in 
Holland ; and from France of the affairs of the 
constitution, its being turned to a politick. But 
of those matters, I doubt not, you have better 
accounts than I can pretend to. I beg you'll 
miss no occasion you have coming to Scotland 
without giving me the pleasure of hearing from 
you, and you may expect the like from, reverend 
and very dear brother, your very much obliged 
and most affectionate brother and servant, 
April 8, 1718. R. W. 

Letter IX. 
To the Right Honourable my Lord liosse at 
My Lord, 
1 have the honour of yours of the 9th instant. 

for which I return my most hearty thanks ; and 
I am satisfied that my last came to hand. At 
the close of it, I remember I did express my 
fears with respect to new flames in this church 
upon any new stir about the reimposition of the 
oaths. I thought I had expressed myself with 
all softness in this matter; and if I have erred, 
in running to any excess upon it, I am heartily 
sorry for it, but I thought 1 had let a word fall 
upon it on.y by the by. I own, my Lord, it 
was my opinion, and still is, till I see ground 
to alter it, that were matters let alone among us, 
our miserable rents would very soon dwindle to 
nothing; and if we that are ministers be not 
such fools as to mix in with parties in the state, 
and political ditferences that lie not in our road, 
we shall very soon be entirely one. When I say 
this, I hope your Lordship will not think I in 
the least mean we should not appear against the 
pretender and Jacobitism in all the shapes of it. 
I reckon he does not deserve the name of a pro- 
testant, and ought not to be in the holy office of 
the ministry, who will not renounce, and declare 
in the strongest terms against the popish pre- 
tender, and all papists whatsomever their claim 
to any rule over these reformed nations ; and I 
know of no presbyterian minister of this church, 
(if there be any, sure I am they ought to be 
thrown out) who do not in the greatest sincerity 
own and acknowledge our only rightful and law- 
ful sovereign king George, and pray for him ia 
secret and in public, and bear all the love and 
regard for him that the best of kings deserves 
from the most loyal subjects. But the longer I 
live, the more I grow in the thoughts, that min- 
isters should closely mind their great work, and 
keep themselves at distance from all parties, save 
protestants and papists, and the friends to king 
George, and his enemies. 

For my own share, if my ?ieart deceive me 
not, I have no other views before me but the 
peace and unity of this poor church, from which, 
if we swerve, we counteract the divine law and 
our great work as ministers, and extremely 
weaken this church, and sink her reputation in 
the eyes of such who wait for our halting ; and I 
join heartily with your Lordship in blaming any 
who run to excesses, affect strictness beyond 
others, or instil notions to their people which all 
their interest cannot remove again, and as far as 
I am conscious to myself, I have still abhon-ed 
such courses. 

Yet, my Lord, when I vvTote last, and still, I 
cannot altogether get free of my fears, though I 
wish I may be mistaken in them. Whenever a 
bill is brought in relative to our church, I can- 
not help being afraid that some clause or other 
may be cast up that may be choking to severals, 
even though at first the bill may be framed in 
the best way that friends can propose it. When 
the reference is taken out which so many stick at> 


1 cannot but be concerned lest something ipay be 
put in its room that maybe straitening, not only 
to such as did not formerly qualify, but even to 
some who did take the oaths. And I have heard 
some of them say very publicly, that if the 
reference were removed, they would have a 
difficulty, because it was then an illimited oath. 

Besides, in conversation I have had occasion 
to observe several persons of great worth, and as 
firm friends to the government as in the king- 
dom, and no enthusiasts either, who want not 
their difficulties as to all public oaths in this 
degenerate age, as being no real tests of loyalty to 
the king and government ; and no proper marks 
of distinction 'twixt the king's friends and foes ; 
neither necessary for such who every day attest 
their loyalty by their hearty prayers for king 
George and his family; and I need not add theii- 
thoughts of an unnecessary oath. 

Those and many other things I have observed 
now these six years since our breaches began 
upon this head, too long to trouble you with, 
will lessen your Lordship's surprise, that I was 
afraid of new flames, and in my own mind 
wished that there were no reimposition, but our 
differences suffered to die away. I know the 
strait with regard to the Jacobite nonjurors in 
the north, of the Episcopal way. But the dif- 
ference is vast, and the laws we have against 
such who don't pray for king George nominatim, 
(or if the laws be not plain, they may be made 
clearer) do effectually reach them ; and there is 
not among that set who will pray for his ma- 
jesty, but will take the oaths too ; though that 
is not the case of the west and south, or of any 
presbyterian nonjurors that I know of. My great 
ground of expressing my fears in the event of 
reimposition was, that after I have considered 
this matter as far as I could, I did not perceive 
that form of an oath, but what would divide the 
real and hearty friends of the king in their prac- 
tices, and so endanger the peace of the church, 
while at present, as far as I can judge, if mixing 
in with different state parties do not prevent it, 
we are upon the point of healing among ourselves, 
and all differences wiU be buried. I am very 
sensible, my Lord, how tender a point this is 
that I have presumed to write upon, and should 
not have ventured upon it if your Lordship had 
not signified yoiu: desires, which shall still be 
commands upon me, to have full accounts from 
me upon this head. 

What the reverend moderator of the commis- 
sion writes to yom* I^ordship, that we are all 
agreed in the draught sent up from the commis- 
sion, I make no doubt, is according to the infor- 
mation he hath ; and I do not doubt, but the 
form sent up from the commission will satisfy 
the greatest part of such who did not formerly 
qualify ; and if this tend to the healing of the 
rent of this poor church, as I am persuaded it is 


designed, can say I am as heartily for it as any 
minister of the church of Scotland ; though some 
few should be brought to hardship under a 
government they heartily love, and bless God 
for. But I cannot go so far as to think that we 
are all agreed in what is desired. And youv 
Lordsliip will bear with me when I lay before 
you some matters of fact which I know are true, 
otherwise I would not presume to write them. 
Thei-e are about ninety or a hundred who have 
signified their assent to what is sent up from the 
commission ; and your Lordship will remember 
that there were upwards of three hundred for- 
merly who did not qualify. Youll further notice, 
that all who signify their consent to what the 
commission have sent up expressly, and in so 
many words, desire there may be no reimposition; 
but if there be one, that it may be in the manner 
proposed. And further, probably, by this time, 
your Lordship will know, that another form of 
an oath was proposed to the commission from 
a considerable number of ministers in Fife and 
Perth, met at Kinross, with some restrictions 
and explications which the reverend commission 
did not think fit to go into. And as I think I 
hinted to you when I had last the honour to 
converse with your Lordship, in October, we 
had, what is now sent up by the commission be- 
fore our Synod at Glasgow, and all the Presby- 
teries considered it ; as far as I know, it was the 
unanimous opinion of each Presbytery, that we 
should lie stiU, and make no application that 
might draw down new difficulties upon us ; and io 
our Presbytery all our brethren were as one man 
against it. 

These facts I lay before you not to counter 
any information sent you, which I dare not 
doubt was according to the view matters 
appeared in there ; but to give you a full state of 
the matter as it stands ; and after all, as I saitl 
just now, and my friend colonel Erskine has 
informed you, I do sincerely think, that what the 
commission has sent up wiU satisfy the most part 
of those who stood out ; but fearing that severals 
may remain under their difficulties, not in re- 
nouncing the pretender, or in owning tht king's 
only lawful and rightful title, but from their 
apprehensions of homologating the laws about 
patronages, and other burdens on this churcli, 
by engaging in public oaths, and their doubts of. 
their being proper tests of loyalty, and I did 
express my concern to your Lordship lest new 
flames might arise. 

Thus, my Lord, I have wearied you, I fear, 
upon this subject; what I wiite is only for your 
Lordships information; and it's my earnest 
prayer to the Lord, that you and all concerned 
may be under the Divine conduct, and led to such 
an issue in this matter as may be for the union 
and peace of this church, and the interest of tnw 
religion; and theo, I am sure, the lung's i»- 



terests will be promoted. For my share, I re- 
solve ever to lay out myself to my small utmost 
for these great ends. What my practice will be 
in case of a reimposition, I cannot determine 
myself, and ought not till I see the shape it comes 
in. But I cannot help wishing there may be 

So long a scroll needs a very long apology, 
which I was never good at, and must entirely 
rely on your Lordship's goodness. I humbly 
tliank your Lordship for your kind promise of 
the Bishop of Bangor on the Sacramental Test. 
I thought it had been but a pamphlet that might 
have come by post ; but I was never wearied 
with any thing that came from that masterly 
pen ; and when any occasion offers of transmit- 
ting it, it will be most welcome. I am sorry to 
hear that the clause about the Sacramental Test 
is out of the Bill, and it only relates to the 
schism and occasional acts, ■which, %vhatever ease 
it gives to our dissenting friends, I fear don't 
answer what I earnestly wished and hoped would 
strengthen the protestant interest, and his 
majesty's service, as well as do justice to the 

I'll be glad to know this comes safe to your Lord- 
ship's hands, and presume to give my best wishes 
to your Lordship and your noble family. Your 
neighbours at Pollock are all very well. I hear 
my Lord keeps his health very well this winter. 
Permit me, my Lord, to assure you, that I am, 
in the greatest sincerity, your Lordship's most 
humble and very much obliged servant. 

Jan. U, 1719. 

Letter X. 
To Mr. Samuel Semple, Minister at Libherton. 

A. D. B. 

I blame myself that I have been so long in 
fulfilling my promise to you and Mr. Eliot of 
London, who spoke to me in name of the Rev. 
Mr. Neal, who, it seems, is forming somewhat 
about Mr. Henderson ; and who desired me to 
correspond with you ow this subject. The throng 
of communions and my parochial work is what 
really put this out of my head, till this day 
it came in my mind, when you have not been so 
kind as write to me, as \ think you promised to 
do. It is a loss to me when I begin to write to 
you upon this, that I know not precisely the sub- 
ject these gentlemen at London would have our 
help about ; whether it be precisely the pretended 
declaration Mr. Henderson had palmed upon 
him after he was dead; or whether they desire 
an account of what remains of his we have. I 
shall touch at both to you, and you'll know pro- 
bably better than I which of them, or if both, 
these gentlemen desire. 

As to the declaration pretended to be made by 
Mm on his deathbed, against Presbyterial govern- 

ment, and in favour of Episcopacy, I had it once 
in my hands, in 4to. printed at London, 1648, 
and it is at present in our friend Mr. Jamea 
Anderson's hands. When I glanced it over, 
this spurious paper appeared to me to be very 
dully written, about two years after I\Ir. H.'s 
death ; at least it did not appear till then. There 
is nothing in the style that in the least resembles 
the nervous, solid, sententious, style of Mr. Hen- 
derson ; and it was certainly framed by some of 
the Scots Episcopal scribblers, who had fled to 
England for shelter, and lived by what they 
could earn by their pen. As soon as it appeared, 
you know, the General Assembly, by their act, 
August 7, 1648, gave a public declaration of the 
spuriousness of this pamphlet, and insert the 
strongest reasons that we can wish for, taken 
from his constant adherence to oui* work of Re- 
formation to his last breath, and that from wit- 
nesses present. I could add some things I have 
from very good hands to the same purpose. But 
the declaration of the Assembly is so authentic, 
that it needs no support. This declaration (pre- 
tended) was, I suppose, reprinted by Dr. Hol- 
lingsworth in 1693, in his Character of King 
Chai-les the I. at least (for I have only the an- 
swer to it) he is severely taken to task for his im- 
posing a spurious paper on the world, by Lud- 
low, in a printed answer to him, 4to, 1693, which 
I have, where he brings some good remarks from 
the style, and the Assembly's act, and the in- 
scription on Mr. Henderson's monument, both 
which he hath printed at length, to expose 
this imposition. I mind no more I have seen 
upon it, unless it be the editor of Mr. Sage's, 
(one of our Scots Episcopal clergy at Lon- 
don) 8vo. London 1714, publishes two letters 
of his ; one containing an idle story of Buch- 
anan ; and the other anent a verbal declaration 
made by Mr. Henderson to Mr. R. Freebairn ; 
no doubt you have the pamphlet, and it can bear 
no faith, being published by a nameless author, 
who may have forged it for Mr. Sage ; and 
though it should be genuine, and Mr. Sage's, it 
depends both on Mr. Sage's and Mr. Freebairn's 
authority and memorie ; and that Ti'hich is 
higher, Mr. Freebairn's father's memory ; and 
some circumstances in the tale look a little 
childish, and can never be laid in the balance 
with the contrary accounts given by the General 
Assembly. This is all I mind I have met with as 
to the spurious declaration. 

As to Mr. Henderson's Remains, in print and 
in manuscript, if our friends at London want an 
account of them, I shall give you a hint of what 
is in my hands. Beside his parliament Sermons, 
printed .at London in 4to. and his valuable Essay 
upon the government and order of the Church 
of Scotland, 4to. 1640, or 1641, which I can 
vouch to be Mr. Henderson's ; and his Discourse 
at the taking of the covenants, 4to. Lond. 1643, 



and the letters which passed 'twlxt him and tlie 
king on Episcopacy, in which, out of decency to 
the king, he is allowed the last word, though 
Mr. Henderson, as I am well informed, sent an 
answer, and kept a copy of it, to the king's last 
paper : I have in MS. Mr. Henderson's Sermon 
at the Excommunication of the Bishops, 1638 ; 
his Instructions about Defensive Arms; Direc- 
tions about Voicing in Parliament, 1639; An- 
8 ivers to some Propositions in Defence of Epis- 
acy ; with some original Letters of his to Mr. 
Douglas. If these hints can be of use to you or 
the gentleuien at London, it will be a particular 
pleasure to, reverend dear brother, yours most 
affectionately, R. Wodrow. 

Eastwood, July 4, 1726. 

P. S. — D. B. You'll nbllgi? ine extremely if 
you'll write me all your accounts of literature 
and new books, and coveries you have from 
England and elsewhere in your learned corre- 
spondence ; and particularly, I hope you'll let me 
know what you have in your valuable collection 
of manuscripts, and scarce books and pamphlets 
relating to the lives of our reformers, learned 
men, ministers, and Christians since; Mr. Knox, 
Willock, Craig, the Melvils, RoUock, R. Boyd, 
Durham, Gillespie, Rutherford, and hundreds 
of others I need not name to you : their origi- 
nal Letters, Memoirs, &c. Pray send me a list 
of any thing you have this way. You may 
command what I have. I am again yours. 

R. W. 

Letter XL 
To mij Lord Grange. 

My Lord, 
Having the opportunity of Mr. fllaxwell's 
coming in, as his duty is, to wait on my Lord 
Pollock home, I could not but signify the deep 
sense I have of your goodness and singular 
favours to me. I have gone through my good 
Lord Poltoun's papers, though I cannot say I 
have perused almost any of them, and sorted 
them the best way I could. I found what I 
was extremely pleased to find, in the bottom of 
the chest, the volume that was wanting in the 
original Calderwood, that is, the fifth volume, 
from the 96 to King James his death, which I'll 
take special care of, and have laid with the other 
four volumes my Lord favoured me w^ith the 
loan of. The Glasgow copy, and a copy which 
now I have got from the College of Glasgow (it 
was designed for poor Mr. Redpath,) in ex- 
change, were very incorrect, especially in this 
last part, and I hope this shall set us right. The 
pleasure of that useful work being yet preserved 
in the original, was more than a balance to some 
disappointments I met witli in going through 

the rest of the papers, where I have not yet met 
with what I hoped foi-, though there are several 
things that will be of no small use to me, I 
hope, in the lives of our reformers, and their suc/- 
cessors ; and several scattered hints as to Mr. 
Calderwood liimself, and a great many papers 
which are in the large History ; yet the bulk are 
rough draughts and collections, and imperfect 
papers, sadly erased, of which little can be made. 
I would fain hope, that if further search be 
made, some other papers may be fallen upon, 
that may make up many of those that are in- 
complete ; and when my Lord Pol toun, to whom 
I repeat my most humble acknowledgments, finds 
leisure, he may happen to fall on them. Mean- 
while, I hope from thir to give eome tolerable 
account of the great Calderwood. 

Since my last, which I doubt not you received, 
I had a short line from Ireland in the time of 
the Synod, which I shall transcribe, that your 
Lordship may have all I yet know in the matter. 
In a little time I may be in case to give you 
lai'ger accounts ; and you'll find it on the other 
side. I have sent a dozen of M'Bride's pam- 
phlets to Mr. James Davidson to sell, which 
give a tolerable view of matters before the Synod 
sat down. If your Lordship have glanced 
Niven's case, it may come with my Lord Pol- 
lock's servant when he comes west. There being 
some things in it which are like to cast up among 
ourselves ; which brings me to acquaint your 
Lordship, that nothing is yet done at Glasgow 
as to Mr. Simpson. In the end of May he went 
to the country for his health. In June most of 
the ministers of Glasgow w^ere out of town at 
the goat milk. Last week the Presbytery met, 
and appointed their committee to have their 
remai'ks on his letter ready against their first 
meeting, the first Wednesdc-y of August; and 
Mr. Simpson is sent to be present that day. I 
pray the Lord may direct all concerned in that 
important matter. If it shall happen to be the 
occasion of your Lordship's being in this country, 
and if your other afi'airs allow you, it will be a 
peculiar pleasure to me to see you here, where I 
hope I shall be in case to entertain you for some 
time, though not as I could wish, yet, I am sure, 
the best way that I possibly can. I shall nt 
have the pleasure of waiting on your Lordshij 
at the commission, since the harvest will obligi, 
us to have our communion, if the Lord will, on 
the 1 ith of August, when I will be placed in 
need of much sympathy and concern. Were it 
not for this, though I be not a member, I might 
probably be in at Edinburgh, since riding, I find- 
agrees much with my trouble, which I am not 
altogether free of. Meanwhile, I'll be fond to 
hear from your Lordship at your leisure, and 
am, my Lord, your very much obliged, and most 
humble servant, Robert Wodrow. 

July 19, 1726. 



Letter XII. 

To Mr. Henri/ Newnian, Secretary to the Hon- 
ourable Society for Propagating Christianity, 
BartletVs Buildings, London. 

Dear Sir, 

I had yours of the 16tli curt, last post. It is 
satisfaction enough to me (could they any way 
answer the end of my being honoured to be one 
of your corresponding members,) that my letters 
come to your hand ; though you be not at the 
drudgery of making returns, except when youri 
leisure permits. I can form some notion of the 
load of letters you have to answer, and only wish 
I may not be a troublesome correspondent. 

It pleases me to hear that the new account of 
workhouses is so near to be published. I am 
sorry that I cannot tell you of the opening of 
that at Glasgow. The most active gentlemen 
in that matter, and indeed the wealthiest people 
there, are in the country from May to November, 
and any thing of that nature, (in its beginning) 
is, as it were, limited to the winter season. But 
I hope I may acquaint you, that that good de- 
sign is still going on, though stUl but in embryo ; 
and whether it will be proper to take any notice 
of it in the papers now printing, I must entirely 
leave to your judgment. I sent you last spring 
the paper printed upon that subject, to give some 
view of the necessity of such a design. That 
did not seem disliked by you, and had a good 
eflfect here. In some few w-eeks there were 
voluntary subscriptions cheerfully given to the 
amount of twelve hundred pounds English 
money, and more will certainly be given when 
the money is called for ; I hope several hundred 
pounds more. This is for the building and pro- 
viding the house and necessaries. This last fall 
and winter, when those concerned came to meet, 
they have made a considerable progress. The an- 
nual funds for that charitable design are agreed to, 
and fixed at about nine hundred pounds, of your 
money, per annum. There are twelve directors 
agreed upon for each of the four societies who 
advance the nine hundred pounds, and the bur- 
den of direction and regulations will lie on a 
smaller committee to be chosen out of these. At 
their last meeting they seemed to agree that two 

hundred poor should be taken in at first, and 
their house fitted up for them ; but so as, if need 
be, and funds answer, it may be enlarged, were 
it to three or four hundred. This is all I know 
as yet relative to this, and at your desire I have 
given you the trouble of it by the first post. 
You desire to know the methods used here for 
the instruction of prisoners for debt, and espe- 
cially the condemned in our gaols. In the coun- 
try where I live, it is our mercy there are but 
very few of these. You know we fall vastly 
short of you in numbers, and it's not very often 
that debtors lie long in prison ; where they do, 
the minister or ministers of the place where they 
are take care of them ; and it is not unusual, if 
they desire, that with one of the town servants 
they have allowance to come to public worship, 
and return when it's over to their prison ; but 
this is not ordinarily the case. When they are 
confined long, the minister visits them in prison. 
For criminals under sentence of death, a great 
deal of pains is taken with them. Those are 
generally at Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen, &c. 
where there arc several ministers. These, by 
turns, go to the prison, and take much pains on 
them to prepare for death, generally once, or 
oftener, eAxry day. And after sentence, the 
prisoners, under a guard, are ordinarily brought 
together on the Lord's day, and publicly prayed 
for in all the churches of the city; and on the 
day of execution, a minister or two attends them 
to their execution. There is no need of funds, 
you see, in this method of instruction ; and many 
such extraordinaries, if I may call them so, fall 
under the hands of ministers in our considerable 
towns and cities. 

I suppose Mr. William Grant, advocate, who 
succeeds Mr. Dundas as advoCate for the chiu-cb, 
and clerk to the General Assembly, shortly will 
be chosen secretary at their annual meeting in 
January to our society. He is a valuable man. 
But I have not yet heard any thing certain 
about it. 

I am longing for your circular letter, and 
conclude with my best wishes to the laudable 
designs of the Society, and my most affectionate 
regards to you, and am, dear Sir, your most 
humble and affectionate servant, R. W. 

Eastwood, Dec. 23, 1732. 

The preceding Letters have been selected from a collection of nearly five hundred in my 
possession, all, or nearly all, in the handwriting of the Historian. The Reader will 
observe, that the subjects treated of in these Letters are various and important ; and the 
good sense, accurate information, and sound judgment of the Writer, will be readily 
acknowledged. Besides the Letters by the Historian, there are still unpublished, upwards 
oi five thousand, addressed to him by his various correspondents in all parts of the world; 
&nd these embrace, more or less, all the great questions, political, religious, and literary, 
which occupied public attention during the important period from 1700 down to 1732. 
The Life and Correspondence of Robert Wodrow, judiciously arranged, and accompanied 
with suitable Supplementary Illustrations, would form a most valuable present to. the 
Republic of Letters. 

R. B, 

Pc&fey, Feb. 25, 1628. 




The History of the Church of Scotland, under a long series of sufferings, 
from which it was rescued by that great instrument of Providence, King WilUam of 
immortal memory, is, with the profoundest humility, laid at your Majesty's feet. 

Permit me to observe the adorable and just retributions of the righteous Judge of 
all the earth. Your Royal Progenitors, the excellent King and Queen of Bohemia, had 
the grace and honour vouchsafed them, to suffer for our holy Reformation, while they 
were too much neglected by those in Britain, who ought to have supported them : your 
sacred Majesty, with all your dominions, now reap the fruits of those glorious sufferings ; 
and your happy subjects cannot but hope that there are many rich blessings in 
reserve to your Majesty and your House, for a great while to come. 

Your illustrious Father joined counsels with his highness William Prince of Orange, 
for bringing about, under God, that wonderful turn of affairs, at the late happy 
Revolution, which put an end to the sufferings I have described. A period of time 
never to be forgotten by Protestants ! when our Reformation from Popery, with all the 
religious and civil interests of Europe, were in the utmost danger : Popery had made 
formidable advances ; a bigotted Papist had seated himself upon the throne, and was 
in the closest concert with the French King, who, after he had, contrary to solemn 
promises and treaties, ruined a glorious and numerous Protestant Church, was 
strenuously carrying on his darling project of rooting out the northern heresy, and 
grasping hard at the universal monarchy. " Then the Lord did great things for us, 
whereof we were glad." 

We had not long enjoyed our religious and civil liberties, till the time approached, 
when our great deliverer, worn out with cares, was ripe for heaven, and called to enjoy 
the glorious reward of the eminent service he was honoured to do for God and his 
generation. It was then kind Providence put him upon securing and perpetuating 
those great things oiu" gracious God had wrought for us, by entailing the Crown, and 
settling the Protestant succession in your illustrious House. And we were at q 
loss to determine, whether the Revolution itself, or the securing all the blessings of it 
to us and latest posterity, was the greatest appearance of Providence for us and all the 
churches of Christ. 

Your Majesty's subjects could not but humbly and gratefully observe the only wise, 
powerful, and good God, preserving this his own work, amidst all the artful and open 
efforts, made afterwards to weaken and even overturn that happy settlement ; till we 
had the inexpressible pleasure of seeing the same Almighty arm, at a season when our 
dangers were only equalled by those we had been in at the Revolution, bringmg your 

• George I. 



excellent Majesty to the possession of that throne you now so much adorn. May our 
gracious God, who performeth all things for us, preserve you long long upon it. 

One can scarce help envying the happiness of that historian, who shall have the 
honour faithfully, and in a manner worthy of so great a theme, to transmit to future 
ages the glories of your Majesty's Government, and of such a lasting and happy reign, 
as all good men most ardently wish you : but the snare fallen to me, is to give some • 
account of a management, perfectly the reverse of the beauties of your Majesty's 
administration; in which we see an happy temperature of the exercise of that 
prerogative, which all good Klings ought to have, with the liberties of the subject, and 
a just regard to the Constitution, a steady firmness and resolution necessary to all 
great actions, mixed with that goodness and wisdom requisite to so great a trust. The 
exalted and noble views which fill your Majesty's eye, are the glory of God, the 
promoting of real religion, the felicity of your subjects, and the good of mankind ; and 
we know not which most to admire, your extensive and paternal goodness to your 
subjects, or your mildness to your enemies, which, to their lasting shame, is not able 
to reclaim them : but my mean pen is, at best, every way below this noble subject, and 
of late is so blunted with the melancholy matter of the following history, and our 
miseries under preceding reigns, that it is perfectly unfit to enter upon the blessings of 
your Majesty's government. May I presume to hope, that the uncontestable facts 
recorded in this history, the arbitrary procedure, oppression and severities of that 
period, the open invasion upon liberty and property, with the hasty advances towards 
popery and slavery, must, as so many shades, be of some use to set forth the glories of 
your Majesty's reign, even with some greater advantage than the best expressions of 
the happiest pen. 

Persecution for conscience' sake, and oppression in civil liberty, flow from the 
same spring, are carried on by the same measures, and lead to the very same miserable 
end ; so that they could scarce miss going together in a far better reign than those I 
describe. When Asa put the Seer in prison, he oppressed some of the people at the 
same time : but your Majesty's just and conspicuous regard to tender consciences 
among your Protestant subjects, perfectly secures them from the most distant fears of 
any invasion upon what is valuable to them, as men and members of a civil society. 

Great Sir, you have the glory of taking a noble stand, in a manner worthy of 
yourself and the great interests of Religion and Liberty, against the unmanly and 
antichristian spirit of persecution, oppression, and tyranny, so peculiar to Papists, and 
such who have been guided by their counsels. All the Protestant Churches are daily 
oflfering up their thanks to God, for your generous and truly Christian appearances in 
behalf of our oppressed brethren in Germany, and cannot cease from their most 
fervent prayers for success to your Majesty's endeavours this way, in conjunction with 
the King of R-ussia, your Majesty's son-in-law, and other Protestant powers. The 
Church of Scotland must be nearly touched with the hardships put upon any of the 
Reformed Churches abroad : in worship, doctrine, government, and discipline, she is 
upon the same scriptural bottom with them. The Palatine Catechism was adopted by 
us, till we had the happiness to join with the venerable Assembly at Westminster, in 
that excellent form of sound words contained in our Confession of Faith, ratified by 


law, and our Larger and Shorter Catechisms. We suffered the hardships I relate, for 
adhering to our Reformation blessings, and humbly claim the character of contending 
and suffering for revolution Principles, even before the revolution was brought about. 
And it was, when appearing for the liberties of the nation, as well as the principles of 
our reformation, that Presbyterians in Scotland were harassed and persecuted ; and 
yet they maintained their loyalty, and Just regard to the civil powers, even when 
oppressed by them. They have been indeed otherwise represented by their enemies j but 
whenever yoiu: Majesty's greater affairs permit you to look upon the following history, 
I flatter myself you will have satisfying evidence, that they suffered for righteousness' 
sake, and not as evil-doers. This they were taught by their Bibles. And now, when 
we are relieved from such hardships, our plain duty and highest interests are happily 
combined in an inviolable attachment to your most excellent Majesty's person, family, 
and government. The least inclination unto a Popish pretender to the crown of these 
realms, is a crime so black in our eyes, and so contrary to our principles and interest, 
that we want words to express our abhorrence of it. The succession in j'our Majesty's 
person and Protestant heirs, the very crowning stone of the revolution, is what we 
ardently prayed and contended for, before it took place j and from our very souls we 
bless the Lord for making it effectual in your Majesty's accession, and reckon ourselves 
happy in the honour of avouching our inviolable duty, affection and fidelity to your 
sacred Majesty, our only rightful and lawful Sovereign. 

Permit me, in the most sincere and unfeigned manner, to join with the Church of 
Scotland, in adoration and praise to our gracious God and Redeemer, who because he 
loved us, made you King over us, to do judgment and justice, and hath raised up your 
Majesty to maintain what he hath wrought for us, to preserve our valuable privileges, 
and redress oiu* remaining grievances, brought upon us under the former unhappy 
administration. May the same glorious God kindly lead you through such difficulties 
as the manifold sins of those nations bring in your way, support yovu" sacred Majesty 
under the fatigue and cares with which your imperial crown is surrounded, pour out 
his best blessings upon j'our Royal Person and Family, and, in his great goodness to us 
and those parts of the world, preserve you long the Arbiter of Europe, and Head of the 
Protestant interest ; and after an happy and glorious reign over your kingdoms, and an 
extensive and useful life to the church of God, mankind, and those lands, receive you 
graciously to his blessed and eternal mansions above. 

Meanwhile, great Sir, in the most submissive manner, I beg your Majesty's patronage, 
and the liberty to inscribe this History to the best, as well as greatest of kings, and 
presume, with your allowance, upon the honour of subscribing myself in this public 
manner, with the greatest hvunility and sincerity. 

May it please your most excellent Majesty, 
Your Majesty's most faithful, 

most dutiful, most devoted, and obedient subject, 





It must appear strange to all disinterested 
persons, who know any thing of Scottish 
affairs from the restoration to the revolution, 
that there is a party among us who deny 
there was any persecution of presbyterians 
for conscience' sake in that period, and yet 
rEiise a terrible cry of severity and cruelties 
exercised upon the episcopal clergy at and 
since the happy revolution. Presbyterians 
are loudly called upon, to give an instance 
of persecution during that time, except for 
the crimes of rebellion and treason. It is 
boldly asserted, and published to the world, 
that no man in Scotland ever suffered for 
his religion. Libels have been printed, and 
carefully handed about, containing these 
glaring untruths; and no small pains is 
taken, and many artifices used, to impress 
the English nation with them. Multitudes 
of pamphlets were going about after the 
revolution, larded with these and such like 
aspersions upon the church of Scotland, to 
which some just -answers were at that time 
given. A new cry was raised, to the same 
purpose, upon the death of om* glorious 
deliverer king William, when a design was 
formed to strengthen the anti-revolution 
party, and weaken this church, by a bound- 
less toleration, and the re-introduction of 
patronages : but the last four years of queen 
Anne's reign, were thought a most proper 
juncture for propagating those falsehoods, 
gradually to prepare the way for overturning 
our revolution establishment, and conse- 
quently the glorious settlement of the protes- 
tant succession, and with those the religion 
and liberties of Britain and Ireland. Sir 
George Mackenzie's Vindication of the 
Reigns of King Charles and King James, was 
reprinted, and carefully spread, with many 

other pamphlets, containing facts, assertions, 
and representations of things, perfectly con- 
trary to the knowledge and experience of 
multitudes yet alive. The authors, abetters, 
and grand promoters whereof were the 
Jacobites, who threw off the mask at the late 
unnatural rebellion, equally enemies to his 
most excellent Majesty King George, and 
the church of Scotland : and nothing could 
move them to publish facts they could not 
but know were false, save their engagement 
in a party with foreign papists, their virulent 
malice at our present establishment, and 
obstinate zeal for the pretender, who is 
educated and confirmed in Romish idolatry, 
contradictions and tyranny, and therefore 
the fittest hand to re-act the tragedies of 
the unhappy period I am to describe, and 
worse, if worse can be supposed. 

I wish the prelatic party among us have 
not been tempted to venture upon such 
methods, by the culpable silence of presby- 
terians, who have been so far from rendering 
evil for evil, or measuring out to them 
according to their measm'e, that, it must 
be owned, they have been much wanting ta 
themselves, their neighbours, and posterity, 
in not representing true matter of fact, for 
their own vindication. As this negligence 
hath no doubt given considerable advantage 
to the other side, so it hath been mucn 
lamented by many, who, at this distance, 
want distinct accounts of the unparalleled 
severities of the former times : and now it 
is, vnth some colour of reason, improven 
in conversation and otherwise, as an argu- 
ment that presbyterians have nothing to say 
for themselves; and silence is taken for 
confession in persons so nearly concerned. 
It appeal's high time then, to let the world 



know, that presbyterians have not been so 
long silent from want of matter, but from a 
regard to the reputation of our holy religion, 
and common interests of the reformation. 
They were unwilling to seem in the least to 
stir up the government to deal with the 
persecuting party in a way of retaliation ; 
and, till forced, in their own necessary 
defence, to set matters in thdr true light, 
and expose the severe treatment they met 
with, they could have wished the inhumani- 
ties of professed protestants, towards those 
who were really such, had been buried in 

The following work being extorted by 
the impudence of those who are no friends 
to the present establishment of churcJi and 
state, they ought to bear the blame of any 
misimprovement the enemies of our reforma- 
tion may make of that persecuting spirit, so 
peculiar to papists, when it discovers itself 
among protestants. I am assured by a 
worthy friend of mine, who was present at 
a conversation betwixt Mr. Jeremiah White, 
well known at London, and some persons 
there of the first rank, some few years ago, 
that Mr. White told, he had made a full 
collection of all who had suflPered by the 
penal laws in England, from the restoration 
to the revolution, for nonconformity, their 
names, the fines imposed, the gaols where 
they were imprisoned, &c. That the number 
of persecuted protestant nonconformists 
exceeded sixty thousand, whereof above 
five thousand died in gaol. King James, 
after his accession, came to be informed of 
this collection, and offered Mi*. White a 
large sum for it, which he generously refused, 
knowing the design a popisli prince probably 
had in getting such papers in his hand, to 
expose the church of England, and to 
extenuate the just charge of the tyranny 
and persecution of those of his own religion, 
if popery deserves that name. But the 
spirit of tyranny, imposition, and persecution, 
ought to be abominated wherever it is : nor 
do I see what handle papists can have to 
insult protestants from the severities narrated 
in the following history, since it is plain 
these proceeded from themselves. The 
duke of York, and his party, several of 
whom turned papists, were at the bottom 

of our persecution in Scotland : our prelates 
were heartily in his interests ; his depend- 
ants were the chief managers ; and any 
relaxation allowed in his reign, was to serve 
his own purposes, though presbyterians 
happily improved it to the strengthening of 
the protestant interest ; which, by the good 
providence of God, made way for the 

An attempt is made, in the following 
history, to give a well vouched narrative of 
the sufferings of the church of Scotland, 
from the (yeai-) 1660, to the never to be 
forgotten year 1688, a work much wished 
for by the friends of the reformation, and 
lovers of our valuable constitution ; the 
want of which hath been matter of regret to 
the members of this national church, and 
improven to her disadvantage by enemies. 
The fittest season for a performance of this 
nature had undoubtedly been thirty years 
ago, when the particular instances of oppres- 
sion and barbarity, now much forgotten, 
were recent, and the witnesses alive. At 
that time somewhat of this nature seems 
to have been designed : narratives were 
gathered, some of which have come to my 
hands, but many of them are lost ; yet the 
public registers, and the severe laws made 
by our parliaments, and not a few well 
attested instances of their terrible execution, 
still remain. Indeed the courts held in 
several parts of the coimtry, even those 
clothed with a council and justiciary power, 
either kept no registers, or, if they did, they 
are since lost. It was the interest of those 
who exacted fines, and pocketed them, to 
suppress what they got ; and, in most cases, 
they were not bound to give accounts of 
what they extorted. Innumerable cases 
occur in this melancholy period, where we 
cannot expect accounts of the exorbitant 
exactions and oppressions then so common, 
such as subsistence money, dry quarters, 
riding money, bribes, vast sums paid by the 
friends of the persecuted, compositions, and 
the like ; to say nothing of the barbarities 
committed by the officers of the army, 
soldiers, and tools of those in power, by 
virtue of secret instructions, blank warrants, 
illimited powers, and unwritten orders, for 
supporting the government, and encourag- 



ing '.he ortlioJox clergy, as was pretended. 
At this distance then, and when most of 
those who were persecuted, and many of 
the witnesses to what passed, are removed 
by death, it is plain, the following history 
must appear with not a few disadvantages, 
and cannot be so full and particular as it 
might have been at, or a httle after the 
happy revolution. 

How the author came to engage in this 
attempt, what were his motives and views, 
are matters of so little importance to the 
world, that it is not worth while to take up 
the reader's time with them : it may be 
of more use to give some account of the 
materials I had, and somewhat of the 
method I have followed in putting them 

Our public records, the registers of the 
privy council and justiciary, are the great 
fund of which this history is formed; a 
great part of it consists of extracts from 
these, and I have omitted nothing in them 
which might give light to the state of the 
church of Scotland in that period ; though, 
in perusing and making extracts out of ten 
or twelve large volumes, several things may 
have escaped me. 

It is with pleasure I observe a growing 
inclination in this age to have historical 
matters well vouched, and to trace up facts 
to their proper fountains, with a prevailing 
humour of searching records, registers, letters, 
and papers, written in the times we would 
have the knowledge of. If this temper 
degenerate not into scepticism, incredulity, 
and a groundless calling in question such 
things as, from their nature and circum- 
stances, we cannot expect to meet with in 
records, I hope, it may tend very much to 
advance the great interests of religion and 
liberty : but such is the frailty and corrup- 
tion of our present state, that men are too 
ready to run from one extreme to the other, 
and, because they are imposed upon in some 
relations, to believe nothing at all, although 
the e\adence brought is all the subject is 
capable of, and no more can be reasonably 

Now, when I am insensibly led into the 
subject of drawing history from public 
papers and records, I cannot altogether 

pass some beautiful strokes, to this purpose, 
in that noble historian Josephus. It will 
be of little use to most of my readers to 
give the original Greek; and therefore I 
shall insert the passages from the last 
English translation. Many things lie scat- 
tered through the works of that great man, 
to this purpose ; but, in the entry of his 
first book against Apion, he insists directly 
upon the necessity of forming history from 
records. Having taken notice of the lame- 
ness of the Greek writers this way, he says, 
" The Egyptians, Chaldeans and Phenicians, 
to say nothing of ourselves, have from time 
to time recorded, and transmitted down to 
posterity, the memorials of past ages, in 
monumental pillars and inscriptions, accord- 
ing to the advice and direction of the wisest 
men they had, for the perpetual memory of 
all transactions of moment, and to the end 

that nothing might be lost. It is most 

certain, that there is no Greek manuscript 
extant, dated before the poem of Homer; 
and as certain, that the Trojan war was 
over before that poem was written : nay, it 
will not be allowed either, that Homer 
ever committed this piece of his to writing 
at all, but it passed up and down like a 
piece of a ballad song, that people got by 
rote, till, in the end, copies were taken on 
it, from dictates by word of mouth. This 
was the true reason of so many contradic- 
tions and mistakes in the transcripts." — 
He enlargeth, in what follows, upon the 
faults of the Greek historians, and observes 
their plam clashing and disagreement. " It 
is evident (adds he,) that the history they 
deliver is not so much matter of fact, as 
conjecture and opinion; and that every 
man writes according to his fancy, their 
authors still clashing one with another. 
The first and great reason of their disagree- 
ment, is the failing of the Greeks, in not 
laying a timely foundation for history, in 
records and memorials, to conserve the 
memory of all great actions; for, without 
these monumental traditions, posterity is 
left at liberty to write at random, and to 
write false too, without any danger of being 
contradicted,"— He further notices, that 
this way of keeping public registers had 
been neglected in Greece, and even at 



Athens itself: and adds, "without these 
lights and authorities, historians must neces- 
sarily be divided and confounded among 
themselves." A multitude of other things, 
to the same purpose, follow, too large to be 
here transcribed. 

The council and criminal coiurt had most 
of the persecuted people before them ; from 
their books I have given my accounts : and 
the passages taken from the records are 
generally marked with commas; this hath 
drawn out the history to a far greater length 
than I could have wished. Every body will 
observe, that several of the passages might 
have been shortened, and the principal 
papers themselves abbreviated, and some 
repetitions and matters of common form 
omitted; yet I have chosen to give every 
thing as it stands in the registers and other 
vouchers, and to insert the principal papers 
themselves in the history or appendix, 
rather than abstracts of them, for several 
reasons. As they now stand, they are self- 
vouchers : had I shortened them, and given 
them in mine own words, perhaps, such as 
know me might have the charity to believe, 
I would not knowingly have falsified or 
misrepresented matters ; but it is much 
better things stand as they are in the records. 
I design, that as little of this history as may 
be should lean upon me : let every one see 
with his own eyes, and judge for himself, 
upon the very same evidence I have ; this 
is certainly the fairest and justest way. And 
I am of opinion, even the necessary repeti- 
tions, and some lesser circumstances, which 
might have been omitted, had I compendized 
the registers, and other public papers, will 
not want their own use. This method may 
seem a little to the disadvantage of those 
*vhom I would not willingly have misrepre- 
sented. It is plain, very harsh names and 
epithets are given to presbyterians ; and 
the sufferers are represented in the most 
odious colours, in the registers, proclama- 
tions, indictments, and the ordinary com'se 
of the minutes of the council. Many facts 
are set in a very false light ; a vast deal of 
misrepresentations, Ul grounded and idle 
stories, ai"e inserted ; and every thing unac- 
countably stretched against the persecuted 
side. Some notice is taken of this in the 

body of the history, and matters set in their 
true and just light, as briefly as I could. 
Had I been writing a defence of the 
sufferers in this period, much more might 
have been said : but, as an historian, I was 
chiefly concerned to represent facts ; and 
ha\dng given the representation of matters, 
in the very terms used by the persecutors 
themselves, their severity, and the innocence 
of the persecuted, will appear the more 

When searching the books of parliament, 
I w^as much discouraged upon finding the 
processes against the marquis of Argyle, 
]Mr. James Guthrie, and the lord Warriston, 
quite left out; and therefore, generally 
speaking, I have confined myself to the 
printed acts. It had been a labour too 
great for me, to have gone through all the 
warrants ; and the iniquitous laws stand fiill 
enough in print. Had the council warrants 
been in order, no question but considerable 
discoveries might have been made of the 
iniquity of this time; but those being un- 
sorted, and in no small confusion, I was 
obliged to keep myself by what the managers 
have thought fit to put into the registers ; 
and it is surprising to find some things there, 
which we shall afterwards meet with. The 
rest of the history is made up of parti- 
cular well vouched instances of severities 
through several parts of the kingdom, which 
cannot be looked for in the records : some of 
them are attested upon oath; others come 
from the persons concerned, their relations, 
or such who are present at the facts narrat- 
ed. In this part, I have taken all the care 
I could to get the best informations, and 
have been reckoned by some a little over nice 
as to my vouchers : if I have erred here, 
I hope, it was the safest side ; and I could 
not prevail with myself to publish to others, 
any thing but what I had as full evidence of 
as the subject would bear at this distance. 

In the first and second books, the reverend 
Mr. James Kirkton's Memoirs were useful 
to me, and some short hints of the reverend 
Mr. Matthew Crawford, my worthy pre- 
decessor in the charge where I serve ; these 
he did not live to complete, as he had done 
the former part of the history of this church 
to the restoration. I had communicated to 


me likewise a considerable collection of | my people, and discoursing to them in my 

informations, and oiher papers relative to 
the persecution of this church, lodged, after 
the revolution, in the hands of the reverend 
Mr. David Williamson, late minister of the 
west iiirk. I have had access also to some 
valuable papers belonging once to the 
reverend Mr. x^lexander Shells, mostly 
' written before the revolution. Not a few 
gentlemen and ministers, relations of the 
sufferers in this period, have sent me well 
attested accounts of the hardships particular 
persons met with. My brethren and friends. 

sermons, as much as I can, according to 
their capacity, hath brought me insensibly 
to express myself in a manner which in 
print may appear low and flat : besides, 
such a heap of informations from different 
persons, and in various styles, as I was 
obliged to make use of in this work, may be 
supposed would have altered a better expres- 
sion than ever I was master of. Indeed I 
have kept as much by the papers I made 
use of, as possibly I could ; and there is but 
a small part of the history in my words, 

who have been helpful to me in procuring which, I presume, may be understood even 
those materials, and the gentlemen by whose ' by Enghsh readers, who, it is hoped, will 

favour I had access to the records, will 
please to accept of this public and general 
acknowledgment of their goodness. I am 
a debtor to so many, as renders it imprac- 
ticable for me to be more particular ; if the 
following history in any measure answer its 
design, I know this will be the best return 
my friends wish for. 

Any thing further necessary to be observed, 
as to my vouchers and materials, will fall in 
upon the history itself. My part, in putting 
those together, is what I should next speak 
of, though I reckon myself the unfittest of 
any to say much upon this head. Since I 
began to reflect upon things, I still judged 
writing of history a very difficult work, and 
now I find it so : It is a harder province 
still, to write accounts of times a man hath 
not personally known, and when the greatest 
part of them were elapsed before he was 
bom ; the task grows, when one has none 
going before him, nor any thread to guide 
himself by j especially when the times are 
full of heat, rents, and divisions, and any 
accounts that remain are various, according 
as the several parties stood affected ; which 
occasions very different representations of 
facts themselves : in such a case, nothing 
but honesty and integrity, with labour and 
diligence, can carry a writer through. My 
style, I know, is what cannot answer the 
taste of this age; apologies for it are of 
no great use. I never affected, or had 
much occasion to attain any delicacy of 
style; all I purpose to myself, is to be 
understood. A country life for eighteen 
years, with my necessary converse among 

bear with me, though I come not fully up 
to the propriety of the English language, 
nor to the accuracy and neatness of their 

The general method I have used in this 
work, was what I was some way obliged to 
take, and to me it appeared most natural. 
In this period which I have described, I 
had no line to direct me, or any history of 
affairs in Scotland during those two reigns : 
I walked in an untrodden path, and was 
obliged to make a road for myself the best 
way I could. All left me to do, was to 
class my materials, informations, acts of 
parliament and council, with my transcripts 
from the registers, and to join together what 
the agreement of the matter required to be 
connected. This led me to divide the work 
in chapters and sections, and those obliged 
me to make some repetitions and resump- 
tions, which otherwise might have been 
spared. Had I been permitted to keep 
this history some longer time by me, I 
might have pared of those, and cast the 
matter in one continued discourse, without 
such breaks ; but even these may perhaps 
not want their advantage, and may be 
breathing places to stop at, in so great a 
heap of matter as is here collected. 

After I had formed this history, and 
published my proposals for printing it, many 
informations were sent me, and J had access 
to some records I wanted before; yea, even 
during the time of printing this volume^ 
some papers of consequence came to my 
hand : the inserting of what was necessary 
from these, in the proper places, hath not a 




little altered this work, and made the con- 
nection of purposes in some parts less 
natural than it might have been, if all ray 
materials had been under my view at fir:»t. 
And my later informations being- fuller and 
more circumstantiate, there may perhaps 
be some seeming diflFerences betwixt them 
and the shorter hints given in other places ; 
but, I hope, no real inconsistency will be 
found, truth being what I had still in mine 

In this collection, I have taken in many 
things which might have been omitted, had 
there been any history of church or state 
affairs published, relating to this interval; 
but when gathering materials, and searching 
our records, I thought myself at liberty to 
insert every thing that offered, which might 
afford any light to the history of this period. 
This hath indeed considerably enlarged the 
bulk of the work : yet, I flatter myself, it 
may be of some use to supply our want of 
a history of this time, at least be materials 
for others to work upon with less labour 
than I have been at: it will likewise render 
the melancholy history of sufferings and 
persecution a little more pleasant to the 
reader, wlien other thinjjs are mixed with it. 

Most part of the principal papers, and 
the facts here inserted, have never yet been 
published; and therefore, 1 am ready to 
apprehend, they may be the more enter- 
taining to this inquisitive age : from those 
judicious readers cannot but have the best 
view of this unhappy time. If, in my 
inferences from them, I have any where erred, 
I shall take it most kindly to be set right. 
I have been very sparing in any thinnr which 
might bear hard upon persons or families ; 
but, when narrating facts, it was impossible 
to evite giving the names and designations 
of the actors. This is what needs offend 
nobody, and they stand open to every one's 
view, in our public records and proclama- 
tions. I have charged our prelates with 
being the first movers of most parts of the 
persecution of these times : this is a matter 
of fact, fully known in Scotland; and I 
could not have written impartially, had I 
not laid most part of the evils of this period 
at their door. If I have anywhere used any 
harshness in speaking' of this subject, it hath 

proceeded from a peculiar abhorrence, i 
cannot help entertaining at a persecuting 
spirit, wherever it discovers itself, especially 
in churchmen. 

Since Me want a Scots biography, and 
have nothing almost of the lives of eminent 
ministers, gentlemen, and private Christians 
in this church, I have been the larger in my 
accounts of such worthy persons as fell in 
my way, since I cannot but reckon that one 
of the most useful and entertaining parts o 
history : this has led me to give several 
instances of sufferers upon the very same 
account, when fewer examples might other- 
wise have answered the ends of this history ; 
but I thought it pity that any thing, which 
might do justice to the memory of those 
excellent confessors and martyrs, should be 
lost. From the same consideration, some 
principal papers are inserted in the history 
and appendix, relative to the same subject 
where, it may be, fewer might have sufficed ; 
but I judged it worth while to preserve as 
many of the valuable remains of this time, 
as I coiUd. All of them contain something 
or other different ; and the true sentiments, 
deliberate views, and undissembled principles 
of good men, appear most naturally in their 
own words and papers. Such as think 
them tedious and irksome, may overlook 
them with less pain than I have been at in 
collecting and inserting them. 

In the following work, I have taken some 
notice of the accounts of our Scottish 
affairs, during the interval before me, by 
the most noted English historians, Dr Sprat, 
Bishop Kennet, Mr Collier, Mr Archdeacon 
Eachard, and others of lesser name. This, 
I hope, is done with a temper and deference 
due to their merit. Their gross escapes in 
our affairs I could not altogether overlook : 
no doubt, most of them have written accord- 
ing to tlie information they had ; and I am 
sorry we have been to blame, in part, for 
their want of better information. This 
nation and church have suffered not a little 
by this : I persuade myself, our neighbours 
will do us more justice, when they have a 
fuller view of our affairs. 

There is another writer, the author of 
the Memoirs of the Church of Scotland, 8to. 
London, 1717, who deserves some considera- 


tion by himself. As far as he had our 
printed historians to guide him, he hath given 
a very distinct and fair account of matters ; 
he hath likewise done the sufterers in the 
period before me, some justice, in stating 
the grounds of their sufferings : but how he 
hath fallen into some very gross blunders 
I cannot imagine. He talks of the induU 
gence, as a contrivance of the prelates and 
their friends ; which is a plain mistake. 
His making the indidged ministers to accept 
a license from the bishops, is yet much 
worse; and indeed, his whole account of 
this matter seems to be a satire upon some 
of the most eminent ministers of this church, 
who had freedom to fall in with it. In 
other places, this writer bewrays an un- 
common ignorance of our Scottish affaii's : 
he speaks of the Highland host as brought 
down upon the west some time after Both- 
well-bridge, and says, that the reverend 
professor Hamilton and ]Mr. Mitchell were 
sent up to London, 1717, to get the act for 
Yule vacance repealed; whereas that was 
done some time before. These are of a 
piece with several misrepresentations of fact, 
in the History of the Union, generally 
believed to be written by the same hand. 
A great number of other mistakes might be 
noticed, as to the circumstances of the 
risings at Pentland and Bothwell, yea, even 
as to our printed acts of pai'liament ; but, T 
hope, those flow from inadvertency, whereas 
his account of the indulgence looks like 
somewhat worse ; and the following history 
will sufficiently set the facts he hath misre- 
presented, in their true light. 

Perhaps, an apology will be here expected 
for the imperfections in this history; but I 
see very little use of this in a preface^ how- 
ever fashionable it may be. As I am sure 
there are no wilful and designed mistakes 
in it, so any that may have happened in 
so great a heap of materials, through haste 
or misinformation, and in the transcribing a 
vast multitude of papers, shall be cheerfully 
acknowledged and corrected. Indeed I 
could have wished this work had remained 
by me some time longer, that I might have 
smoothed it a little, cut off some things, 
necessary in the first forming of it, from a 
heap of unconnected papers, and brought 


it to a little better bearing : but, after the 
proposals were printed, the subscribers 
pressed my publishing of it ; and I found, 
the longer I delayed, the more it was like 
to swell on mine hand. Since that time 
near a hundred sheets have been added, 
and I did not know where this would end ; 
so that it comes abroad very much as it 
dropt from my pen, in the midst of other 
necessary parochial and ministerial work, 
and without those amendments I would 
have desired. I know well enough this 
lands upon myself, but necessity hath no 
law, and, I can sincerely say, I have more 
ways than one crossed mine own inclinations 
in this affair. I did very much incline, both 
in tke proposals and history, to have con- 
cealed my name, as concei\'ing this of very 
little consequence ui a work of this nature ; 
but my friends overruled me in this, and 
would not have the History of the Sufferings 
of this Church, published in an anonymous 
way. The work now comes to the public 
view, and must have its fate according to 
the different tempers and capacities of its 

Some of ray friends have urged me to 
draw down the thread of oui* history, in 
the introduction which follows, from the 
time where our printed historians end, and 
in some measure to fill up the gap we have 
from the death of king James VI. to the 
restoration. I have been of opinion now 
of a considerable time, that the whole of 
our church history since the reformation, is 
too large a field for one hand, if he have 
any other business or emplo}Tnent; and 
that it ought to be parcelled out among 
different persons, if we have it done to any 
purpose. Even that period, already de- 
scribed by Mr. ICnox, bishop Spotiswood, 
and Mr. Calderwood, is capable of great im- 
provement. Many valuable original papers, 
memoirs, and some formed histories, either 
not known to those historians, or overlooked 
by them, are recovered since the revolution, 
and will afford a just light to that time : 
and there is no want of excellent materials 
for forming full accounts from king James 
his death to the restoration. Several of 
my very good friends have large collections 
of papers during both those periods, and 


more may be gotten : I hope, ere long a 
full account shall be given, by better hands 
than mine, of our affairs before the restora- 
tion ; and they have my best wishes. The 
blackest part of our history in this church 
has fallen into my hands ; and I did not 
think it necessary for me to go any further 
back than the time whereof I give the 
general hints in the introduction, which may 
suffice to let the reader in to what is imme- 
diately connected with the period I have 
undertaken. I own, I am not much in love 
with abstracts and compends in historical 
matters, in which I would have all the 
light possible : the largest accounts, with 
their vouchers from original papers and 
records, are still most satisfying to me; 
and a short deduction of the former period 
of our history would have been of no great 
use, and scarce have answered the toil and 
labour it would have cost me. 

This history, or rather collection of 


materials for a history, contains a large 
number of facts, and well attested accounts, 
which will set the circumstances of presby- 
terians, during twenty-eight years, in a clearer 
light than hitherto they have appeared, and, 
if possible, may stop the mouths of such 
who have most groundlessly aspersed this 
church, and do justice to the memory of 
those excellent persons of all ranks, who, 
as confessors and martyrs, were exposed 
to the fury of this unhappy time. It may, 
also, through the divine blessing, be of some 
use to revive our too much decayed zeal 
for our reformation rights, to unite all the 
real friends of the church of Scotland, from 
the observation of the various methods used 
by enemies to divide and ruin her, and serve 
to quicken our just warmth against popery 
and every thing that tends to bring us back 
to the dismal state described in the following 

Eastwood, Dec. 29, 1720. 




However fashionable prefaces are to books 
of this nature, the author of this history is 
not so fond of them, as to take up either 
his own time, or the reader's with any thing 
of this sort, when nothing of moment offers. 
What appeared necessary to hand the reader 
into this work, hath been given before in 
the former volume; since the publishing 
of which, the necessary encumbrances with 
this volume, and other business, have been 
task enough for me. 

Any remarks, additions, and corrections, 
come to my hand, relative to the first 
volume, shall be added at the end of this; * 
I do not question many others might have 
been made, considering the great heap of 
matter in this collection, and other things 
I have formerly noticed. Those undesigned, 
and, in such a multitude of facts, almost 
unavoidable mistakes, and those that shall 
be observed to me in this volume, shall be 
rectified upon due information : and I want 
not my fears, that in this third book, where 
particular instances of severity cast up in 
great numbers, which cannot be expected 
to be found in records and public papers, 
I may have been insensibly led to some 
things that may be excepted against. 

It is with pleasure that I observe the 
method I have taken, in giving much of the 
history of this period, by inserting what 
stands in our records, and the principal 
papers relative to the several years, either 

• The ailditions and corroctions, &c. here 
referred to, have, in this edition, been inserted in 
the form of notes, at those places in the body 
of the work to wliich they refer : an arrange- 
ment obviously calculated to promote their use- 
fulness. — JEd. 

in the body of the book, or appendix, is 
approven by some of the best judges : those 
I would have the reader still chiefly to 
observe, and they are decisive argimients 
of the harshness of the times I have de- 
scribed ; and though there should be some 
misinformation in the circumstances of 
particular instances, in the execution of 
iniquitous laws, and severe and terrible 
orders, I do not see how this affects the 
general truth, fully made evident from the 
registers, and original papers. Indeed, as 
I have inserted none of the particular facts 
without vouchers, the best the matters 
allowed of, and I could reach at this dis- 
tance, so I shall be heartily sorry, if, after 
all the pains I could take, I have been led 
i nto mistakes even as to those ; and I pre- 
sume to hope, they are few and inconsider- 
able, and, upon better information, I shall 
most cheerfully rectify them. This I take 
notice of, to prevent any little cavils that 
may be raised, and to save a little pains to 
some people, who have more spare time 
upon their hand than I am master of, if 
they bestow their leisure in forming inferen- 
ces from any escapes I may have been led 
into, in circumstantial and less important 
matters, to weaken the force of this history', 
which leans in all its important parts, upon 
undeniable vouchers : and as I shall be 
ready to set every escape right, upon just 
information, so I will not reckon it worth 
while, to enter the lists of debate, about 
matters that don't affect the principal parts 
of this work. 

I find it complained of, and, I fear, not 
without ground, that the names of persons 
and places, especially in the list of Middle- 



ton's fines, are not so correct as were to be 
desired : * had the amendments been sent 
me, they should have been added. All I 
have to say, is, that the copy from which 
that list was published, was the best I could 
have, and was written much about that 
time ; and, even in the registers themselves, 
I observe much haste, and incorrectness as 
to the names of persons and places, which 
nevertheless I durst not adventure to alter. 
There is another complaint I hear of, 
which lands not so much upon me in parti- 
cular, as the work in general, which I have 
now got through, and I cannot altogether 
pass it, that a History of the Sufferings of 
this church tends to rip up old faults, and 
may revive animosities, and create resent- 
ments against persons and families concerned 
in the hardships and severities of the time 
I have described : for my share in this, if I 
know myself^ I am heartily against every 
thing that may raise or continue differences 
and animosities; and if ever I had enter- 
tained one thought, that a work of this 
nature would have such effects, I should 
have been the last man to engage in it. But, 
as far as I can perceive, there is nothing in 
this history, that, without perverting it to 
the utmost degree, can have a tendency this 
way : and if any thing here should be im- 
proven to such vile purposes, I have this 
support, that the best of things and writings, 
and many better composuies than ever can 
drop fi'om my pen, have been perverted ; 
and it is well enough known where such 
misimprovements must land. I hope, the 
rules of Christianity are better known, than 
there can be any danger this way, at least 
among real Christians; and surely they 
have not learned Christ as they ought, and 
his holy religion, which every where breathes 
forth love, meekness, and forgiveness, who 
can make such a wicked use of the follies 
and crimes of former times : there are many 
natural and noble improvements dii'ectly 
contrary to this, which may and ought to 
be made, even of cruelty and persecution 
itself, too obvious for me to insist upon. 
The naming of persons who were active in 

* Not a few corrections of the kind here men- 
tioned, have been made iu this edition. — JEd, 

the sufferings of presbyterians, was what 
could not be avoided; and this falls in 
necessarily, more frequently in this than the 
former volume. Could I have given parti- 
cular instances without this, I should have 
chosen to do it, but every body will see 
this was impracticable. The share such as 
are named had in the evils of the former 
times, is no secret, but fully known, and 
they stand in many of the public papers and 
records of that period. As this is a natm-al, 
just, and necessary consequent of their own 
deeds, so I shall only wish it may be a 
warning to all in time coming, to abstain 
from such arbitrary and unchristian methods, 
at least for the sake of their own reputation, 
if they will forget the superior laws of God 
nature, and society: and if it reach this 
good end, there appears no reason, why 
any concerned in the persons named, ought 
to take this in ill part, which is really una- 
voidable in narratives of this nature. After 
all, I hope it will appear, that all aggravating 
and personal reflections are avoided; and if, 
at any time, I have, by the narratives I have 
made use of, been insensibly led into any of 
those, which I as much as possible guarded 
against, I shall be heaitily sorry for it. In 
short, were there any thing at all in this 
objection, we must never more after this, 
have a history written, for what I can see ; 
since a faithful narrative of any period, will 
have persons' names and designations in it, 
and some side or other must be in the 
wrong, and the alleged consequence of 
reviving heats, may still be cast up : but 
there is so much unfairness, not to say ill 
nature, in this pretext, that I shall leave it. 
I hope, upon solid consideration, it will be 
found to be altogether groundless. 

More than once, in this second volume, 
I have pointed at the necessity of an abbre- 
viate of the fines and losses through the 
different shires and parishes, as far as they 
have come to my hand, and somewhere I 
almost promised it: once I designed to 
have brought it into the appendix, but, 
upon second thoughts, it seems as naturally 
to come in here. I may assure the i-eader, 
that this abstract of fines and losses through- 
out the kingdom, hath cost me more labour 
than many sheets of the Histoiy : it is 

formed out of several hundred sheets of 
informations, from different pai'ishes through 
the kingdom ; many of them were gathered 
at and before the revolution j j et, as will 
appear by the hsts themselves, no informa- 
tions are come to my hand, from the far 
larger part of the parishes where the per- 
secution raged; and there are even several 
shires where there were very sore sufferings, 
from whom I have nothing almost, as Argyle- 
shire, Dumbarton, Stirling, Linlithgow, &c. 
Had informations come to me from those, 
my abbre\'iate had been much larger. Fur- 
ther, it would be observed, that, save in the 
shires of Roxburgh, Renfrew, Fife, and 
Perth, the fines I give the abstract of by 
the papers in my hands, most of them 
signed, were actually exacted from the 
country, and, generally speaking, in a few 
years of the black period I have described, 
mostly from the (year) 1679 to 1685. When 
I went through this vast heap of informa- 
tions, I found the fines uplifted from the 

more common sort, country people, tenants, 
and cottai's, save in a few instances from 

gentlemen, and meaner heritors. The for- 
feitures and exorbitant fines from particular 

gentlemen, and others narrated in the 

history, are omitted, save the sheriff fines 

last spoken of, those by Middleton's parlia- 
ment, and the losses at Pentland, and by 

the Highland host, which I have added, 

that the reader may have them all together 

in his view. I would willingly have inserted 

the names of the persons who were fined, 

and sustained those losses in every parish, 

according to the lists I have ; but that was 

impracticable, without adding a thii'd volume 

to this history ; and, in my opinion, would 

have been of no great use, save to preserve 

some sort of memory of the persons, most 

of them truly religious; and, could this 

have been done easily, I should not have 

crudged it, since 10, 20, 40, or 100 pounds 

t'rom a tenant, or cottar, was as heavy to 

them as a thousand to a landed person. 
All those fines, even those accumulated 

by the sheriff courts, were in terms of law 

and indeed are chargeable upon the iniquit- 
ous laws narrated in the history, excepting 

a few losses by the rudeness of the soldiers, 

and the severe courts, where very often the 


I hard laws themselves weie exceeued. Upon 
I every turn, I find it observed in the papers 
before me, that, for want of full information, 
the accounts given in them are defective 
and lame; and, considering this, and the 
comparatively small number of parishes here 
insert, at a moderate computation, this 
abbreviate may be reckoned to fall short at 
least one half. How much of these fines 
which stand in the decreets in the sherifT 
books, which I have inserted, were uplifted, 
I cannot say; but, by particular vouched 
accounts, come to my hand from the shire 
of Fife, and that only in twelve or fourteen 
parishes, I find upwards of fifty thousand 
pounds actually paid ; and, considering the 
expenses in attendance, the money given to 
the attendants on these courts, and the 
exorbitant compositions the sufferers were 
at length obliged to, we may well reckon 
them near the suiiis here. I shall now 
insert this abbreviate of fines, if once I had 
noticed that none of the fines imposed upon 
every tm-n by the council decreets, upon 
multitudes, for conventicles, noncompear- 
ance, &c. are insert in this account : these 
the reader hath scattered up and down the 
history, and I have not had time to gather 
them up; neither have I cast in innmnerable 
instances of losses of horses, kine, sheep, 
and whole years' crops, in the informations 
that are in my hands, those not being 
liquidate, and I wanting leisure for this, 
though I am persuaded they would amount 
to a prodigious sum. Perhaps some of the 
parishes may be inserted in other shires 
than they belong to, but I have kept by the 
lists before me. 

Abbreviate of Fines and £,osses in the different 
Shires and Parishes, from particular informa- 
tion in the Author's hands. 

Shire of Edinburgh. 

Parishes of Wcst-Calder.... L.2,958 16 

Livingstone 1,787 17 

Abcrcorn 1,243 

Temple 3,713 

9.703 1 

Shire of Forrest 50,649 

Parishes of Eskdale and Ettrick 2,480 



THE author's preface 

Shire op Berwick. 

By tlie Earl of Hume L.2(i,066 13 4 

Parish of Gordon y,328 4 C 

Lassiden 137 13 4 

30,132 10 8 

Shire of Roxburgh, by Letters of Horn- 
ing, executed August 11, 1634 , 253,654 

Parishes of Ancrum 3,349 6 8 

Hassindean 11,3,31 13 4 

Bowden 430 14 

Smallholm 612 

Melrose 40,823 12 

Stow and Heriot-muir 8,332 13 4 

Selkirk-forest „.. 26,666 13 4 

Stitchil 9,413 14 

Legerwood 1,666 13 4 

Earlston 781 16 8 

Hownam 747 12 

Oxnam 2,484 

Jedburgh ., 6,480 

360,771 8 8 

SniBE OF Peebles. 

Parish of Peebles 978 6 

Traquair 374 2 

Kirkwood, Eddleston, Linton 506 10 

Tweedmuir 1,130 


Shire of Annandaie. 

Parish of Johnston 7,512 1 8 

Lochmaben 4,460 5 

St. Mungo 1,178 

Tunnergirth, Hutton, Wamfrey, &c. 2, 134 1 4 8 

15,285 1 4 

Shires of Nithsdale and Dumfries. 

Parish of Closeburn and Dalgerno ,3,006 5 8 

More in Closeburn 663 13 4 

jMorton 333 6 8 

Keir 159 

Kirkmaho 2,142 

Tindram 2,473 6 8 

Kirkmichael and Garil 343 

Tinwald 968 5 

Torthorwald 1,192 11 

Carlaverock 372 

Glencairn 2,313 6 8 

Penpont 182 13 4 

41,152 8 4 
More from this Shire at Pcntland 9,517 9 10 

23,669 18 2 

Shire op Galloway. 

In the Stewartry 2,889 14 

Burgh of Stranraer 2,365 5 4 

Kirkcudbright 2,184 18 4 

Parish of Borg 6,472 

Twinam 813 

Anworth 333 6 8 

Kirkmabrick 563 12 8 

Lochrooton 519 13 4 

New abbay 948 

Old Luce 6,871 

New Luce 6,506 14 

Bfllmiighie .,„.,„ww,xn.„m 3C3 16 

Burgh of Partan L. 5,087 I' 

Orr « 839 13 4 

Corsmichael 300 

Carsfairn 18,597 

Balmaclellan 2,126 

Dairy 3,200 

Kells 9,511 10 8 

Penningham 4,400 

More fined before Pentland, besides 
Middlctoii's fines 

74,832 4 8 
,. 41,982 
116,814 4 8 

SaiRE OF Ayr. 

Parish of Ballantree 3,619 

Colmonel 6,545 

Dalmelington 15,780 

Barr 20,856 

More in that Parish 417 

Straiten 6,748 

Kirkmichael and Maybole 5,953 

Muirkirk 5,726 

Kirkoswald 8,104 

Sorn 1,800 

Dalgen 1,118 

Cumnock 5,366 

Auchinleck 1,646 

Loudon 2,713 

Kilmaniock 31,700 

Other Parishes here 6,715 

By the Highland Host, 1678, 137,499 
















2.58,309 13 2 

Shibb op Renfrew. __ 

Parish of Eaglesham 3,643 

Cathcart 1,256 1 

Eastwood 650 

Lochwinnoch 4,579 13 4 

By Decreet against Gentlemen, about 1673, 368,031 13 4 

378,162 7 

Shire of Lanark. 

Parish of Libberton 232 

Whatwhan 182 

Biggar 1,071 

Walston 308 

Ehmsyre 177 

Carmichael 266 

Camwath 6,739 

Lanark 5000 

Cambusnethan 6,947 

Dalziel 33 

ShotU 1,708 

BothweU 11,206 

New Monkland 16,674 

Old Monkland 2,666 

Cambuslang - 3,864 

Hamilton 22,681 

Glassford 911 

Dalserf 773 

Evandale or Strathaven 54,083 

Kilbride 19,570 

Carmunnock 23,299 

Rutherglen 2,171 

Govan n. 1,444 

Calder 837 

Kirkintilloch • 700 































183,554 3 4 




Parish of Scoonio L.6,800 

Cameron „ 8,268 

More from the same 13,000 

Dcninno 1,400 

St Andrews JO.IOO 

Cairnbce 6,712 

St. Killans 13,419 

Leuchars 16,340 

Cleish 8,700 

Portnioak 32,700 

Abcrdour 2,100 

Dalgety 8,100 

Markinch 5000 

Falkland «. 3,300 

Auchtcrdeering 5,040 

Kinglassie 11,800 

Carnock and Dovehill ti,700 9 

Dysart 12,000 

Beith COO 

Auchtertool 4,500 

Abbotshall 10,700 

Kinghom 1,500 

Largo 17,400 

Newburn 2,700 

Burntisland 22,500 

Inverkeithing 13,400 

Aberdour n;ore 1,200 0.0 

Kilrinnie 4,200 

Anstruther.wcster 4,800 

Anstruther-easter 8,100 

Pittenweem 3,300 

St Minnan 5,500 

Ely 2,700 

Kilconquhar 8,500 

Munzie flOO 

Logic 6,100 

Ceres 12,500 

Orwel 1,500 

Ferry 2,700 

Balmerino 700 

Kembach and Darsie 1,800 

Cult 4,500 

Lesly 10,600 

Kennoway „ 300 

Cupar 3,700 

Kirkaldy 10,600 

Colesse 1,200 

Kettle 1,500 q q 

Hindlie 2.100 

Auchtermuchty 1,800 

Dunfermline , 9,600 o 

Ballingie GOO 

Tory 5000 

Stramiglo 5,071 

By the SherifT books of Falkland, S. J. Cal. 30,000 

MiddlctoM's Fines In the TIi;iory T,.l,017,353 6 8 

Gentlemen in Uenfrewsliire, l(iS4, as in 

History 237,333 6 8 

Gentlemen in Dumbartonshire, as in the 

History 55,200 

Gentlemen in the Shire of Murray, as in 

the History, 1685 12O,0:i3 r, 3 

Summa totalis , 

. 3,I74,S|;) IS H 

396,050 9 

SniRE OF Perth. 
By the Sheriff books there, where the 
extracts do not many times distinguish 
the parishes. 

Persons, without parishes named 107,400 

Parish of Forgundennie 11335 10 

Fossoquhie 3OOO Q 

Kippen 2000 

Town and Parish of Perth 41,000 

Perth , 

167,735 10 

Summa totalis l,743,!)<)y 18 

This is the shortest view I could give 
the reader of the fines, during this period ; 
a vast number of others are to be found in 
the history itself, and far greater numbers of 
fines imposed and exacted, are not come to 
my knowledge. 

Since, in this history, I have frequent 
occasion to name the persons 1 speak of by 
their offices, I thought it might be conve- 
nient for the reader to subjoin here a list of 
persons, in such offices, from the restoration 
to the revolution, as ordinarily come to be 
spoken of in this work, and I may well begin 
with the bishops, they being, as I have 
often remarked, the springs of much of the 
persecution I have described, though the 
share of some of them was greater than 
that of others. 

Archbishops op St. A.vdrews. 
16G2. Messrs. James Sharp. 
1679. Alexander Burnet. 

1684. Arthur Ross. 

Bishops op Dunkeld. 
1662. Messrs. George Halyburti n. 
1665. Henry Guthrie. 

J677. William Lindsay. 

1679. Andrew Bruce. 
1686. John Hamilton. 


1662. Messrs. David Mitchell. 

1663. Alexander Burnet 

1664. Patrick Scougal. 
1682. George Halyburton. 

1662. Messrs. Murdoch Mackenzie. 
1677. James Atkin. 

1680. CoUn Falconer. 
1686. Ross. 


William Hay 


1662. Messrs. David Strachan. 

1C7L Robert Lawrie. 

1679. George Halyburton. 

1682. Robert Douglas. 

1684. Alexander CaimcroRS. 

ICS-t. James Drummond. 


1662. Mc»srs. Robert Lcighton. 
Iff71. James Ramiay. 

1684. Robert Douglas. 


THE author's preface TO THE SECOND VOLUME. 

1C62. Messrs. John Paterson, Father. 
1679. Alexander Young. 

16B4. James Ramsay. 

1662. Messrs. Patrick Forbes. 
1062. Andrew Wood. 


1062. Messrs. Thomas Sydserf. 

1665. Andrew Honnyman. 
1677. Murdoch Jlackenzie. 
1688. Andrew Bruce. 

1662. Messrs. George Wisheart 
1671. Alexander Young. 
1679. John Paterson, Son. 
1688. Ross. 

Archbishops op Glasgow. 
1662. Messrs. Andrew Fairfoul. 
1664. Alexander Burnet. 

1670. Robert Leighton. 

1674. Alexander Burnet restored. 

1679. Arthur Ross. 

1684. Alexander Cairncross. 

1686. John Paterson S. 

1662. Messrs. James Hamilton. 
1673. John Paterson S. 

1680. James Atkin. 
1688. John Gordon. 


1662. Messrs. David Fletcher. 

1666. William Scrogie. 

1675. Arthur Ross. 

1679. Colin Falconer. 
1686. Hector Maclean. 

1662. Messrs. Robert Wallace. 
1677. Andrew Wood. 

1680. Archibald Graham. 

In this list I have marked the year of the 
admission of each bishop, and the entry of 
his successor; and, save the time of vacancy, 
which generally was very short, the inter- 
mediate space is the time of their continuance 
in their sees. 

The lord high chancellors in this interval 
were as follows : 

1660. The Earl of Glencairn. 
1665. Rothes. 

1680. Aberdeen. 

1684. Perth. 

I might go on to the rest of the officers 
of state, secretaries, justice general, advocate, 
and others ; but the time of their admission 
and continuance, may be found in the 
history itself, from which I shall no longer 
detain the reader. 

Eastwood, May 1, 1722. 

Edinburgh, May 16. 1722. 

Wlien I resolved to publish this history, 
I could not but expect attacks from the 
advocates for the bloodshed and severity 
of the reigns here described; and it was a 
little strange to me, that my first volume 
has been now abroad for a year, and nothing 
this way hath appeared. After my history 
was printed off, this day I had a printed 
letter put in my hand, dated May 10th, and 
signed Philanax. 

This performance is so indiscreet, low, 
and flat, that I can scarce prevail with 
myself to think it deserves any public notice, 
yet having room for a few lines in this place, 
I shall observe once for all, that I don't 
look on myself as obliged to take any notice 
of unsupported assertions, scurrilous in- 
nuendos, and unmannerly attacks of this 
nature ; they do a great deal of more hurt 
to thfi authors and publishers, than to me 
or this history. I pretend to no talent 
in railing and Billingsgate, and shall never 
be able to make any returns this way. 

When the letter-writer's friend publishes 
his history, though recriminations don't 
affect me, yet I doubt not but it will be 
considered. The sketch he is pleased to 
communicate, seems to be taken from the 
unsupported and ill natured memoirs pub- 
lished under bishop Guthry's name. Any 
thing that will set the period spoken of in a 
true and just light, will be Acceptable to me 
and all lovers of truth; but for the historian's 
own sake, I hope he will take care not to 
copy after his friend's indiscreet and indecent 
way, else I am of opinion nobody will reckon 
themselves obliged to lose time in reading 
his large work. 


Memoih oi'the Autlior, i — original Letters, xix 
— the Author's Dedication, xxxiii — the Author's 
Preface to vol. i. of the original edition, xxxvii 
— the Author's Preface to vol. ii. of the original 
edition, xlv — preliininary dissci tation, li. 

Intiioiiuction— Short view of the public reso- 
lutions, 1650, 1 — General INlonk takes measures 
to restore the king, 4 — instructions to Mr. Sharp, 
February 1st, 1660, 5 — desii'es of the city minis- 
ters, 8 — the Judgment of some sober-minded 
men, 13 — letter to the king from Messrs. Dou- 
glas, Dickson, &c., May 8th, 1660, 22— instruc- 
tions for Mr. Sharp, May 8th, 1660, 23— letter 
to the king fi-om Mr. Douglas, &c.. May lOtli, 
1 660, 21 — letter, ministers of Edinburgh to some 
ministers at London, May 12th, 1660, 26 — par- 
ticulars to be propounded to the king by Mr. 
Sharp, 3{) — draught of a proclamation for an 
assembly, i? — letter from Messrs. Calamy, &c. 
ministers at London, to Messrs. Robert Dou- 
glas, &c. ministers at Edinburgh, 54. 

BOOK I. FROM 1660 TO 166G. 

Chap. L Of the state and sufferings of Pres- 
byterians, 1660, 5S. 

Sect. I. Of Scots affairs, to the meeting of the 
committee of estates, August 23d, 1660,59. 

Sect. 2. Of the proceedings of the committee 
of estates, 1660, 65 — declaration at Dumfermline, 
August 16th, 1650, 66 — ministers' (designed) 
supplication August 23d, 1660, 68 — act for se- 
curing Mr. James Guthrie and others, August 
23(1, 1660. 7]_letter, from Mr. John Stirling 
to his session, September 11th, 1660, 73 — pro- 
clamation against Lex Rex, and the Causes of 
God's Wrath, September 19th, 1660, 75— pro- 
clamation against remonstrators, &c. September 
20th, 1660, 7&. 

Chap. IL Of the state and sufferings of 
Presbyterians, 1661, 87. 

Sect. 1. Of the laws and acts of the first 
session of parliament, with remarks, 87 — act 1st 
pari, anentthe president, and oath of parliament, 
1661, 92 — act 7th concerning the league and 
covenant, 1661, 96— Abernethie (Jesuit), account 
of the popish government in Scotland, 1661, 96 
— act 11th pari, for taking the oath of allegiaiice, 
&c. 1661, 99 — act 16th, concerning religion and 
church government, 1661, 102— act 17th, for a' 
solemn anniversary thanksgiving, 1661, 103 — act 
abolishing patronages, March 9th, 1649, 104 — 
act 36th pari, anent presentation of miiiisteis, 
1661, 105. 

Sect. 2. Of the efforts made by ministers 
during the sitting of the parliament, for pre- 
serving the church, 109— petition of the Pres- 
bytery of Edinburgh, 1661, 112— synod of Fife's 
exhortation and admonition, April, 2d, 1661, 119 
— synod of Galloway's supplication, 1661, 123. 

Sect. 3. Of the sufferings and martj rdom of 
the marquis of Argyle, 130— marquis of Argyle's 
petition, with reasons for a precognition, Febru- 
ary 12th, 1661, 132— marquis of Argyle's speech, 
April 9th, 1661, 143 — marquis of Argyle's speech 
after reading of his process, April 16th, 1661, 
146 — the king's proclamation concerning church 
affairs, 10th June, 1661, 151— marquis of Argyle's 
speech upon the scaffold, May, 27fh, 1661, 165. 

Sect. 4. Of the sufferings and n;artyrdom of 
Mr. James Guthrie, 159 — summons to the min- 
isters of Edinburgh, August 20th, 1655, with 
their declinature, 170 — Mr. James Hamilton's 
declinature at the same time, 170— indictment 
against Mr. James Guthrie, February 7th, 
1661, 174— Mr. James Guthrie's defences, 176— 
minutes of the process against Mr. James Guth- 
rie, 190 — Mr. James Guthrie's speech at his 
death, June 1st, 1661, 192— captain William 
Govan's speech on the scaffold, June 1st, 1661, 

Sect. 5. Of the sufferings of other ministers 
and gentlemen. 1661, 196. 

Sect. 6. Of the erection and procedure of ( 
the privy council against Presbyterians, 1661, 


Sect. 7. Of the regal erection of bishops, 223 
-act of council, September, fith, 1661, 231. 

Sect. 8. Some other remarkable events this 
year, 242. 

Chaf. III. Of the state and sufferings of 
Presbyterians, 1662, 247. 

Sect. 1. Proceedings against Presbyterians 
before the meeting of the parliament, with the 
consecration of the bishops, 248-act of council, 
January 9th, 1662, 249-draught of the Pres- 
bytery of Kirkcudbright's address to the par- 
liament, 253. 

Sect. 2. Of the acts of the second session ot 


Cn.\P. IV. Of the state and sufferings of 
Presbyterians, 1663, 323. 

Sect. 1. Of the ejection of near 400 ministers, 
303_list of non-conformist Presbyterian mini- 
sters ejected, 1662, 1663, and the following years, 
324_list of ejected ministers in Ireland, 324. 

Sect. 2. Of the more general acts of council 
this year, .336— act of council, August 13th, 1663, 


Sect. 3. Of the acts of the third session of 
parliament, 346— act 1st pari, against separation 
and disobedience to ecclesiastical authority, 350— 
act 4th, for establishment and constitution of a 
national synod, 353. 

Sect. 4. Ofthe sufferings and martjTdom of 
the lord Warriston, 355— lord Waniston's speech, 
July 22d, 1663, with some account of his car- 

rliament 256-act 1st pari, for restitution of riage, 358. 


archbishops and bishops, 1662, 257-act 114th, 
pari. 12th, James VI., 1592, ratifying the liberty 
of the true kirk, 1662, 260-act 2d, pari, for 
preservation of his majesty's person, authority 
and government, 263— act 3d pari., concerning 
patronages, 1662, 265-act 4th pari., concerning 
masters of universities, ministers, &c. 1662, 266 
—act 5th, pari, concerning the declaration, &c. 
1662, 266— list of fines imposed by Middleton in 
parliament, 1662, 271. 

Sect. 3. Of the procedure of council after the 
parliament rose, with the act at Glasgow, 280— 
act of council, September 10th, 1662, anent dio- 
cesan meetings, 280— act of council, December 

23d, 1662, 285. 

Sect. 4. Of particular sufferings preceding the 

parliament, 287. 

Sect. 5. Of Presbyterians' sufferings after the 
parliament was up, 297— INIr. Livingstone's 
letter to his flock, April 3d, 1663, 313. 

Sect. 6. Other remarkable events this year, 

Sect. 5. Of the sufferings of particular per- 
sons this year, 362. 

Sect. 6. Some other occurrences this year, 375- 

Chap. V. Of the state and sufferings of Pres- 
byterians, 1664, 383. 

Sect. 1. Of the erection and powers of the 
high commission, 383. 

Sect. 2. Of its actings and persecution, 390. 

Sect. 3. Of the procedure of council this year, 


Sect. 4. Of the sufferings of particular per- 
sons, 403. 

Sect. 5. Of other incidental matters this year, 
4j4_Rothes's patent to be commissioner to the 
national synod, October 14th, 1664, 419. 

Chap. VI. Of the state and sufferings of 
Presbyterians, 1665, 420-proclamation for a fast. 
May 3d, 1665, 420— act of council against min- 
isters, December 7th, 1665, 428-proclamatior. 
against conventicles, December 7th, 1665, 430. 


The .haracter of "The History of the Sufferings of the. Church of Scotland," by the 
Reverend and Venerable Robert Wodrow, is so universally known and so fully established, 
as to render any eulogium upon its merits altogether superfluous. Perhaps no history ever 
gave a more complete view of the period, nor, in most instances, a more graphic deMU-ipt.on of 
the pv<nts which it professed to embrace. Possessing, at once, a fulness of detail that has left 
little to be supplied, and an accuracy with regard to matters of fact that during the lapse of a 
century has never been called in question, it has always been regarded as the grand depository 
of those maxims of justice and of truth which the invincible band of Scottish Patriots, 
Confessors, and 3Jartvrs, watered with their blood, and consecrated with their dying breath, as 
the unalienable inheritance of their posterity. From this work, since the era of its publication, 
as from a common source, have been drawn all the more respectable narratives respecting the 
men of those times; and to the information it contains, the most diligent compilers have been 
able to add almost nothing. 

The first and only edition of this invaluable work appeared in 1721—22, in two large foho 
volumes; and it is now entirely out of print. The present edition, while in respect of 
tvpogi-aphy and convenient size, it is vastly superior to the original one, is prmted from it 
word for word, nothing being either added or omitted ; only, the original papers which m that 
edition form so many appendixes to each volume, are in this, printed at the foot of the pages to 
which they refer, and this has been done principally for the advantage of the reader in the way 
of easy reference. Typographical and other errors, in the names of persons and places, parti- 
cularly, have been con-ected ; and the " additions and amendments" inserted by the author at the 
bp-inning of his second volume, have been inserted in the places to which they severally belong. 
A^few notes are added, partly original, and partly selected from cotemporary authors, and 
others of a later date, to which Wodrow could not be supposed to have access. In these, brevity 
has been studied, and nothing has been hazarded either in the way of original remark or 
quotation, that did not seem necessary for the purposes of historical evidence and illustration. 

The interesting « Memoir" of the Author has been drawn up by the Rev. Dr. Burns of 
Paisley, a gentleman, whose literary talents, access to the author's unpublished manuscripts, 
and opportunities of communication with the surviving branches of his family, eminently 
qualified him for the task. To this Memoir are appended some valuable specimens of the 
Correspondence of Wodrow, from original .MSB. These form a very appropriate and pleasing 
introduction to the History. 

There has been lately published in London a new and improved edition of the works ot 
Archbishop Leighton, preceded by a Life of the Author, by the Rev. John Norman Pearson, 
A M a clergyman of the Church of England, who now holds, we believe, the important 
situation of Principal to the Church Mission College. In that publication, Mr. Pearson has 
been pleased to characterize ISIr. Wodrow as "a disingenuous Historian," and has in various 
instances given what we consider au unfair representation of Covenanting times. M e have 
great pleasure in announcing, that the Preliminary Dissertation to this work, by Dr. Burns, 
will contain a vindication of Wodrow and the Covenanters, together with a full examination ot 
Mr. Pearson's statements regarding Leighton's Life and Times. Owing to particular circum- 
stances, it was impossible to have this article in readiness for volume first. In the meantime, 
we request the attention of Mr. Pearson and all the traducers of Wodrow to the fo lowing 
Testimonies in favour of his History; and the reader will perceive that they are not all Pres- 
hyterians who thus characterize his work. 

Mr. Chalmers, the learned author of the Biographical Dictionary, says of it: " it is wiitten 
with a fidelity that has seldom been disputed; and confirmed, at the end of each volume, by a 
large mass of public and private records." „ j < t a 

Says Mr. Dibdin, whose accurate knovdedge of books has been rarely equalled : 1 proceed 
not only to the notice, but to the strong recommendation of Wodrow's History of the Sufferings 
of the Church of Scotland. Considering that these volumes have long richly deserved republi- 
cation, one is surprised that so valuable a work in so repulsive a garb (for it is most wretchedly 
printed) has been suffered to remain without improvement." 

Dr. Robert Watt, the laborious and learned author of the Bibliotheca Britannica, says ot 
Wodrow's History, " This History is wTitten with a fidelity seldom equalled." 

Mr. Fox, in his History of the Early Part of the Reign of James II., thus expresses himsclt : 
" No historical facts are better ascertained than the accounts of them which are to be found lu 

Wodrow. In uvcry instance where there has been an opportunity of comparing these accounts 
with the records, and other authentic monuments, they appear to be quite correct." 

Among modern writers of distinguished eminence we have to quote the sentiments of Dr. 
M'Crie, author of the Lives of Knox and IMelville, &c. as stated in a letter to the Kev. Dr. 
Burns:—'* You are too well acquainted with my opinion of Mr. Wodrow's v.duable History of 
the SulVerings of the Church of Scotland, to make it necessary for me to say any thing on that 
liead. It gave me great satisfaction to hear that a new Edition of the work, in a more portable 
form, and at a moderate price, was about to be printed at Glasgow. I have just seen the first 
Number of that edition, and am much pleased with its neatness, and, so far as I have examined 
it, with its correctness. The information that you have agi-eed to superintend the publication, 
is to me all the jdedge which I could desire for the accuracy with which it will be executed. 
Accept of my best thanks for the pleasure I have derived from reading your interesting Memoir 
of the worthy Author, which, together with the selections from his original Letters, must 
prove an acceptable and most appropriate addition to the work. 

"Edinburgh, 26th March, 182S." 

We have also been favoured with the following testimony from the Rev. Dr. Cook, the 
eminent historian of the ' Reformation,' and of the 'Church of Scotland:' — " From a very 
careful examination of Wodrov/'s History of the Sufferings of the Chm'ch of Scotland, to 
which I was led in the prosecution of my own historical researches, I can, with confidence, 
state, that it is a most valuable work. It comprehends a period deeply interesting; and the 
industrious and highly intelligent Author has not only, with great clearness, and often with 
much feeling, detailed the sad events which it wiis his province to record ; but he has collected 
an immense number of precious documents which are now nowhere else to be found, and which 
throw great light upon the opinions and manners of the age with which they are connected. 
As the work had become so scarce as to be inaccessible to the generality of readers, the 
republication of it is, iu my opinion, an essential service to the Public. 

« 28th February, 1S28." 

We shall close this series of testimonies with one which has been politely presented to us 
by the Rev. James Kidd, D. D. Professor of Oriental Languages in Marisehd College, Aber- 
deen: " The interval from 1660 till 16S8 is not exceeded in interest by any other in the Annals 

of our country. The public aifairs of this period, both in Church and State, are the most 
momentous that Scotland ever saw. To the struggles of our Protestant forefathers, during this 
time, we owe almost all the liberty and light which we now enjoy ; while the ruinous tendency 
of the interference of wicked men with the affairs of the Church of Christ appears very evident, 
in the conduct of the rulers of Britain in those eventful times. 

" Wodrow, the distinguished Historian of this period, is pre-eminently careful in search of 
truth, wherever it can be found; he writes like a man who witnessed every circumstance %vhich 
he relates, and his descriptions are given with singiilar accuracy and unadorned simplicity. 
The subtilty and perfidiousness of Archbishop Sharp are related with a plainness that indicates 
neither hatred nor asperity on the part of the writer; while the tale is so recorded, as to 
awaken all the sympithies of the reader's heart for the hapless victims of persecution. Indeed, 
were there nothing to resommend Wodrov/s History but his description of the behaviour of 
the Marquis of Argyle and the Rev. Mr. James Guthrie, the Work ought to be possessed 
and read by every true Presbyterian, and by all to whom the memory of the covenanted 
cause is dear. 

" Such are the subjects which comprise the records of this interesting History. The edition 
now offered to the public is the cheapest ever published, and I account it a pjivilege to 
recommend to my fellow-citizens and countrymen this faithful Narrative of the Sufferings 

of the Church of Scotland. 

" Aberdeen, January 25th, 1S2S." 

We hope the plates in this edition will be considered as a valuable appendage. They are all 
derived from the most authentic sources, and are executed in the best style. We have been 
exceedingly anxious to obtain a true portrait of the historian himself; but after a laborious 
search among the descendants of his family still in Scotland, we have been disappointed in our 
wishes. It is not impossible that such a thing may be in the possession of those descendants of 
the family now in America and who have been written to on that point ; if so, our readers 
shall be favoured with it so soon as it reaches us. 

Glasgow, May 20th, 1828. 






shed.' 2n^ Jfihaac. FuUerun t C^ &Us^Dti: t JFi/SartBr^. ic C Iduil'woTi.. 1S27 



After a sho) t view of the public resolutions in 1650, a Narrative of General Monk's tnanagement after 
/(?■« departure from Scotland, an Account of the steps taken for the King's restoration, his Majesty's 
return, and what was done in relation to the Church of Scotland, till the meeting of the Committee of 
Estates in August, 1660.— Collected from original letters of Mr. James Sharp, afterward Archbishop 
of St. Andrews, the Reverend Mr. Robert Douglas, and other Presbyterian Ministers, this year. 

One of the blackest periods of the history 
of the church of Scotland being fallen to my 
share, it would not be out of the road, if I 
should continue the thread of our ecclesi- 
astical history, from the demise of king James 
VI. where our printed historians end, to the 
restoration of king Charles II. where my 
attempt begins, and do somewhat to fill up 
that blank. Indeed several important me- 
moirs and written accounts of that remark- 
able period, in my hands, with not a few 
original papers of that time, would afford 
me matter enough for such an introductory 
essay; but it is enough for me to venture 
upon the twenty-eight years following ; there- 
fore I choose rather to communicate any 
thing of this nature, in my small collections, 
as to our history, to my worthy friends who 
have that part among their hands, and can 
manage them much better than I can pretend 
to. I shall here, then, very much confine 
myself to the year wherein the public im- 
prisonments, and other hardships upon pres- 
byterian ministers, gentlemen, and noblemen, 
began. If once I had remarked, that when 
matters were going smoothly on after king 
James's death, the tory high-flying Laudean 
faction, whose successors, headed by chan- 
cellor Hyde, put king Charles II. upon all 
the heights he ran to in England, and the 
encroachments he made upon the church 
and state constitution in Scotland ; that 

violent party, I say, put king Charles I. upon 
palming books and bishops, and other inno- 
vations upon us here. This issued in the 
strange turn affairs took, at our second and 
glorious reformation in 1638, when this 
church was again settled upon her own base, 
and the rights she claimed from the time of 
the reformation, were restored, so that she 
became " fair as the moou, clear as the sun, 
and terrible as an army with banners." It 
is hard to manage a full cup, and I shall not 
take upon me to defend every step in that 
happy period ; the worst step I can observe, 
was their unhappy and unchristian divisions 
upon the head of the public resolutions. 
And because in the following period, there 
will be occasion to mention those resolutions 
several times, I shall give a view of the 
matter of fact relating to them, as succinctly 
as I can, without dipping at all into the un- 
happy debates on either side. 

When king Charles II. was, in the year 
1649, invited home, upon settling the con- 
ditions of government, or claim of right, and 
he had taken the national covenant as ex- 
plained, together with the solemn league, and 
was thereupon solemnly crowned at Scone ; 
a considerable number of noblemen and 
gentlemen, complained of the hardships put 
upon them, who were his father's friends, 
and, as they alleged, well disposed to his 
majesty, in their being excluded from the 


army and judicatories, l)y the act of classes, 
and other laws now made. But although 
the king did reckon a good many of them 
well disposed for his sei-vice, and fit enough 
to maintain and extend the prerogative ; yet 
these people, now called malignants, and 
very justly, from their violent opposition to 
the liberties and rights, civil and ecclesi- 
astical of the church and kingdom, were 
suspected by such as had all along appeared 
firm far our reformation in the chm-ch, and 
a limited management in the state; and 
those apprehended the other would soon 
possess the king's ear, and lead him to such 
measures, as would overturn all that had 
been done since the year 1638, and therefore 
for some time, they opposed their coming 
in. But the king soon fell upon measures 
to divide these who had the management at 
his accession, and to gain a majority for 
taking off the former restrictions, and to let 
his friends come into the array and judica- 
tories, under some conditions that were 
never kept. The church, whose judgment, 
as to sin and duty in public matters, was 
now much regarded, must next be gained 
to make some declarations in favour of this 
design ; and, as it always fares with church- 
men, when they side into parties, according 
to the different factions of poUticians, and 
go beyond theu- line to please great men, 
they split, according to the two diiFerent 
parties at court ; whereas hitherto they had 
been most united and harmonious. 

The English had invaded the kingdom, 
and obtained a victory at Dunbar. This 
occasion was improved, to push the taking 
off restraints, lying upon those who were 
reckoned the king's friends, though they had 
opposed the work of reformation since the 
year 1637, in their admittance to the army 
and judicatories, while a part of them are up 
in rebellion in the north. Accordingly the 
king published an indemnity, and wrote to 
the committee of estates, and commission 
of the kirk, that these men might be in- 
trusted and employed. This was then re- 
fused. The defeat at Hamilton falling out 
soon after, that was made a new argiunent 
for admitting of malignants; and it was 
urged, that the standing forces were too 
v.i.'ak for defending the kingdom against the 


enemy, unless the whole fencible men* with- 
out distinction, were raised. And the mo- 
derator of the commission was importuned 
by letters from the king, now at Perth, where 
the parliament then sat, to call a commissioa 
pro re nata, to give their judgment in this 
matter. The ministers against the resolu- 
tions, allege, that many members were not 
advertised, that the diet was so short, the 
members could not come up. A quorum of 
the commission met at Perth, where the 
parliament put the following question to 
them in cunning enough terms. " What 
persons are to be admitted to rise in arms, 
and to join \vith the forces of the kingdom, 
and in what capacity, for defence thereof, 
against the armies of the sectaries, who, 
contrary to the solemn league and covenant 
and treaties, have most unjustly invaded, 
and are destroying the kingdom ? The 
commission of the General Assembly, De- 
cember 14th, 1650, gave the following 
answer : — " In this case of so great and 
evident necessity, we cannot be against the 
raising of all fencible persons in the land, 
and permitting them to fight against this 
enemy, for defence of the kingdom ; except- 
ing such as are excommunicated, forfeited, 
notoriously pi'ofane or flagitious, or such as 
have been from the beginning, or continue 
still, and are at this time, obstinate, and pro- 
fessed enemies, and opposers of the covenant 
and cause of God. And for the capacity of 
acting, that the estates of parliament ought 
to have, as we hope they will have, special 
care, that in this so general a concurrence of 
all the people of the kingdom, none be put 
in such trust and power, as may be preju- 
dicial to the cause of God ; and that such 
officers as are of kno^vn integrity and affec- 
tion to the cause, and particularly such as 
have suffered in our former armies, may be 
taken special notice of." 

As soon as this answer was given, the 
parliament in their act of levy, did nominate 
some of the most considerable of those 
reckoned formerly maUgnants, who had been 
excluded from the renewing the covenant, 
places of trust, and even access to sacraments, 

i. e. jMeu able to brar arajs. 

for their opposition to tiie work of reforma- 
tion; and more than half of the colonels of this 
sort, and some of the general officers, and 
great numbers of the soldiers, were such as 
had been with Montrose, and M'Donald. 
In short, the bulk of the officers and army, 
had been either involved in the engagement, 
or in some respect or other, had opposed the 
work of reformation, since the year 1638. 
Many ministers being dissatisfied at those 
resolutions and actings, a good many pres- 
byteries signified their dissatisfaction with 
such courses and resolutions, pai'ticularly 
those of Stirhng and Aberdeen. Upon this, 
the commission did, January 7th, publish a 
warning and large answer to the letter from 
the presbytery of Stirling, in which they \in- 
dicated their answer to the parliament's 
query, which increased the contention, drew 
forth new answers and replies, and the 
flame rising, the opposers of the answer to 
the query were branded with the character 
of malignants. All ministers and preachers, 
were by the commission discharged to speak 
or write against these resolutions, and an 
act was made, ordaining presbyteries to pro- 
ceed with the censures of the kirk against 
such as did oppose the resolutions ; and in 
May, the commission transmitted the copy 
of another act to presbyteries, ordaining such 
who opposed the resolutions, to be cited to 
the next assembly at St. Andrews, by which 
a good many, who opposed the resolutions, 
were kept from being members of that 
assembly. To give the whole of this matter 
together, though the former answer to the 
query, and what followed upon it, be strictly 
called the resolutions, and the ministers 
who approved this answer, the brethren for 
the public resolutions, and the opposers of 
this way, antiresolutioners and protesters; 
yet the gentlemen, who by these methods, 
were got into the army, did not stop here, 
but pushed their design to get into judica- 
tories, from which they were excluded by 
the acts of classes, 164G, and 1649, which 
debarred such as had joined Montrose, and 
were in the engagement, from public offices 
of tmst, and in short, all malignants. In 
order to get this act of classes rescinded, 
the king and estates of i)arliament, proposed 
to, the commission of the kirk the following 


query. " Whether or not it be sinful and 
unlawful, for the more effectual prosecution 
of the pubhc resolutions, for the defence of 
the cause of the king and the kingdom, to 
admit such to be members of the committee 
of estates, who are now debarred from the 
public trust, they being such as have satisfied 
the kii-k for the offence, for which they were 
excluded, and are since admitted to enter 
into covenant with us ?" 

The commission, upon some considera- 
tions, found it proper at first to delay giving 
an answer ; but upon the 3d of April, the 
moderator received a letter from the king 
and parliament, earnestly desiring a meeting 
of the commission to be called at Perth, the 
17th of April, 1651. " That after a due 
consideration of the acts and declarations 
emitted by the church, and the other grounds 
contained in the narrative of the acts of 
classes, in so far as conscience can be con- 
cerned therein, his majesty and pai'liament 
have a positive answer, not only to the query 
in the terms wherein it was propounded, but 
likewise their clear and dehberate judgment 
and resolutions, if it be sinful and unlawful 
to repeal and rescind the act of classes :" 
and upon the 23d of April, another letter 
came to the commission, much to the same 
purpose. To both, the commission, afiter 
some previous cautions, gave this answer. 
" As for the solemn league and covenant, 
the solemn acknowledgment and engage- 
ment, and former declarations emitted by 
this church, (which are set down as grounds 
in the narrative of the act of classes,) we 
do find they do not particularly determine 
any definite measure of time, of excluding 
persons from places of trust for bypast 
offences ; but only bind and oblige accord- 
ingly to punish offenders, as the degi-ee of 
their offences shall require or deserve, or 
the supreme judicatories of the kingdom, or 
others having power from them for that 
effect, shall judge convenient, to purge all 
judicatories, and places of power and ti-ust, 
and to endeavour that they may consist of, 
and be filled with such men, as are of knov/n 
good affection to the cause of God, and of a 
blameless and christian conversation, (which 
is a moral duty conmianded in the word of 
God, and of perpetual obligation ; so that 


nothing upon the account of those grounds 
doth hinder, but that persons formerly de- 
barred from places of power and trust for 
their offences, may be admitted to be members 
of the committee of estates, and the censures 
inflicted upon them by the act of classes, 
may be taken off and rescinded without sin, 
by the parliament, in whose power it is to 
lengthen or shorten the time of those 
censures, according as they shall find just 
and necessary) providing they be men who 
have satisfied the ku'k for their offences, 
have renewed and taken the covenant, and 
be qualified for such places according to the 
qualifications required in the word of God, 
and expressed in the solemn acknowledgment 
and engagement," &c. As soon as the court 
had this return, the parliament rescinded the 
act of classes in all its articles, by which 
great numbers formerly excluded, were 
brought into parliament, and nominate as 
members of the committee of estates, and 
made capable of places of trust. And in a 
little time, the malignant party, at least the 
bulk of them, were admitted to the chief 
places of trust, and got the management of 
all into their hand. 

The General Assembly met at St. Andrews 
in July, where the brethren against the reso- 
lutions, protested. against the lawfulness and 
freedom of the assembly. Three of the sub- 
scribers were, after citation, deposed, and 
one suspended, and the actings of the com- 
mission anproven. The same heats con- 
tinued in the next assembly, 1652; and 
when Cromwell had effectually prevented 
the meeting of any more assemblies, and the 
debates had been carried on in synods and 
presbyteries, and in print before the world, 
at length, in 1655, and 1656, conferences 
were agreed on for union, and the matter 
was carried to London, before the usurper. 
At length some sort of union was made up 
in most synods and presbyteries after Crom- 
well's death ; and things went pretty smooth, 
till the king, upon his return, declared his 
displeasure with the opposers of the resolu- 
tions, and some of them were first fallen 
upon ; and in a little time, the whole honest 
presbyterian ministers were struck at, and 
sent to the furnace to unite them. 

Having premised this, I come now to 

hand myself and the reader into the begin- 
ning of our direct persecution, August, 1660, 
by giving a short view of matters from the 
time of general Monk's leaving Scotland, till 
the meeting of the committee of estates, 
where I will have occasion to take notice of 
several matters of fact both in Scotland and 
England, as to the restoration of the king, 
which I have not met with any where else 
but in the letters before me, which are 
mostly betwixt Mr. James Sharp and Mr. 
Robert Douglas, and some from Mr. Sharp 
to Mr. John Smith, one of the ministers of 
Edinburgh, and others. From the very 
words of those letters, (which shall be 
marked thus ") I shall endeavour to form an 
account of the great tiu"n of affairs this year, 
whereby the reader will have most plain 
evidences of the reverend Mr. Douglas, 
and the rest, their integrity and faithfulness, 
and discoveries how careful they were to 
preserve our valuable constitution upon the 
king's return ; and as sensible proofs of Mi-. 
Sharp's juggling, prevarication, and betraying 
the church of Scotland, and his treachery to 
the worthy ministers who intrusted him. 
The reader is entirely indebted to the rev- 
erend and worthy Mr. Alexander Douglas, 
minister of the gospel at Logie, for what is 
.in those letters, which in a most obliging 
manner he communicated to me, with a short 
narrative of the re-introduction of episcopacy, 
writ by his venerable father Mr. Robert 
Douglas, of which I shall make some use in 
the following histoiy. 

In November, 1659, general Monk left 
Edinburgh, where he had been since the 
usurper's reduction of Scotland, and by 
slow marches reached London in January, 
and soon gave a turn to public affairs in 
favour of the king's restoration. It appears 
very probable to me, that he was encouraged 
secretly by Mr. Robert Douglas ; but I come 
to the matters of fact in the letters, which I 
exhibit according to their dates. 
, January 10th, Mr. David Dickson and Mr. 
Robert Douglas, in their letter to general 
Monk, signify their entire confidence in him 
as to the affairs of Scotland, and the neces- 
sity of one from them to be near his person, 
to put him in mind of what is necessary, and 
acquaint them witli the state of things ; and 


they ask liis pass for I\Ir. Jiuncs Sharp. 
Before the receipt of theirs, the general 
ordered Mr. auditor Thomson to write from 
York to Mr. Sharp; and in his name he, 
(January loth,) desires Mr. Sharp "to 
undertake a winter journey, and come to 
him at London with all speed; defers the 
communicating the reasons till he be there, 
wishes he may communicate this with Mr. 
Douglas only, because the general does not 
desire this to be made too public." And Jan- 
uary IGth, the general himself writes a letter 
from Ferry-bridge to Messrs. Dickson and 
Douglas in the following words. 

" I received yours of the 10th instant, 
and do assure you, the Avelfare of your 
church shall be a great ptu't of my care, and 
that you shall not be more ready to pro- 
pound, than I shall be to promote any rea- 
sonable thing that may be for the advantage 
thereof: and to that end I have herewith 
sent you, according to your desu-e, a pass 
for Mr. Sharp, who the sooner he comes to 
me, the more welcome he shall be, because 
he will give me an opportunity to show how 
much I am a well-wisher to your church 
and to yourselves. 

A very humble Servant, 

George Monk." 

Upon the Gth of February several minis- 
ters met at Edinburgh, and agreed to send 
up Mr. Shai'p with instructions to this effect, 
that he endeavoiu- that the church may enjoy 
her privileges, that he testify against the late 
sinful toleration, that he essay to get the 
abuses of vacant stipends rectified, that min- 
isters may have the benefit of the act abolish- 
ing patronages ; and, that in case any commis- 
sion be granted for settling ministers' stipends, 
he endeavour to have it in good hands, which 
I have annexed.* At the same time they 

• Instructions to Mr. Sharp, from Messrs. 
David Uickson, Robert Doiij^las, James Wood, 
John Smith, George Hutchison, and Andrew 
Ker, February fith, 1660. 

1. You are to use your utmost endeavours that 
the kirk of Scotland may, without interruption 
or encroachment, enjoy the freedom and privi- 
leges of hi-r establishe<l judicatures, ratified by 
the laws of the land. 

2. Whereas, by the lax toleration which is 
established, a door is opened to <a very many 
gross errors, and loose practices in this church ; 
you shall thefcfore use all lawful and prudent 


[Write to general Monk, and "recommend 
Mr. Sharp to him, as one whom they havo 
instructed, and who is to comnmnicate his 
instructions with his lordship, and they have 
sent him up to prevent any bad impressions 
that may be given of them at London. 
They add, tliat though it be not their way 
to intermeddle with civil afiturs, yet the mis- 
eries of the sinking nation, make tliem hum- 
bly request his lordship may endeavom- to 
ease them of their grievances." By another 
letter they recommend Mr. Sharp to colonel 
Wetham ; and by a third, to Messrs. Calamy 
and Ash, to be communicate with Messrs. 
Manton and Cowper, and any others they 
think fit ; wherein they desu-e them to be 
assisting to him in the management of his 
trust, for the best advantage of this afflicted 

Mr. Sharp's first letter, of February Hth, 
takes notice of his arrival at London the 
1 3th, his kind reception by Mr. Manton, 
who signified to him the large character the 
general gave of the ministers in Scotland, 
and Mr. Douglas in particular ; " that he had 
immediate access to the general, who recom- 

means to represent the sinfulness and ofTensivc- 
ness thereof, that it may be timeously remedied. 
3. You are to represent the prejudice this 
church doth sutler by the intervening of the 
vaking stipends,* which by law were dedicated 
to pious uses; and seriously endeavour, that, 
hereafter vaking stipends may be intromitted 
with by presbyteries, and such as shall be war- 
ranted by them, and no others, to be disposed of 
and applied to pious uses, by presb)'teries, accord- 
ing to the 20th act of the parliament, IGiA-. 

i. You are to endeavour that ministers, law- 
fully called and admitted by presbyteries to the 
ministry, may have the benefit of the 39th act 
of the parliament, intituled, act anent abolishing 
patronages, for obtaining summarily, upon the 
act of their admission, decreet, and letters con- 
form, and other executoriuls, to the effect they 
may get the right and possession of their sti- 
pends, and otlier benefits, without any other 
address or trouble. 

If you find that there will be any commission 
appointed in this nation, for settling and aug- 
menting of ministers' stipends, then you are to 
use your utmost endeavours to liave faithful 
men, w^ell affected to the interests of Clu'ist in 
this Church, employed therein. 

David Dickson. 

Mr. Roukkt Douglas. 

Mr. Jajies Wood. 

Mr. John Smith. 

Mr. George Hutchison, 

Mr. Andrew Kkk. 
• 1 he stipends of vacant parishes. 


mended him to Sir Anthony Aslily Cowpcr, restored, to the joy of all honest people 
and JNIr. Weaver, two parliament men. He 
adds, that the city, who, two days ago, were 
much saddened by the unhandsome act put 
upon the general, with a design to bring him 
into an odium with the city, is now mightily 
pleased, with the general's letter to the par- 

Upon the 16tli of February, the general 
sends an answer to w-hat was written to him 
with Mr. Sharp, importing, " that Mr. Sharp 
is dear to him as his good friend, but much 
more having their recommendation, and he 
cannot but receive him as a minister of 
Christ, and a messenger of his church ; that 
he \vill improve his interest to his utmost 
for the preservation of the rights of the 
church of Scotland, and their afflicted coun- 
try, which he loves, and had great kindness 
from ; that it shall be his care, that the gos- 
pel ordinances, and privileges of God's people 
may be established both here and with them. 
He seeks their prayers for God's blessing 
upon their counsels and undertakings, en- 
treats them to promove the peace and settle- 
ment of the nations, and do what in them 
lies to compose men's spirits, that with 
patience the fruit of hopes and prayers may 
be reaped ; and assures them he will be care- 
ful to preserve their profession in the hon- 
om" they so much deserve." 

Mr. Douglas, February 23d, "acquaints 
Mr. Sharp with the receipt of his and the 
general's letters, desires he may mind what 
he spoke about the lords Crawford and 
Lauderdale, and promises to write about 
them to the general, if need be : he desires 
Mr. Sharp to encourage the general in his 
great work, for the good of religion, and 
peace of the three nations, through all the 
difficulties he may meet with. He adds, 
you yourself know what have been my 
thoughts from the beginning of this under- 
taking, which I have signified to himself; 
though I was sparing to venture my opinion 
in ticklish matters, yet I looked upon him 
as called of God in a strait, to put a check 
to those who would have run down all our 

" By a letter from London, February 21st, 
Mr. Sharp signifies to Mr. Douglas, that the 
secluded members of the long parliament are 

that he is satisfied he is come up, smce that, 
though little can be done at present for the 
cause we own, eiFectually, yet one from the 
church of Scotland bears a construction that 
will be for the reputation of the church. 
He says, friends are satisfied with our late 
proceedings with Monk, and bless God we 
were not wanting in such a juncture ; that 
on Saturday he had a private conference 
with the general, and so far sounded him as 
he got encouragement for some of the most 
eminent secluded members to apply to him. 
Upon Monday, four of them sent him with 
some propositions to the general, to which 
he brought them a satisfying return. He 
adds, that ministers and good people look 
upon it as the only expedient for securing 
religion, and dashing the designs both of 
cavaliers and sectaries, that the secluded 
members be restored, rather than that a par- 
liament should be called with qualifications 
which would only tend to the securing of 
the interest of the rump, which is now the 
third time the derision and scorn of all men : 
that with no small difficulty the general was 
brought to admit the secluded members, 
which was kept very close till this morning. 
Yesterday the rump voted their seclusion, and 
this morning the secluded members entered 
the house with the acclamations of the 
people, seventy-three in number to eighteen 
of the rump. Mr. Manton was called to 
pray to them ; and they made void all done 
against them these eleven years, appointed 
the general commander in chief of the forces 
of the three nations, took off the imprison- 
ment of the committed citizens, and liberate 
Sir George Booth : that they are to appoint 
a council of state to sit till the Parliament 
be called, April 20th. After fom- or five 
days they design to dissolve themselves, and 
so make void the title and clami of the long 
parliament: that tiie general, in his speech, 
declares for presbyterian government not 
rigid, and hath writ to the officers of the 
army : that both contain expressions which 
will not be pleasing, but the present neces- 
sity of affairs causeth some to put a fair 
construction upon them. Once more the 
public cause of those nations is like to be in 
honour, fanatic fury quelled, the expectations 


of all sober men raised, and Scotland some- 
what better reputed. In this great turn 
providence is remarkably seen. The rump 
intended to bottom themselves upon the 
sectarian interest, and are now dashed upon 
that account, and the almost dying hopes of 
God's people revived. Mr. Shai'p desires to 
be recalled, since nothing can be done till 
the parliament sit ; and the general told him, 
nothing could be done, till there be a full 
house, as to his instructions. He adds, that 
'tis surmised by some, that before those who 
now sit, rise, somewhat will be started con- 
cerning the covenant, others think it will 
not be yet time ; but however (says he) the 
public covenanted interest, and om* concern- 
ment in it, ought not to be neglected. I 
hope this week oar noble prisoners will be 
released, and I am next day or Thursday to 
pay them a visit." 

" In answer to tiiis. Mi'. Douglas writes to 
Mr. Sharp, February 28th, and signifies, that 
he may be sure it soundeth harsh in the ears 
of all honest and understanding men, to 
hear presbytery, the ordinance of Jesus 
Christ, reflected upon by the epithet of 
rigidity. We confess (adds he) rigidity may 
be fault of men, and may be the fault of 
those among ourselves, who weakened the 
unity and authority of this kirk; but the 
faults of men ought not to be charged upon 
the ordinance of God, nor upon others who 
have disallowed and disavowed those actings. 
I still entertain hopes that presbyterial gov- 
ernment will be better known to be well 
consistent with, and helpful to the govern- 
ment of the state. And as to his return, 
leaves it to himself, with the advice of the 

Upon March 1st, Mr. Douglas writes to 
general Monk, thanking him for his kind 
reception of Mr. Sharp, and encouraging him 
to go on in the great work he had among his 
hands. He adds, " I have been very much 
satisfied from time to time, to hear what good 
opinion your lordship entertained of presby- 
terial government ; and I am confident you 
shall never have just cause to think other- 
wise of it. There is no government so good 
in itself, but it may be abused by the cor- 
ruptions of men ; yet the faults of persons 
are not to be fi.^ed upon the government, nor 

acTioN. 7 

ought it to be rejected because of the rigid 
miscarriages of some, whose irregular actings 
have been hateful to tme presbyterians, as 
the issue of men's corruptions, and not the 
genuine fruit of the government. It is a bles- 
sed mean appointed of God for the preser- 
vation of truth and verity in the kirk, and 
singularly useful to preserve and press obe- 
dience to magistracy. It was no small con- 
tentment to all here, when we heard of your 
lordship's grave advice for abstaining from 
multiplying oaths and engagements, as a way 
to attain sooner unto settlement. Honest 
men will follow their duty without such en- 
gagements; and they who fear not an oath, 
will be forward enough to take it when it is 
imposed, and as forward to break it when 
occasion is offered. Determinations will be 
without doubt, more kindly entertained, and 
bear the more weight with men, when they 
are kno\iTi to flow, not from an imposed 
constraint,but from an unconstrained freedom 
and inclination, bottomed upon conscience 
and right reason." 

Mr. Sharp's letter of March 1st, to TnL*. 
Douglas, apologizes for his so seldom writing, 
and signifies he is so much engaged in 
business, that ho is deprived of his rest ; that 
people obsemng the great countenance the 
lord general gives him, press him so, that he 
is forced to abandon his chamber all the day, 
and much of the night; that he declines 
altogether meddling in the business of pai- 
ticular persons ; that though little is yet 
done to the church and nation, yet his being 
at London, hath not been useless as to the 
public cause : " That the cavaliers point him 
out as the Scottish presbyter, who stickled 
to bring in the secluded members, to undo 
all by the presbyterian empire ; that before 
the admission of the secluded members he 
had spoke to the general concerning the 
Windsor prisoners, and signified his com- 
mission fi"om Mr. Douglas so to do; and 
after pressing the vote of the house relating 
to them he went to Windsor, and advised 
their vvriting to the general, and carried their 
letter, which he promised to answer; and 
every day since, he had been with some of 
the most considerable of the house, who 
have promised to move effectually for their 
coming to London, which will be speedily ; 


tluit , the general tells hiin, his 
London, is of use to him ; that the house 
hath yet a fortnight to sit, and have resolved 
to spend the first hour every day about 
settling religion, and the rest of their time 
upon settling the militia; that the city 
ministers have offered some desires to be 
made use of by some members of the house, 
a copy of which he sends. He adds, that 
worthy Mr. Ash tells him, that tliree months 
ago, when the commissioners came down to 
general Monk, he wrote to you, (Mr. 
Douglas,) by one of them, which it seems, 
was not delivered ; that in the letter, I (Mr. 
Sharp,) wrote to Lauderdale about that 
time, I had this expression, that he might be 
confident general Monk would be for a good 
parliament. Upon this, he (Lauderdale,) 
sent to Messrs. Calamy, Ash, and Taylor, 
which encouraged the flagging city. He sent 
also to Oxford and elsewhere, which gave 
the first occasion of addresses from the city 
and counties, to the general, for a free par- 

The desires of the city ministers, men- 
tioned in this letter, I have annexed.* They 
are for suppressing papists, for sanctification 


being at house have voted the confession of the 
assembly, to be the doctrine of the church 
of England, except the two chapters about 
church discipline and censures, which are 
remitted to a committee, where 'tis thought, 
they will sleep till the parliament sit. They 
have appointed Dr. Owen to be before them 
on Thursday, in order, as 'tis thought, to 
restore his deanery to Dr. Reynolds. This 
day the house have released our Scots 
prisoners, who have given security to the 
council for their good behaviour, and their 
estates will soon be restored ; that Ireland 
is secured, and all quakers, anabaptists, and 
sectaries banished; that some judges are 
appointed for Scotland, but the parliament 
will not meddle with them. He adds, he is 
in a peck of troubles to get the city ministers 
set about their business. That day a large 
meeting named four of the fa=;test and 
honestest to sit on Monday, and Mr. Sharp 
with them, and afterwards to meet when he 
sees fit. He names five, whom he calls 
warping brethren, and no friends to the 
covenant interest, whom a member of the 
house of commons hath undertaken for ; but 
(says he,) they must not be trusted. He 

of the Sabbath, against the disturbance of adds, I tell what your mind is as to the civil 

ministers, for a conunittee to approve minis- 
ters, for a declaration of adherence to the 
confession, catechisms, directory, and form 
of church government, presented by the late 
assembly, against molestation of ministers, 
and for a national assembly of divines. 

In Ml". Sharp's letter to Mi-. John Smith, 
March 4th, he regrets the death of Mr. Law 
at Edinburgh, and tells him, " That the 

* Desires of the city ministers, February 1660. 
It is liumbly desired, 

1. That there may be a speedy course taken 
against Jesuits, papists, priests, and all popish 

2. That an effectual course also be taken for 
the better sanctification of tlie Sabbath, and to 
prevent the opening of shops by quakers, and 
all other profanation of the Sabbath, and, in 
order thereto, a certain act, bearing date Septem- 
ber 27th, 1651, intituled, an act for relief of reli- 
gious and peaceable people from the rigour of 
former acts of parliament in matters of religion 
(whereby many have taken encouragement to 
neglect the public ordinances) may be considered 
and repealed. 

3. That the disturbance of the ministers, in 
the public worship of God, may be prevented 
and punished. 

4. That certain ministers may be appointed 

business ; and honest people here, who are 
but few, either in the city or house, are of 
one heart with you. The great fear is, that 
the king will come in, and that with him, 
moderate episcopacy, at the least, will take 
place here. The good party are doing what 
they can to keep the covenant interest on 
foot, but I fear there will be much ado to 
have it so. They dare not press the voting 

for the approbation of all ministers who shall be 
admitted into livings, till the next parliament 
take further order. 

3. That they would be pleased to declare, that 
they still own the confession of faith, the cate- 
chisms, directory, and form of church govern- 
ment presented to them bj' the late assembly of 
divines, and approved of by several ordinances 
of pai'liament. 

6. That care may be taken, that godly ordained 
ministers, who are in sequestered livings, may 
not be molested, through the want of some for- 
malities in law .as to their institution. 

7. That they would please to consider what 
may be done in order to the calling of a national 
assembly of divines, to be chosen by the minis- 
ters of tlie respective counties, with due qualifi- 
cations, that so, by the blessing of God upon this 
ordinance, w^e may have hope for the healing of 
our sinful and woful divisions. 



for presbyterian government, lest it bar them 
from being elected next parliament. Our 
friends in the city think it were not amiss, 
that from the nation of Scotland, were 
published a declaration; but I think it not 
yet seasonable. It were good you have your 
thoughts upon it in time, and the intent 
would be, to guard against sectaries upon the 
one hand, and cavaliers upon the other. For 
God's sake take care that our people keep 
themselves quiet, and wait till the Lord give 
a fit opportunity. Matters here are in a very 
ticklish discomposed condition. They say 
Ireland hath sent for the king, but I do not 
believe it." 

March Gth, IVIr. Sharp writes to Mr. 
Douglas; and with reference to the com- 
plaint in his of the 28th of February, upon 
the general's declaring himself to be for pres- 
bytery, but not rigid, he says, " As to the 
reflection upon presbytery, by the epithet of 
rigidity, the carriage of the true friends of 
it hath given sufficient proof of the cause- 
lessness of that aspersion, yet upon all 
occasions you see it doth not fence against 
it. The consistency of it with the civil 
government, seemeth to be clear from the 
present parliament, who, if they sit a little, 
intend to ratify vvhat they enacted about it, 
(in) 1647, though the buzz of some is loud 
enough, No bishop, no king. The house 
yesterday, in their preface to the act own- 
ing the confession of faith as the doctrine of 
the church of England, did mention the 
covenant as one of the grounds upon which 
they were induced to make such an ordin- 
ance: whereupon the motion was stated, 
that the solemn league and covenant should 
be revived, and an order made for printing 
it, and setting it up in all the churches of 
England and Wales, and the doors of the 
parliament house: to which none in the 
house offered to make any contradiction. 
And this day the league and covenant, in 
great Lombard paper, is to be sold in all the 
shops in London. This hath given a great 
alarm to the sectarian party, who centre in 
Lambert, who, refusing to give security for 
keeping the peace, was yesternight laid in 
the Tower ; and they are proceeding against 
others of that party. Waristoun hath been 

the general, that he may have a personal 
protection, payment of his debts, or enjoy 
his places at least. I have declined to 
meddle in it." 

In his postscript to this letter, he tella 
Mr. Douglas, " that Mr. Calamy, INIr. Ash, 
and Mr. Taylor, are honest, and after his 
own heart. They say, I (Mr. Sharp) am 
useful to them ; sure they put me to toil 
enough in speaking to parliament members, 
the general and his officers. Honest men 
are at a stand what to think or do. If this 
parliament rise, and another sit, they con- 
clude we can have no security for religion 
or liberty: the following will bring in the 
king immediately. This cannot sit longer, 
unless a house of lords be called, and this 
the army will not give way to. Most of the 
members have no inclination to sit longer. 
This clashing of parties is like to cast all in 
confusion; and the cavaliers and sectaries 
are waiting their opportunity. All that 
wish well to religion apprehend that if this 
parliament do not continue to sit, the kmg 
must come in without terms, and therefore 
do judge it best to call him in time. I never 
saw England in such a posture. God 
knoweth how to interpose. The papist and 
sectary will join issue, expecting toleration ; 
and the honest partv are like to be swallowed 

Mr. Douglas answers the former, March 
13th, and tells hun, he is refreshed with the 
reviving the league and covenant, (and) 
recommends Mungo Murray to Mr. Sharp's 
counsel and assistance. 

IVIarch 10th, Mr. Sharp signifies that he 
had Mr. Douglas's to himself and the general," 
of March 1, which the general received, and 
said he would make a return. He adds, 
that the general hath much countenanced 
presbyterian ministers, and still professeth 
to be for that way; "that the sectarian 
interest is on the waning hand, and mo- 
derate episcopacy setting up its head ; that 
upon Thursday our noble prisoners were 
liberate upon security to keep the peace, 
and not to return to Scotland without leave 
of council or parliament; that they are 
highly esteemed by the English. He wish- 
eth a commission were immediately sent up 

with me ; his drift is, that I may deal with from Scotland, to Crawford and Lauderdale, 




to act in capacity of commissioners tor the 
kingdom of Scotland. The parliament are 
this night upon settling the militia of tlie 
city and nation, with this proviso, that all 
in it shall own the cause of the parliament 
against the late king to be just. He adds, 
that several parliament men and the lord 
Manchester, think he hath privacy with the 
general, and send him (Mi-. Sharp) to him 
on all occasions, and the general by him 
communicates his mind to his friends in the 
city, and he is employed in all that relates 
to religion, so that he hath scarce any time 
to write; that he had met with reports once 
and again, that you (IMi-. Douglas) Messrs. 
Hutchison, Dickson, Wood, and himself, 
should have said, we could wish to be set- 
tled in a commonwealth way,and were against 
the king's coming in on any terms. Where- 
upon he went to the earl of Manchester, 
lord Wharton, and several parliament men, 
to whom it was buzzed by colonels Wetham 
and Gumble, and flatly contradicted it as a 
slander; declaring that nothing would satisfy 
Scotland but the king on covenant terms, 
and that it was contrary to their mind he 
should be brought in on cavalier terms; 
that he, finding many possessed with the 
belief, that the king, while in Scotland, broke 
all terms, and the engagements he was under 
by treaty, and was vicious, and unclean, and 
a scorner of ordinances, and a discountenan- 
cer of ministers, had detected those great 
lies and malicious forgeries, and declared 
he could not say the king broke to us, and 
that the honest party were well satisfied 
with him ; that by covenant and treaty he 
engaged by all lawful and peaceable ways to 
endeavour uniformity in doctrine, discipline, 
&c. in the three nations. The difficulties, 
adds he, from the army, are overcome ; the 
militia is so settled that general Monk hath 
the absolute power of the armj;^ and the 
agitators and army cannot now stop the 
design on foot. There is no satisfying the 
people without the king ; a treaty with him 
will soon be set on foot. The general and 
leading men in the house are now settled 
in a mutual confidence. The great thing 
now is. Whether this house shall continue or 
dissolve : if they continue, they lose their 
reputation, and will not be able to act for a 

settlement ; if they dissolve, they fear ths 
next parliament will bring in the king, with- 
out security to religion and the public cause. 
But, adds he, I apprehend they must dissolve 
themselves, and set that on foot before the 
sitting of the next pai-liament which will 
secure the honest interest ; however they 
are resolved on that which will upon the 
matter settle presbyterian government. 

To this letter Mi". Douglas answers, March 
loth, and signifies his satisfaction that the 
general supports presbyterian government 
and ministers. He adds, " It is best that 
presbyterian government be settled simply ; 
for we know by experience, that moderate 
episcopacy (what can it be other than 
bishops with cautions) is the next step to 
episcopal tyranny, which will appear very 
soon above board if that ground once be laid. 
You know the old saying, Perpetua dicfatura 
via ad iinperium. Our constant moderators 
was a step to bishops, and they once entered, 
soon broke all caveats." He adds he had 
thoughts of a commission to Crawford and 
Lauderdale three weeks ago, but knows not 
how a meeting shall be got to give it, and to 
add others if necessary. Further, Mr. 
Douglas that same day writes to Mr. Sharp 
about the calumnies cast upon them, and 
says, " The report of their being for a com- 
monwealth is a mere forgery; that they pro- 
fessed any settled government better than 
anarchy, and submitted to providence in 
their present condition ; that it may be they 
were mistaken for some of their brethren the 
protesters, to whom, says he, the king's re- 
turn is matter of terror, because of their 
miscarriages to him. You know, adds he, 
that the judgment of honest men here is, 
for admitting the king upon no other terms 
but covenant terms, wherein religion, the 
liberties of the nation, and his just greatness, 
are best secured; that as to the king he never 
broke, but at the short stai't at St. John- 
stoun, which was occasioned by the remon- 
strance ; that his countenance was favour- 
able to the ministry ; and if Mr. Gillespy and 
others were not so chea-fiilly looked upon 
by him, it was because of their opposing the 
resolutions for the defence of the kirk and 
kingdom against an unjust invasion. As to 
his personal faults, they did not appear to 



them ; that lie heard him say, in reference to 
tlie settling i)resbyterian government in Eng- 
land, that, by advice of parliament, and a 
bvnod of dinnes, he would endeavour the 
uniformity whereunto the league and cove- 
nant engages. All this he oflers to get attest- 
ed, if need be, and wishes a meeting were 
warranted to authorize commissioners to act 
for poor Scotland ; and does not doubt but 
the noble persons he (iNIr. Shai'p) speaks of, 
being prisoners of many prayers, will be cor- 
dial for the good of the kirk and kingdom, 
and not suffer themselves to be deceived 
again, by admitting those to counsels and 
actings who have undone all." And, March 
17th, Mr. Dickson, Mr. Douglas, and Mr. 
Hutchison, write a joint letter to Mr. Sharp, 
vindicating themselves from being for a com- 
monwealth, and meddle with no other parts 
of the letter he wrote. The same day they 
write a letter to general Monk, encouraging 
him to go on, and thanking him for his coun- 

March 13th, ]Mr. Sharp writes to ^Ir. 
Douglas, and tells him, " The house have 
resolved to do nothing in prejudice of what 
passed in favour of religion before the 1648. 
To what before he had said on the covenant, 
he adds. That it was ordered to be read in 
all the churches, once in the month, every 
year; that they have appointed a committee 
for approbation and ordination of ministers ; 
and therein upon the matter have approven 
the directory and form for church govern- 
ment ; that this day Dr. Owen was outed of 
his deanery of Christ's church, Oxon, and 
Dr. Reynolds put in his room ; that the 
house had further ordered, that none suffer 
any more for the sake of the engagement, 
and voted it to be utterly void henceforth. 
By the above named clause in militia act, 
ordering all to declare the parliament's jus- 
tice in their war against the king, they have 
guarded against the cavaliers; and, by their 
adding, that niagistracj' and ministry are or- 
dinances of God, they guard against sectaries 
and levellers. Last Sunday, says he, I went 
to Mr. Calamy's church with our noble pris- 
oners, where Messrs. Calamy and Taylor 
gave public thanks for their liberation. This 
day, the form and order of the king's coro- 
nation, with Mr. Douglas's sermon, and the ! 

speeches made, aie printed, and selling at 
London, printed according to the first edi- 
tion at Aberdeen. He adds, the difficulties 
about sitting or not sitting of this house con- 
tinue ; but sit or not, they will declare for 
king, lords, and commons. The militia is in 
the hand of those who are enemies to a com- 
monwealth, lie adds, that Sunday last, the 
general sent his coach for Messrs. Calamy, 
Ash, and me ; and we had a long conversa- 
tion with him in private ; and convinced him 
a commonwealth was impracticable, and to 
our sense beat him off" that sconce he hath 
hitherto maintained ; and came from him as 
being satisfied of the necessity of dissolving 
this house, and calling a new parliament. 
We urged much upon him, that the presby- 
terian interest he had espoused, was much 
concerned in keeping up this house, and set- 
tling the government on terms; but in regard 
he had so lately declared against the house 
of lords, and continuing of this house, he 
could not do it so reputably. The secluded 
members, though they could outvote the 
rump, yet cannot so well proceed against 
the rumpers in tliis as in another parlia- 

Upon the loth of Maixh, INIr. Sharp 
writes to Mr. Douglas, " that yesterday the 
house passed the bill for approbation of 
ministers, granting this power to one and 
thu'ty ministers, all presbyterian, save three 
or four. This, (says he) in a church con- 
stitute as ours, were not more tolerable than 
Mi-. Patrick's (Gillespy's) parchment; but 
here 'tis looked on as a very advantageous 
act. They have confirmed all ordinances in 
favours of presbyterian government, extend- 
ing them to all counties in England. The 
house will dissoh^e on Saturday or Monday. 
The commonwealth party are now for any 
thing but the king's coming in ; they would 
set up Monk, but he will not be induced to 
it. The caviilicr spirit breaks out very high, 
and is like to overturn all. We scarce see 
how a war can be avoided. The geneiiil is 
confident to carry his point. The popish 
party are at work, and the Jesuit provincial, 
Bradshaw, who came over from Sj)ain to 
Lambert and Vane, with above a hundred 
thousand pounds sterl. is still here, and very 


March 20th, Mr. Douglas writes to Mr. 
Sharp, that he had his of the 13th, and is 
well pleased that the parliament's defensive 
war is vindicated. He says, anarchy and 
tyranny, and likewise contempt of magis- 
tracy, are to be guarded against ; and as hie- 
rarchy hath been the bane of the kirk of 
God, so decrying the ministry, and a lawless 
liberty, hath poisoned the kirk with heresy 
and error. He tells Mi*. Sharp of a meeting of 
the protesters at Edinburgh very unfrequent; 
but that 'tis said they wrote a letter to the 
general in favours of Waristoun. The 
same day Mr. Douglas writes a letter to the 
earl of Crawford, wherein he congratulates 
him on his liberation, and his firm adherence 
through his sufferings to his principles, and 
takes the freedom to tell him and the lord 
Lauderdale, " That on their deliverance they 
will, like wise Scotsmen behind the hand, 
be careful not to suffer themselves to be 
befoolled again by fair pretexts and prom- 
ises, to admit to then* counsels, and public 
employments, men that never loved their 
master, their country, themselves, or the 
cause they owned and suffered for; but by 
their rigidity, and precipitancy, and ambition 
to set up themselves and followers, had ruin- 
ed king, kirk, and country ; and, if re-admit- 
ted, will play the same game over again ; 
' Burnt bairns dread the fire :' and adds. He is 
not against compassion to such as deserved 
the contrary, but would never trust them 
with places. He beseeches them to improve 
their enlargement in a solid settlement of the 
nations, according to our obligations by the 
solemn oaths of God. And he begs his 
lordship and Lauderdale may write down to 
their acquaintances in Scotland, to avoid 
divisions, and leave off their plottings for 
their private interest, and let all give way to 
the public interest of kirk and state." That 
same day a common letter signed by Messrs. 
Dickson, Douglas, Hamilton, Smith, and 
Hutchison, is sent to Crawford, Lauderdale 
and Sinclair, congratulating them on their 

Mr. Sharp writes to Mi*. John Smith, 
March 17th, that yesterday the parliament 
did dissolve themselves, after ihey had issued 
writs for another parliament to meet 25th 
of April. Mr. Sharp seeks to be home, 

and declines coming to be minister of 
Edinburgh. He says, some sudden rupture 
of the sectarian party is feared, and those 
who are against the king's coming in, seem 

March 22d, Mr. Douglas answers Mr. 
Sharp's last of the 17th, and signifies his 
great concern in the new parliament; and 
wishes that the late parliament, in a consist- 
ency with their declarations to the country, 
and promises to the general, could have con- 
tinued sitting. This he takes to have been 
the method that would have brought mat- 
ters to the best issue. And he expects and 
hopes the general, whose honour now is en- 
gaged, will keep all in peace till the parlia- 
ment sit down. He desires Mr. Sharp to 
stay as long as he can be serviceable to the 
general or lords lately released. 

Upon the 12th of March, the lord Broghill, 
colonel Georges governor of Ulster, and 
Mr. John Greig, in name of the presbyte- 
rian ministers of Ulster, write letters to 
Mr. Douglas, with a gentleman, Mr. Ken- 
nedy, whom they send over to reside at 
Edinburgh, desu'ing a close correspondence 
with Scotland, and showing their hearty 
concern for settling religion, and liberty, and 
uniformity in the three nations, in concert 
with general Monk ; and desiring Mi*. Sharp, 
or Mr. Wood, or some trusty friend, to be 
sent over to L'eland, to concert measures 
for the settlement of all those upon righte- 
ous and solid foundations. The 28th of 
March, Mr. Douglas and the ministers of 
Edinburgh write answers to those letters, 
accept of their kind offer, and signify they 
have writ to Mr. Sharp by his brother, 
whom they send up express to London to 
him, as one who is well acquaint with their 
affairs, signifying their desii'e to him, and en- 
treating Mr. Sharp or his brother to come 
over from London to them. How Mr. 
Sharp ordered this affair at London, we 
shall find from the detail of the letters be- 
fore me. 

March 29th, Mr. Douglas writes to Mr. 
Sharp with his brother, that if the general 
be jealous of teland, he needs not acquaint 
him with their desire to him to go thither , 
that they know nothing, but they agree in 
one thing; and leaves it to Mi% Sharp to 



take what course lie tliinks fittest ; and if he 
find that the proposal either feed or breed 
jealousies, the least he can do is, to let my 
lord Broghill understand that the affair was 
communicate to liuii (RL\ Sharp,) and that 
he excuse himself the best way he can. 
Mr. Douglas signifies, he sends him up the 
rude draught of a paper, which might be fit 
to be published at the meeting of the par- 
liament. This paper I insert,* as the sense 

* The judgment of some sober-minded men in 
Scotland, concerning the settlement of the gov- 
ermiiont in the three ncatioiis. 

For the settlement of government, two things 
art^ mainly considerable ; the one is concerning 
tliL- ])o\ver of settling it, the other is concerning 
thi! form of the government to be settled. 

Concerning; the power <if settling government, 
it is in the three respective parliaments of Eng- 
land, Scotland, and IrcJand. It is matter of no 
small contentment to us, that there is a full par- 
liament to meet in England, of whom we have 
tiie confidence that they will do right for them- 
selves; yet we must plead that de jure belongs 
to the three nations to consult and conclude, in 
their respective representatives, that wherein all 
of them are severally concerned ; for quod omnes 
tanrjif, ab omiiihits tractari debet. In which pur- 
pose it may be considered, 1. That England is 
but a part, and their representative doth only 
re])resent that part ; now no part can conclude 
and determine the whole. 2. All the three 
nations have always had their respective par- 
liaments, until the unhappy changes under the 
late usurpation, which hath overthrown the lib- 
erties of all the three nations. 3. If any thing 
be determined by a part, which is not agreeable 
to the mind of the rest, it must be imposed with- 
out a free consent, anil by force ; and this is the 
continuance of tliat very bondage upon others, 
under which both they and we have lien this 
wliile bygone. 4. A greater freedom of expres- 
sion is required in this particular, in so far as 
coni'.erneth Scotland, which is in a ^vorse case 
tliaii any of the other two, because the power 
that is in the other two, by divine providence, 
puts them in a capacity to act for themselves ; 
whereas Scotland is, by same i)owi'r, imped- 
ed from acting toward their own liberty. If 
the force upon the secluded members, tliat hin- 
dered them from acting according to their trust, 
w;is unjust, and was taken off acirording to jus- 
tice, then all the acts of violence thereafter com- 
mitted by these who a<-ted that force, upon these 
who enjoyed their own freedom before, are un- 
just, and cannot, without owning the injustice 
of others, be still continued unto their sad re- 
straint from acting as a free nation. It were to 
be wished that the injustice thereof wen; a little 
better considered, upon which account let it be 
remembered, ]. How \vell Scotland hath de- 
served of England ; for being entreated for, and 
by their commissioners, they took their lives 
in their hand, and hazarded themselves, to de- 
liver their brethren from a fearful threatened 
bondage ; and yet the recompense that they have 
gotten, hath been, to be mijustly invadeJl, and 
many thousands of them killed, starved, impris- 
oned, and removed to the far parts ot^the world : 

of so great a man as Mr. Doagla«, on the 
present juncture of affairs. 

Mr. Shiu-p writes to Mr. Douglas, March 
24th, declining his being called to be minis- 
ter of Edinburgh, and pressing another may 
be pitched upon. In his postscript he ac- 
quaints him, that Lauderdale and he had 
been dealing to stop the English judges 
from coming down till the parliament meet : 
that the English are willing Scotland be as 

unto this matter, the words which the Lord com- 
manded to be spoken before the host of Israel, 
by the prophet Oded, may be well applied, 2 
Chron. xxviii. 9,10,11. " Behold, because the 
Lord God of your fathers was wroth with 
Judah, he hath delivered them into your hand, 
and ye have slain them in a rage that reacheth 
up unto heaven. And now ye purpose to keep 
under the children of Judah and Jerusalem, for 
bond-men and bond-women unto you : but are 
there not with you, even with you, sins against 
till! Lord your God? Now hear me therefore, 
and deliver the captives again, which ye have 
taken captive of your brethren; for the fierce 
wrath of God is upon you." 2. That that unjust 
invasion was never imputed unto the nation of 
England, but unto a party which then and 
thereafter kept England in bondage, as well as 
others; but if now, when the I^ord hath opened 
a door of hope unto them for their own liberty, 
they keep their brethren still in bondage, and do 
not behave themselves toward their oppressed 
brethren, in their speeches to the army, and in 
their actions toward their brethren, as the heads 
of Israel spake and did, 2 Chron. xxviii. 12, 
13, 14., 15. They will add one trespass to another, 
and make it to be a national sin, which will draw 
from the avenging hand of divine justice a na- 
tional judgment. 3. That the bod)' of this nation 
evidenced tlieir Avillingness and readiness to 
hazard themselves unto the utmost, and to lay 
out themselves above their ability, toward the 
])romoting of the generous intentions of general 
Monk, v.-hom the Lord raised up, to put a stop 
unto the violent actings of those that were in a 
way of undoing religion and liberty, and to 
make way for the meeting of a full and free 
parliament. These things, being well weighed 
in the balances of an imjiartial judgment, will 
strongly plead, that Scotland ought to be a 
sharer with England and Ireland, in the settling 
of government. 

Concerning the form of the government, it is 
either civil, or ecclesiastical. 

As to the civil government, it may be sup- 
posed to be intended either in a commonwealth, 
or in a single person. 

The civil government of these three nations 
cannot be settled in a commonwealth for tliese 
reasons. 1. The people of these nations liuve 
been so accustomed unto monarchy, that they 
can hardly put their neck inider another form of 
government. 2. However it be pretended to be 
a commonwealth, yet it is re;illy and in efTect 
but an oligarchy, the carrying on of the interests 
of some t'ew particular persons. 3. Such a 
commonwealth is but introductory to a single 
person, as late experience had made it evident 
in the practice of the protector, who turned 


free a nation as they are ; but the general is 
for keeping us in subjection, till he see how 
matters go in the parHanient : that they 
will essay to delay the instructions and 
commissions to them, as long as may be. 

March 3 1st, IVIr Douglas writes to Mr. 
Sharp, pressing a meeting in Scotland, 
either of shires and burghs, or of a select 
committee, for choosing commissioners to 
deal in these matters that concern Scotland 


in general, and to sec to the nation's inter- 
est. He adds, "he cannot but admire 
God's hand, in moving the late parliament 
to revive the solemn league and covenant, 
which is the only basis of settling these 
distracted nations. The league and cove- 
nant, says he, is hated by many in England 
and Scotland, because it puts a restraint 
upon malignants, the prelatic party, the 
fanatics, and those who ai'e loose and pro- 

tlieir republic unto government of a single per- 
son, viz. of himself. 4. It is held as a maxim 
in the polities, that it is dangerous to change the 
government of a kingdom, so long as there are 
righteous heirs of the crown to plead their right, 
lest the kingdom be continually vexed with new 
wars and broils, and involved iu blood, so often 
as they have will and power to endeavour the 
forcible possession of that which is known to all 
ueighbouiung princes, to be their undoubted 
rigiit. 6. If the settlement of government be 
in a commonwealth, it will necessitate the keep- 
ing up of armies, to impose that form upon tliese 
of the nations, who cannot in conscience give 
w^ay thereto ; and how disadvantageous and dan- 
gerous this is, may be seen. 1. By the vast 
ex[)enses wliich they will draw to, and these 
must be wrung out of the estates of people : a 
taste of this the nations have had these few 
years bygone, wherein there hath been more 
imposed upon the people, than in hundreds of 
years before. 2. What security can be had from 
these armies, but they may act over again what 
the armies before them have lately acted, and 
model the government to their own pleasure, or 
make themselves the rulers of all. 6. A com- 
monwealth, out of a preposterous desire of secur- 
ing civil interests, iiseth to bring witli it no 
small disadvantage to the true reformed religion, 
by toleration of errors and heresies. A sad 
proof of this these nations have had in late times 
under the essays for a commonwealth, wherein 
errors of all sorts, hei'esies and blasphemies have 
abounded, more than they have done in any such 
time since the days of Christ. 7. It se^ms that 
God is not pleased with such a change in these 
nations : for since it began, they have been tossed, 
like a tennis-ball, from hand to hand, without 
any settlement, which hath made the govern- 
ment to be like washing floods, overflowing the 
banks, when once it hath gone out of the right 
channel ; and though men have been framing a 
government upon the wheel, yet the Lord hath 
broken it all, intimating this very thing, that a 
commonwealth is not the foundation wherein 
these nations can safely rest. 

As to the settling of a civil government in a 
single person, reason and conscience plead that 
that single person be the righteous heir of the 
crowns. For, 1. Though the nations were 
necessitate to undertake a lawful defensive war, 
to preserve religion and their civil rights and lib- 
erties, against the bre;iches made upon both, by 
wicked counsellors misleading the father, yet 
since the parliament found reason to have re-ad- 
mitted the king, whereupon by force, so many 
members were secluded, his son who hath never 
acted any thing of that kind, should not be reput- 
ed to be in a worse condition than himself, and 

so rnanifestly injured as to be denied re-admission 
to- his just right. 2. However the father was 
engaged in war against England, yet his son was 
never so engaged, but only against a prevailing 
party which kept England under bondage, and 
kept him under banishment. 3. I'he three 
nations are not at liberty to make choice of any 
single person that they please, but have deter- 
mined themselves in the solemn league and 
covenant, which hath been solemnly sworn in 
them all, professing in the sight of Almighty 
God, that one main end they aim at is the hon- 
our and happiness of the king and his posterity ; 
which was afterward renewed in many declara- 
tions, wherein they profess their integrity and 
sincerity, in pursuing of the war, without any 
prejudice intended to the king's power and 
authority, or his posterity. 4. It is expected, 
that the ensuing parliament (the haj.ipy and 
peaceable meeting whereof is earnestly desired) 
will endeavour to redress the wrongs ^vhich 
themselves and the nation have received, by the 
practices of these that violently oppressed them ; 
and it is no less expected, that they will restore 
persons to tlieir due rights, who were outed of 
them by the same violence which oppressed the 
nation, lest the parliament's injustice, in deny- 
ing Suu7n cuique ti-ibuere, become the sin of the 
nation. Non toUitur peccatum, nisi restituatur 
ablatum. 5. The setting up of the righteous 
heir v/ill secure the nation against the fears of 
invasion from abroad, or insun-ections from 
within, upon the account of any interest to the 
government, and so take away the necessity of 
keeping up standing armies, to the exhausting 
of the country, and endangering of a settled 
government, ti. All the well aii'ected to govern- 
ment in Scotland can give this testimony unto 
him who is righteous heir, that lie v/as faithful in 
his treaties, did countenance the honest ministry, 
and religious duties, and was without any known 
scandal in the coiu-se of his conversation, which 
are qualilications desirable in a single person for 
settling of government. 7. The good hand of 
divine providence doth lead, as it seems, unto 
that single person, by keeping the government 
luisettled initil the sitting of a free parliament, 
by instructing and fitting him for a just and 
moderate government in the si'hool of afllictinn, 
and by mercifully inclining the hearts of the 
body of the people toward him, wiiei'eas for 
a wliile there was an alienation of allection in 
many from that family, that coming out of the 
furnace of aftliction, as a vessel litted for honour- 
able employments, he may be called unto the 
throne by the representative, and heartily em- 
braced by the body of the people. 

Self-seeking men will not want objections 
against the settling of the government in tliis 



fane ; which ought so much the more to 
increase the affections of all honest men to 
it, as the only mean of effecting a religious 
and righteous settlement. He tells INIr. 
Sharp, that there is a great noise of one 
Hardie, who hath preached before the gen- 
eral in the Bab3'lonish f;ishion,and vehement- 
ly cried up the English hierarchy, and the 
rest of the Romish relics that rcnuiined in 
England after the first reformation : which 

way. 1. rurcliascrs of ,crown lands and or" 
other casualities and enioluinents belonging 
tiiereto, oat of fear to be deprived thereof, will 
be great sticklers in opposition to this settlement. 
This objection wore easily answered, if cove- 
tousness were not both unsatiabli; and unreason- 
able. For, 1. The rent of the lands, and other 
things of tliat nature during the j-ears of their 
possession hath equalled, if not exceeded the 
price which they laid forth npoii the piu-chase. 
2. It were most unjust that the three nations 
should sutfer, and be at the expense of keeping 
up armies for maintaining a few private men in 
an imrighteous purchase : the nations had far 
better buy out their purchases than be at the 
expense of maintaining armies. 3. To deny 
him admittance to the crown, that he may not 
be admitted to the possession of his lands, were 
to add sin to sin, and to maintain a lesser sin by 
committing a gi-eater. No man will suffer it to 
enter into his mind that the p;irliament will 
make this their sin. 2. Such as have been 
accessory to the grand injuries dn;is to his father, 
will fear that he prove vindicative against them 
if he should be admitted ; but an act of oblivion 
will secure tiiem, and an act of indemnity will 
secure all others in reference to the actinias of 
these latter times ; and as to the defensive war 
undertaken by the parliaments of the three 
nations, the lawfulness thereof may, and ought 
be declared and secured in law. S. The honest 
and sober party may, upon sinistrous informa- 
tion, be possessed with fears that he shall intnv 
duce an arbitrary government, but his admit- 
tance is not pleaded for upon any terms but 
upon the terms of the league and covenant, 
^vherein all the rights and liberties of the par- 
liaments and people of the three nations respec- 
tively are secured, and which he hath most so- 
lemnly sworn and subscribed in Scotland. 

Whatever other ohji'ction may be moved from 
the fears of men, it may be considered that 
what is incumbent upon the nations, whereunto 
they are obliged before God and men, should be 
done, committing the ordering of contingent 
events to the good and wise providence of the 
Lord of the whole earth. 

For the govei-nment of the kirk in Scotland, 
they are determined unto presbyterial govern- 
ment, as that which Is most agreeable to the 
word of God, being thereto obliged by their 
nationcal covenant and by the solemn league and 
covenant ; and the other two nations are obliged 
by the league and covenant to endeavour the 
presei^-ation of the reformed religion in the 
church of Scotland, in doctrine, worship, dis- 
cipline and government, according to the word 
of God and the example of the best reformed 

is made use of here (Edinburgh) to the 
general's disadvantage." In the postscript 
to this letter, Mr. Douglas urgeth further a 
warrant for a meeting at Edinburgh, to 
choose commissioners to look after the 
nation's interest, and adds, "there is now a 
generation risen up, which have never been 
acquainted with the work of reformation, 
nor with the just proceedings of this nation, 
and therefore would condemn them, the 

churches. 2. For England it is expected from 
the parliament thereof that is shortly to sit, 
that they will ratify the 30th and 31st chapters 
of the Confession of Faith, as well as the late 
p:irrmmeiit hath ratified all the rest of it. 

Though there may be some in England for epis- 
copacy, and some for other forms, yet presbv- 
terial gnvernment ought to be pitched upon, for 
these reasons. — 1. Episcopacy and other forms 
are men's devices, but presbyterial government 
is a divine ordinance. 2. The tliree nations are 
tied by the league and covenant to endeavour 
the extirpation of prelacy, that is, church gov- 
ernment by archbishops, bishops, &c. ; and to 
endeavour the nearest conjunction and uniform.- 
ity, as in religion, Confession of Faith, Directory 
for Worship, and catechising, so in form of 
church government. 3. The maintenance of t!:e 
episcopal iiierarchy requireth huge and vast 
rents, which might be employed to far better 
uses ; more is laid out for the upholding the 
lordly grandeur of one of that hierarcliy, than 
many able, faithful, and laborious ministers of 
the gosp!>l live upon. 4. It is known by sad 
experience in England, that episcopacy hath 
been the inlet unto popery, Arminianism, and 
otlier eiTors which were on foot, and fomented 
by tlicin before the late troubles ; and other 
forms which men have been modelling, have 
brought forth swarms of errors, scliisms, and 
unhappy divisions in these nations ; only pres- 
byterial government being Christ's ordinance, 
stands as a wall and an hedge against all these, 
as Scotland hath tried by experience, in which, 
so long as presbyterial government stood iu 
vigour, no error in doctrine, worship, discipline, 
and government, durst set out the head. 5. 
Presbyterial government doth well agree with 
any lawful civil government, though prosbyteri- 
ans have no reason to be indifferent to any form 
of civil government, since they know what 
good hath been enacted towards the establish- 
ment of preshyterian government in the three 
nations under kingly government ; and it may 
be truly said of it, that in the right exercise 
thereof, it is the best school to teach subjects 
due obedience to the lawful magistrate. It is 
maliciously suggested by the enemies thereof, 
that it is intolerably rigid in the exercise of it, 
which may take with goon people who are 
unacquainted therewith ; for removing whereof 
it may be considered : 1. That the errors of 
men in abusing of this ordinance of God ought 
no more to reflect upon it, than the errors of 
men abusing other divine ordinances ought to 
reflect upon them. 2. Presbyterial government 
hath within itself a suflScient guard ngainst the 
aberrations of men ; for inferior kirk judicatories 


their honest and loyal 

covenant, and all 
actings, according to the covenant principles. 
You will not believe what a heart-hatred 
they bear to the covenant, and how they 
fret that the parliament should have revived 
it, "What can be expected of such, but the 
pursuing of the old malignant design, to the 
marring and defacing of the work of refor- 
mation settled here, and well advanced in 
the neighbouring nations ? I am informed} 
that those arc to have a meeting here on 
the 5th of April, and have no purpose to 
wait upon a waiTant, but go on upon such 
an election, as will be dissatisf}ing to the 
sober and well affected of the nation. 'Tis 

are in their actings liable to the trial and cen- 
sure of the superior judicatories, until it come 
at length to the general assembly, which useth 
to take a course for redressing all abuses, so 
that there is nothing needful but the authority 
of the civil magistr_ate to couutenancfi them in 
their proceedings. 3. It is so far from being 
rigid that all tenderness is used towai'd the 
ignorant to bring them to knowledge, meekness 
toward the restoring of those that are fallen 
through infirmity, painfulnoss to reclaim these 
that are of a ditfei'ent judgment, and patient 
forbearance even toward the obstinate, that, if 
possible, they may be reclaimed before they be 
proceeded against by the highest censure of the 
kirk ; and yet it being a divine ordinance, which 
restrains looseness, profanity, and error, it needs 
not be wondered by men of judgment, that it 
be reckoned as rigid by these who love a law- 
less liberty in opinion and practice. 

Seeing it is now both the desire and hope of 
all honest and sober men, that the Lord, in his 
good providence, will bring the parliament to 
sit in peace and freedom, they would seriously 
consider how much it concerneth them to look 
w^ell unto the building and ordering the house 
of the God of heaven ; for it hath been observed 
by very godly and judicious men, that because 
there was no care taken to settle the affairs of 
the kingdom of Christ, but by a vast toleration, 
a way opened for a flood of errors to enter upon 
the kirk, the Lord justly permitted confusions 
to come upon the state, and made the various 
vicissitudes of state mutations to be the aston- 
ishment and derision of all about. That abomi- 
nation which hath provoked the Lord to jeal- 
ousy must be removed, as they would expect 
God's blessing upon the nation, and upon their 
endeavours for the solid settlement of righteous 

That there is a free parliament to sit in 
England, is a matter of no small comfort, and 
giveth good hope to the well affected in the 
nations ; only it is their earnest desire that it 
may be free indeed, and not as it hath been in 
these late times. To make a free parliament a 
threefold freedom is requisite. 1. That there 
be a freedom in reference to the matters therein 
to be handled ; and in particular, that they be 
not predetermined in that which is the main 

matter of admiration that they are unwilling 
that Crawford and Lauderdale (being upon 
the place, and having given such proofs of 
their honest and loyal affections) should be 
employed in matters of that concernment; 
but those worthy noblemen may be assured 
that the affections of all honest men are 
upon them. There are three parties here, 
who have all of them their own fears in this 
great crisis : the protesters fear that the 
king come in ; those above mentioned, that 
if he come in upon covenant terms, they be 
disappointed; and those who love religion 
and the liberty of the nation, that if he come 
not in upon the terms of the league and 

matter, by the army, or any other in place or 
power, toward the settling of any government 
contrary to the minds and inclinations of the 
bulk of that body which they represent. 2. 
That there be a freedom in thi;ir voicing, with- 
out being overawed. It was thought most 
absurd, and an encroachment upon the freedom 
of pfu-liament, when the king seized upon some 
members of the house ; what shall be then 
thought if a whole parliament should be raised, 
and not permitted to sit? Bui this usage is. 
not to be feared, since it hath pleased the Lord 
in his providence to make my lord general 
instrumentid for their meeting ; it is expected 
that he will also prove vigilant and faithful for 
their peaceable sitting. 3. There is a freedom 
refi^uisite for the subjects to present their desires 
and overtures for the government, that they 
may be more kindly accepted than hath been 
the use in late times, wherein a man hath been 
accounted an offender for a word. The people 
of Scotland have all this while, under the vari- 
ety of changes, lived peaceably, submitting unto 
providence, and do yet in a peaceable way wait 
patiently for relief and enjojinent of their just 
liberties. If they shall happen to be frustrate 
of their expectation, they must in patience pos- 
sess their souls till God appear for them ; but 
better things are hoped for from this parliament, 
which God hath raised up to act for public 
interests and common liberty. It is time in 
their endeavours to settle these distracted 
nations : they will meet with manj' difiiculties ; 
but if all the well affected were to speak unto 
them, they would speak in the words of Azar- 
iah the son of Oded, 2 Chron. xv. spoken to 
Judah in those times, when " there was no peace 
to him that went out, nor to him that came in, 
but great vexations were upon all the inhabi- 
tants of the countries, and nation was destroyed 
of nation, and city of city, for God did vex 
them with all adversity. Be j-e strong there- 
fore, let not j'our hands be weak ; for your work 
shall be rewarded." Upon the hearing of which 
words of Oded, they took courage, reformed 
religion, put away all these things that were 
abominable in the sight of God, and entered 
into a covenant to seek the Lord God of their 
fathers, with all their hearts, and all their 


covenant, his coining in will be tiisiidvanta- 
geous to religion and the liberty of" the three 
nations : therefore I exhort Crawford, Lau- 
derdale, and yourself, to deal Avith all ear- 
nestness, that the league and covenant be 
settled, as the only basis of the security and 
happiness of these nations." 

Upon the 27th of March, INIr. Sharp 
writes to Mr. Douglas, desiring to be 
recalled. He signifies, " that the elections 
ai"e mostly of the royal party, which causeth 
fear of mind among the sober party ; that 
Warriston that day took journey for Scot- 
land. He excuseth the general's letter to 
them, as having some expressions in it not 
so favourable, put in by Gamble, who is 
at the bottom for episcopacy. He tells Mr. 
Douglas, that the printing of his sermon at 
king Charles's coronation, at London, hatli 
offended the episc(Jpal party, wliich doth 
not much matter; that the declaration at 
Dunfermline, bearing the king's acknowledg- 

ment of the blood shed by his father's house, .under the scandal of transgressing known 

is what he knows not how to ex«use; that 
Lauderdale and he endeavour to vindicate 
Scotland's treating with the king upon the 
terms of the covenant, from the necessity 
England now find themselves in, of treating 
with the king upon terms, before his return. 
He adds, some of the episcopal party have 
sent messages to me twice or thrice, to give 
them a meeting, which I have refused ; and 
upon this I am reported, both here and at 


made a stalking 

religion, I suspect il 
horse still." 

April 3d, Mr. Douglas answereth Mr. 
Sharp's last, and signifies, "that if it be 
not offensive to the presbyterians at London, 
he sees no cause but Mr. Sharp might have 
met with some of the prelatic party. Since 
presbyterial government, says he, is settled 
in Scotland, you were not to capitulate 
with them about thatj but it had been 
worth the pains, if you could have, by fair 
dealing, persuaded them not to obstruct the 
settlmg of the ci\il government, and to 
leave the ecclesiastic government to the par- 
liament, who, as it is to be hoped, being men 
of conscience, will find themselves bound to 
settle according to the covenant. You 
might have showed them liliewise how falsely 
presbyterial government is charged with 
rigidity, and with how much meekness and 
long-suffering patience it labours and waits 
for the reclaiming of delinquents that lie 

Brussels, to be a Scottish rigid presbyterian, without the advice and allowance of presby. 

making it my work to have it settled here. 
They sent to desire me to move nothing in 
prejudice of the church of England, and they 
would do nothing in prejudice of oiu: church. 
I bid tell them, it was not my employment 
to move to the prejudice of any party; and 
I thought, did they really mind the peace of 
those churches, they would not start such 
propositions ; but all who pretend for civil 
settlement, would contribute theii* endeav- 
ours to restore it, and not meddle unseason- 
ably with those remote cases. The fear of 
rigid presbytery is talked much of here by 
all parties : but, for my part, I apprehend 
r.o ground for it ; I am afraid that some- 
thing else is like to take place in the church 
than rigid presbytery. This nation is not 
fitted to bear that yoke of Christ; and for 

and unquestionable laws ; whereas the lordly 
dominion of prelacy doth rigidly impose 
laws on men's consciences, about the observ- 
ance of ceremonies, and severely censureth, 
both civilly and ecclesiastically, men who 
out of conscience dare not conform to them : 
so that the challenge of rigidity may be justly 
retorted on episcopacy. Those things you 
might have calmly debated with them ; but 
herein I 'would have you do nothing 

terians, who, bemg upon the place, can best 
judge of the expediency of such a meeting. 
In the postscript to this letter, Mr. Douglas 
again urgeth, that warrants be sent down 
for the choosing commissioners to appear 
from Scotland. He says, Glencairn is much 
for the committee spoken of before ; and he 
wonders the general can forget Scotland's 
ready offers of their service to and with 
him, in his first undertaking, which he hath 
often acknowledged : (and) adds, " I do not 
like that we should be so often put to make 
apologies. Our faith and integrity, both to 
monarchy and presbyterial government, is 
more to be valued than theirs who call them 
in question. It will be strange, if the affec- 
tions of these people be more enlarged to 
those great interests, than ours who have 


heen suHering I'oi them, and were active for 
tJiem, when none of them durst appear. If 
t hey think it be a fault, that we laboured to 
have presbyterial government established 
with them, and were as tender of their con- 
cernments as of our own, they would do 
well to be plain, and show us wherein the 
fault lieth ; for we supposed, that we were 
engaged thereunto by the league and cove- 
nant : if that oath, which was so solemnly 
sworn at the coronation, be left out of the 
form of coronation, it seems purposely 
done, to hide and keep in oblivion the care 
that hath been taken here of their concern- 
ments in England, because they resolve to 
mind nothing of our concernments." 

Mr. Sharp writes to Mr. Douglas, March 
3 1 St, "that there is no fear of any distur- 
bance from the army; and as the general 
declared at first, so he hath laid things 
effectually, that the military power shall 
not maintain a separate interest from the 
civil : that all people he is among are Eng- 
Ushmen, and incline to keep Scotland at 
under, and either incorporate, or make us 
distinct, as they shall find most serviceable 


and, ere three months ended, he would not 
be worth a groat; that he (the general) 
would take care, none of the remonstrants 
should have any trust in Scotland ; that the 
judges were only sent down for the fashion, 
and in a month or two there would be a 
change ; that it was necessity put him on it, 
and a little time would show, it was not for 
Scotland's hurt; that as for sending com- 
missioners from Scotland to the parliament, 
it was neither for our reputation or advan- 
tage ; and that, if we be quiet, our business 
would be done to oiu- mind. He adds, that 
he behoved to stay at London ; that the gen- 
eral had told him, he would communicate 
his mind to him, and none else, as to Scots 
affairs ; and that in civil things he might sig- 
nify his (the general's) judgment to such 
whom he could trust. He adds, that, ac- 
cording to their appointment, they had a 
meeting with ten presbyterian ministers, 
whom they could trust, where Lauderdale, 
they, and he, agreed upon the necessity of 
bringing in the king upon covenant terms, 
and taking off the prejudices that He upon 
some presbyterians against this. There are 

to their interest : that he is of opinion, the \ endeavours for an accommodation between 

king, both in point of honour and interest, 
will restore us, and make us a distinct king- 
dom. No man questions now the king's 
being called in ; that the real presbyterians 
in the city hath desired a meeting with the 
earl of Lauderdale and Mr. Sharp, on Mon- 
day, to concert matters against sectaries 
and cavaliers ; which they design to keep." 

April 5th, Mr. Sharp signifies to Mr. 
Douglas, " that the general was positive that 
he (Mr. Sharp) should not leave him; that 
' a warrant for sending commissioners could 
not be obtained, for reasons to be communi- 
cate to him at Edinburgh; that my lord 
Lauderdale, and the noble prisoners, are 
very useful for their country. In his post- 
script he says, Warriston had applied to him, 
to deal with the general, that he might have 
his oflice, and his debts paid, but I declined ; 
that his wife gives it out, that, had it not 
been for Mr. Sharp, the general would have 

the moderate episcopalian party, and the 
presbyterians ; but, says he, at our meeting, 
Lauderdale and I obtained of those ministers 
that they should not give a meeting to the 
episcopal men, till they first met among 
themselves, and resolved on the terms they 
would stick to. The king is acquainted with 
all proceedings here, and wants not informa- 
tion of the carriage and affection of Scot- 
land. The parliament will address him, some 
say, in hard, others upon honourable terms. 
I see not full ground of hope, that covenant 
terms will be rigidly stuck to. The paper 
you sent me by my brother, anent the settle- 
ment of the government, will be of good use 
to me." — By his letter, April 7th, he signi- 
fies to Mr. Douglas, that all further applica- 
tions for commissioners from Scotland must 
sleep ; and adds, " the Lord having opened a 
fair door of hope, we may look for a settle- 
ment upon the grounds of the covenant, and 

restored him to his office ; but after the thereby a foundation laid for security against 
general heard he was gone, he told me (Mr. the prelatic and fanatic assaults ; but I am 

Sharp) that Warriston would have little 
use of his grant of six hundred pounds. 

dubious if this shall be the result of the agi- 
tations now on foot. The stoify of Hardie's 



preaching before the general, in tlie Babylon- I 
ish habit, is a mere forgery. We intend to 
publish some letters from the French protes- ' 
tant ministers, vindicating the king from po- 
pery, and giving him a large character. The 
sectaries will not be able to do any thing to 
prevent the king's coming in ; our honest 
|)rcsbyterian brethren are cordial for him. 
I have been dealing with some of them to 
send some testimony of their affection for 
him; and yesternight five of them promis- 
ed, within a week to make a shift to send a 
thousand pieces of gold to him. The epis- 
copal party are making applications to the 
presbyterians for an accommodation ; but the 
presbyterians resolve to stick to their prin- 
ciples. I saw a letter this day under " the 
king's hand, exhorting his friends to modera- 
tion, and endeavours for composing differ- 
ences amongst his good people." 

April 1 2th, Mr. Sharp writes to Mr. 
Douglas, that his work is not lessened by 
the interval of parliaments ; that the general 
had left it on Mr. Calaniy and him, to name 
such as should preach before him ; that the 
fanatics will essay their worst on Lambert's 
escape, but the general is on liis guard. " It 
was resolved, adds he, that in this juncture, 
we may speak one by one with any of the 
episcopal party ; and I having told them, that 
some motions had been made to me of speak- 
ing with them, they prayed me not to de- 
cline it. To-morrow I have promised to 
meet with Doctor Morley who came from 
the king. The king is at Breda. The par- 
liament at its first sitting will, " 'tis expected, 
call him in. Some say the sectarian party 
have made application to him, to bring him 
in without terms. The Dutch have offered 
to prepare lodgings, and defray his charges 
during the treaty. The French ambassador 
presses his going to France, but he refuses." 
Again Mr. Sharp writes to Mr. Douglas, 
April 13th, that the elections are mostly of 
antirepublicans ; that Lauderdale and he had 
been visiting Mr. Baxter. The insolencies 
of the cavaliers are so great, that the sober 
part of that name emit declarations against 
them. He adds, "there is some talk that 
for the more reputable settling of the church 
of England, a synod will be called from all 
the reformed Churches. All that were upon^ 

the parliament's side, are gone into the call- 
ing in of the king, and they are now only 
intent upon terras. The general will admit 
of no other way of treaty, but by a parlia- 
ment. The council fearing that the parlia- 
ment may bring him in without sufficient 
security to such who acted in the war against 
his father, are now upon framing proposi- 
tions to pro[)ose to the parliament ; this is 
kept secret, but I am promised a copy when 
they are agreed unto. I continue in my 
opinion, that Scotland should make no ap- 
plications till the king come in. I have re- 
ceived letters from Mr. Bruce at the Hague, 
and the king is satisfied that Scotland keep 
quiet. I have sent yours, and one from my- 
self, to my lord Broghill." 

Mr. Douglas writes to Mi*. Sharp, April 
2 1 St, that commissioners are coming up, 
against his mind, and that of others; yet 
wishes that the general may put respect on 
them; that Gtlencairn is following, and 
wishes there may be a good correspondence 
betwixt him and Lauderdale, and the rest of 
the noble prisoners. He adds, " I am engag- 
ed to believe that he will do any thing that 
may be for the liberty of the nation, and for 
our covenanted interest here, and I have so 
much from him myself; and my only desire 
is, that all who truly mind the nation's 
interest, may not divide, but concur unani- 
mously without by-ends, and self-respects." 

April 19th, Mi-. Sharp writes to ]Mr. 
Douglas, " that the plot of tiie fanatics 
appears to be broke : that a messenger from 
Lambert going to the king is taken, who 
was to assure the king, if he will trust to the 
army Lambert could make, they would 
bring him in without any conditions. Lam- 
bert is sculking, nobody knows where. 
Most of the army have yielded to bring in ' 
the king upon terms. If the cavalier party 
do not drive him on precipitant measures, 
the parliament will bring him in upon terms, 
honourable to himself, and safe to the na- 
tions. Most of the members of parliament 
are thought to be for moderation. I find 
they incline not to put him upon justifying 
the late war. The business of religion will 
be altogether waved in the treaty, and refer- 
red to be settled by a synod. I have cer- 
tain accounts this day, that one Mr. Murray 



* came on Saturday to London from Scotland, 
and went on Monday beyond sea. He told 
some persons here, that he had letters from 
the nobility in Scotland to the king, showing 
they were in readiness to rise for him. This 
is a divisive way, which will prove foolish 
and destructive to the nation, it' persisted in. 
I apprehend the gentleman hath been sent 
by Middleton, and hath brought those sto- 
ries from some of our sweet lords." To this 
last Sir. Douglas answereth, April 24th, 
and tells him, that Mr, Murray came from 
Middleton, and is returned with a general 
answer by the lords; that he believes no 
information that comes that way, will be for 
their concernments, and the bearer can give 
little information of the carriage of honest 
people in Scotland. " But, adds he, if the 
king be settled, I do not value misrepresen- 
tations, for then I hope our religion and 
civil interests will be settled, which will be 
sufficient to all, who singly mind the public. 
As to what Mr. Sharp had writ, that the 
king was not to be urged to justify the war 
made against his father, Mr. Douglas says, 
they would do well, when they do not put 
him to a direct justifying of it, to provide 
against his quarrelling the lawfulness of it ; 
that he conceives that war will come 
under an act of oblivion ; and that it does 
not appear convenient to touch much upon 
the lawfulness of defensive war ; and since 
it is passed, it ought not to be meddled in, 
and that whatever hath been in the prosecu- 
tion, and close of it, evil, yet it was under- 
taken upon necessary grounds, for our civil 
and religious interests. He wishes that 
instead of a synod of foreign divines, the 
bottom of all were to be the assembly at 
\Vestminster their procedure, and there is 
little need of the help of foreigners in that 

Mr. Sharp writes to Mr. Douglas, April 
without date, that all care is taken against 
risings ; that he gave the general a full account 
of what he had sent him from Ireland, and 
he is fully satisfied : that some of the king's 
party are for bringing him in without terms, 
but his more sober friends are against it. The 
general vdll only have him in by a parlia- 
ment; and the best accounts from himself 
bear, that he is desirous to come in upon 

terms, and by a parliament, whose addresses 
he will attend. The council have gone 
through the most sticking part of the articles 
to be laid before the parliament tor a trciity ; 
that of an indemnity, and sales and pm*- 
chases, which the king will agree to. There 
is another rub like to rise from the house 
of lords, that some say Northumberland and 
Manchester design to engross all offices to 
themselves and dependants, and to exclude 
the young lords from sitting, till the treaty 
be finished. He adds, " no notice is taken 
of Scotland in the treaty : we shall be left 
to the king, which is best for us ; God save 
us from divisions and self-seeking. I have 
acquainted Mr. Bruce how it is with you, and 
what you are doing, and advised him to guard 
against Middleton's designs, and those who 
sent that Murray over to the king. If our 
noblemen, or others, fall upon factious ways, 
and grasp after places, they will cast reproach 
upon their country, and fall short of their 
ends. I fear the interest of the solemn league 
and covenant shall be neglected ; and for re- 
ligion, I smell that moderate episcopacy is the 
fairest accommodation, wliich moderate men 
who wish well to religion, expect. Let our 
noble friends know what you think fit." 

A letter from Mi-. Douglas to Mr. Sharp, 
Apfil 26th, bears, " that he hopes the nation 
will not suiFer by the commissioners coming 
up against all advice. He fears the king hath 
but slender infonnation of the carriage of 
the honest party in Scotland, and their dis- 
position ; that he wishes the general would 
permit him (Mr. Sharp) to go over and give 
the king information concerning his and our 
carriage. He wishes the king may know 
who were and are his real friends. He is 
content that Scotland be not mentioned in 
the treaty, providing we have the liberty of 
a free nation, to deal for keeping what we 
already have both in church and state. So 
long as this party that now acts get their will, 
we will never be without divisions and ani- 
mosities. Ifear Mr. Bruce hath not sufficient 
credit for us. If the solemn league and cov- 
enant be neglected, it seems to me that the 
judgment on these nations is not at an end. 
'5'he greatest security for the king and those 
nations, were, to come in upon that bottom. 
If it shall be neglected, I fear it shall give 



too greilt advuntiige to our ranters here, who 
are cr}dng it down. If moderate episcopacy 
shall be the result of all the presbyterians' 
endeavours, it will be a sad business, for mo- 
derate episcopacy is two steps of the ladder, 
to climb up to the highest prelacy ; no ca- 
veats will keep them in such a moderation, 
but ambitious spirits will break all bonds. It 
is very well known what endeavours king 
James VI. had here to get a moderate epis- 
copacy settled in constant moderators, with 
their own consent to caveats, to keep them 
in subjection to their own presbyteries and 
synods, and to lay down their places every 
year at the feet of the general assembly; as 
appears by the meeting at INIontrose, where 
honest men did protest tigainst it, and tell 
the king, they did see constant moderators 
stepping up to the height of prelacy, which 
fell out in a few years ; they broke all ca- 
veats, and came to that height of tjTanny, 
which was compesced * with very much ado ; 
and this was the beginning of all the stirs in 
our nation. You may be assured, that Eng- 
land is better acquaint with, and more in- 
clined to episcopacy, than Scotland was at 
that time ; they need not think that it will 
stop at moderate precedency, but will take on 
pomp, dignity, and revenues to uphold it, 
and all other supports of the hierarchy; then 
it will be too late to aim at another frame of 
government. It appears to me, that God 
has put this fair opportunity in their hand, 
that they may fall upon the government of 
his own institution, which would prove a 
strong defence against errors, heresies, and 
profanity, that they talk so much of. The 
time is so favourable, that it will be their 
own fault if they want a settled government 
in the kirk ; it is not probable that the king 
will deny it ; it will not lie upon him, but 
upon the kingdom, who will neither seek it, 
nor have it. If the presbyterians in Eng- 
land shall find the smart of the want of that 
government, it is just wth God that it 
should be so ; seeing they reject his ordin- 
ance, and will have a plant of their own set- 
tling, which God never planted. Whatever 
kirk government be settled there, it will have 

• Staye<l, reprussefl. — £d. 

an influence upon this kingciom ; for the"" 
generality of this new upstart generation 
have no love to presbyterial government ; but 
are wearied of that yoke, feeding themselves 
with the fancy of episcopacy, or moderate 
episcopacy. Our desire is, that presbyterial 
govermnent be settled ; if not, we shall be 
free of any accession to the breach of a 
sworn covenant." 

April 2hth, Mr. Sharp signifies to Mr. 
Douglas, that the design of closing with the 
king now appeareth above board. Yester- 
day the young lords came to the house, who, 
with those of the year IC48, made up thirty- 
sL\. There will, 'tis thought, be no notice 
taken of qualifications in the house of com- 
mons. Both houses are adjourned till 
Tuesday, when a message will come from 
the king. By his next letter. May 1st, Mi-. 
Sharp acquaints Mr. Douglas, that a letter 
was presented to each house, from his 
Majesty, by Sir John Greenfield, the gene- 
ral's cousin; and refers for other news to 
the diurnal : that those three days the gene- 
ral had been speaking to him to take a trip 
to the king at Breda, and he knew not how 
to decline it, and is sorry he cannot stay till 
he have Mr. Douglas's mind. If he thinks 
fit to send over any congratulation to the 
king, or orders to himself, it may come up 
in my lord Crawford's packet. In his post- 
script he adds, "■' General Monk has been 
these ten days pressing me to go over to 
the king, to deal that he may write a letter 
to Mr. Calamy, to be communicated to the 
presbyterian ministers, showing his resolu- 
tion to own the godly sober party, and to 
stand for the true protestant religion, in the 
power of it ; adding withal, that it will be fit 
you were there, were it but to acquaint the 
king with the passages of my undertaking, 
known to Mr. Douglas and you, and to tell 
him of matters in Scotland. He spoke to 
me three several times this last week, and 
now I am resolved to go, I hope, to do some 
service to the honest party here, and indeed 
to ours at home. If you think fit to write 
to tl\e king, the sooner the better. I have 
spoken to Glencaim, and showed him what 
you wrote to me about him." May 4th, 
Mr. Sharp again writes from London to Mr, 
Douglas, that he could not get off to Breda 



to this day. " The presbyterian ministers 
of the city, after several meetings, have 
resolved to send over next week some mi- 
nisters from the city, Oxford, and Cambridge, 
to congratulate the king : and I am desired 
to acquaint the king with their purpose, and 
dispose for their reception ; or, if it be pos- 
sible, that he would write to both houses by 
way of prevention, that they would seciu^e 
religion in reference to some points. Some 
particulars of secrecy the general hath re- 
commended to me, and given orders to 
transport me in a frigate. I have got a 
large letter to the king, and another to his 
prime minister. Providence hath ordered 
it well, that my going carries the face of 
some concernment in reference to England ; 
but I shall have hereby the better access 
and opportunity to speak what the Lord 
shall direct as to our matters, and give a 
true information of the carriage of business. 
I think I need not stay above ten days. It 
will be best to address the king by a letter. 
Presbyterians here are few, and all are Eng- 
lishmen, and these will not endure us to do 
any thing that may carry a resemblance in 
pressing uniformity : for my part, I shall not 
be accessory to any thing prejudicial to the 
presbyterian government ; but to appeal* for 
it in any other way than is within my sphere, 
is inconvenient, and may do harm, and not 

Mr. Robert Douglas writes to Mr. Sharp, 
May 8th, that he durst not write of his 
going to Holland, tQl his last, of April 26th, 
and observes now, that his motion and the 
general's came together. He adds, " I per- 
ceive by all that you write, that no respect 
will be had to the covenant in this great 
transaction, which if neglected altogether, it 
fears me that the Lord will be highly pro- 
voked to wrath. It will be the presbyterians' 
fault, if they get not as much settled, at 
least, as was agreed on by the synod of 
divines, and ratified by parliament ; for I 
perceive that the king will be most conde- 
scending to the desires offered by the pai"lia- 
ment : but I leave that. However our desires 
may be for uniformity in doctrine, worship, 
discipline, and government ; if they will not 
press it themselves, we are free. Your great 
errand will be for this kirk. I am con- 

fident the king will not wrong our liberties, 
whereunto he himself is engaged. He needs 
not declare any liberty to tender consciences 
here, because the generality of the people, 
and whole ministry have embraced the 
established religion by law, with his majesty's 
consent. It is known, that in all the times 
of the prevailing of the late party in Eng- 
land, none here petitioned for toleration, 
except some inconsiderable naughty men. 
Whatever indulgence the king intends to 
persons who have failed under the late 
revolutions, yet he would be careful to do it 
so as they shall be in no capacity to trouble 
the peace of the land, as formerly they did. 
I doubt not but you will inform the king of 
the circumstances and condition of our kii-k : 
it is left wholly upon you to do what you 
can for the benefit of this poor distracted 
kirk, that the king's coming may be refresh- 
ful to the honest party here ; since no direc- 
tions from us can well reach you before you 
come back to London. Receive the enclosed 
to his majesty, a true copy of it for yourself." 
— The letter of this day's date to the king, 
signed by Messrs. Douglas, Dickson, Ham- 
ilton, Smith, and Hutchison, I have inserted,* 

* Letter to the King's Majesty, from Messrs. 
Robert Douglas, David Dickson, James Ham- 
ilton, John Smith, and George Hutchison, 
Edmburgh, May 8th, 1660. 

May it please your Majesty, 
We cannot but admire the faithfulness and 
tender compassions of the Lord our God, who 
keepeth covenant and mercy, in that it hath 
pleased him to have respect lo the long and sad 
afflictions of your majesty, and of your faithful 
subjects, and to the many prayers put up to him, 
in great trials of affliction, by opening so com- 
fortable and promising door of hope, that he will 
repossess j'our majesty in your just rights, and 
restore unto your people their rulers as at the 
first, and their counsellors as at the beginning, 
and that probably (which we hear your majesty 
so much desires) without effusion of blood : this 
is the Lord's doing, and it is wonderful in our 
eyes, that we may not only enjoy the liberty 
(whereof we have been long, to our great grief, 
deprived,) to tender our faithful service at such 
a distance, but are filled with hopes to enjoy 
your majesty's presence in your own dominions, 
as a bright sunshine after a long and tempes- 
tuous night, to prove a shelter and encourage- 
ment to all those who delight to walk in the 
ways of truth and peace. And, when we 
abstract ft"om instruments in all the late revolu- 
tions, we cannot but further adore the holy and 
wise providence of God, who, having preserved 
your majesty's royal person in imminent hazards, 
hath seen it fit to breed you (as another David) 


Qiid shall make no large abhreviatc of it. 
They put liim in mimi of his covenant, and 
expeet protection in their establishment, and 
that he will settle God's house in all his 
dominions, according to God's word. In 

ill the school of afflu'tion, that you may be an 
eminent instrument, in his rii^ht hand, to pro- 
move the interests ot' his Son, Jesus C'ln-ist, and 
to rule for him ; whereof your majesty's modei- 
ation of spirit, and stedfastness in tlie truth, in 
all your sharp trials, have been comfortable and 
refreshing evidences to all who have heard 
thereof. Sir, as the condition of your majesty, 
and of your dominions, have been no light 
affliction of spirit to us, and to the Lord's faith- 
ful servants in this church with us, these years 
bygone, while we have been forced to encounter 
with ditUculties, both from among ourselves, 
and from without ; so it hath been no small 
addition to om" aifliction, that we could not any 
other way express our duty to your majesty, 
than by our endeavoure to sympathize with 
you, and our prayers to God for you; for any 
comfortable account w^hereof, we do heartily 
bless him, and do resolve, in the power of his 
grace, to give him more employment, till it 
please him to perfect that good work which he 
hath begun. But now, since it hath pleaserl 
God to open a door, (which we have long de- 
sired,) for our brother Mr. Sharp, to come and 
wait upon your majesty, we could not any 
longer forbear to present by him this our hum- 
ble address, in testimony of our loyal atfection 
to your majesty, and our humble acknowledg- 
ment of the Lord's goodness to these your 
dominions, in this comfortable revolution of 
affairs, making way for your majesty's re-in- 
stalment. If it had been expedient in this 
juncture of affairs, your majesty might have 
expected an address from the generality of 
the ministers of this church, who, we assure 
your majesty, have continued, and will continue, 
in their loyalty to authority, and the mainte- 
nance of your just rights, in their stations, ac- 
cording to these principles by which your majesty 
left them walking in opposition both to enemies 
from without, and disturbers from within : 
but doubting that, such an application is not yet 
seasonable, we have desired ftlr. Sh.arp to inform 
your majesty more fully of the true state of 
this church ; whereby we trust your majesty 
will perceive our painfulness and fidelity in 
these trying times, and that the principles of 
the church of Scotland .ire such, and so fixed 
for the preservation and maintenance of lawful 
authority, as your majesty needs never re])ent 
that you have entered into a covenant for main- 
taining thereof: so that we nothing doubt of 
your majesty's constant resolution to protect 
this church in her established privileges, and are 
no less confident, (though we presume not to 
,' meddle without our sphere,) that your majesty 
1 will not only hearken to the humble advi('es of 
those who are concerned, but will also, of your 
) own royal inclination, appear to settle the liousc 
of God, according to lu» ^word, in all your 
dominions. Now the I^ord himself bless your 
majesty ; let his right hand settle and establish 
you upon the throne of your dominions, and 
replenish your royal heart with .nil those graces 


short, it differs not far from Mr. (inthrie's 
address, for which he was seized August 
23d, as we shall hear. With this letter 
they send instructions to Mr. Sharp, which 
I likewise have annexed.* 

and endowments necessary for repairing the 
breaches of these so long distracted kingdoms; 
that religion and righteousness may flourish in 
your reign, the jiresent generation may bless 
God for the mercies received by you, and tlie 
generations to come may reap the fruits of your 
royal pains. So pray, 

Your Majesty's faithful Subjects, 
and humble Servants, 

Directed, Mr. Robert Douglas, 

For the King's David Dickson, 

Majesty. Ma. James Hamilton, 

Mr. Joun Smith, 

George Hutchison. 

* Instructions for Mr. James Sharp, in refe- 
rence to the king. May 8th : 

1. You shall fully inform the king of the con- 
stant fidelity of the body of the ministry of 
Scotland, to him; and that (however some 
endeavours were of necessity used, to prevent 
prejudices to the government of the kirk, yet) 
conscience hath been made, of not complying 
with any that have been in power, nor seeking 
or receiving any benefit from them, notwith- 
standing many hazards to which they were 
daily exposed by reason of their fidelity, many 
temptations from these who would gladly have 
conciliate their favour, and many trials and 
temptations from those among ourselves, who, 
to drive their own designs, did fall off to those in 
power, and did endeavour to irritate them 
against us, as constant adherers to the king, 
and enemies to them. 

2. If need be, you may inform the king of 
the testimony to the government of the kirk of 
Scotland, and the constant adherers thereunto, 
extorted even from adversaries ; in that, however 
they did own that party in this church who did 
homologate their way, yet they were forced to 
acknowledge that we were the men of sober 
and rational principles, and therefore did endea- 
vour to gain us, but in vain. 

3. In infoiTning of our constant adherence to 
the king, and our dealing with God for him, if 
any occasion be offered, to clear our forbearing 
to express his name in our public prayers, you 
may clear, that it was only a forbearing to 
express royal titles, lest thei'eby greater preju- 
dice might have ensued, both to the work of the 
gospel, and to the king's affairs ; but the thing 
itself was constantly kept up by us, even in 
public, in so far that it was still charged upon 
us, that though we forbare the name, yet we 
did the equivalent. 

4. When ye have occasion to sound the king's 
inclinations concerning religion, ye may inform, 
that all honest men have their eyes much upon 
his majesty's self, that he will not only be ready 
to hearken to wholesome counsel, but will of 
himself give eminent proof of his being taught 
in the school of affliction to be an eminent pro- 


I shall scarce break the thread of this 
account, by taking notice that, May 8th, Mr. 
Douglas answers a letter dated April — , from 
the governor of Ulster, wherein is signified 
the governor's joy to hear of the unanimity 
in Scotland on covenant principles ; that he 
hopes the prevailing party in Ireland will 
carry on their work of reformation ; that the 
army is right, as appears by their declaration 
enclosed ; that they are in great fears, some 
about the king may persuade him to come 
in otherwise than upon the call of his people 
in parliament upon a covenant account. To 
this Mr. Douglas, in return, acquaints the 
governor how refreshing his was; regrets 
so few mind the main business of reforma- 
tion; hopes that God will appear for his 
own interests, and is persuaded that if the 
parliament mind the business of religion the 
king will accord to their proposals. 

As soon as the ministers of Edinburgh 
were acquainted with the earl of Rothes' 
going over to Breda, May 10th, Mr. Doug- 
las and Mr. Hutchison write a letter to him. 


pairing to the king, and that he will have 
opportunity to give an account of the true 
state of affairs during the late revolutions. 
They beg he may lay out himself for the 
good of the church, that she may enjoy all 
her liberties established by law. That he 
knows the constant adherence of the body 
of ministers to the king during the late 
revolutions, and how cordial they have been 
in the late change ; that he knows likewise 
how much the people adhere to the establish- 
ment of the church, so that there is no pre- 
text for an indulgence to such as shall recede 
from it, but many inconveniences would 
ensue upon the granting it. Those things 
they beg his lordship may lay before the 
king, that he may not hearken to any advice 
to their prejudice, though they hope there is 
none such. Likewise they send over a 
letter with the earl to the king, the purport 
of which is to congratulate his majesty, and 
to express their thoughts of the gracious 
message he had sent to the parliament of 
England, as the reader will see from the 

signifying, they are glad his lordship is re- 

moter of reformation, as another Josiah ; and 
particularly, you may inform, that as we doubt 
nothing of his constancy in adhering to what he 
is engaged unto by covenant, as to us; so, what- 
ever motives he may have to take another course 
in England, either to incline to an episcopacy, 
or to give a latitude to variety of ways (wherein, 
beside our judgment of tlie things themselves, 
and the consideration of the king's engagement, 
w^e cannot but foresee many inconveniences ; 
and, for your further instruction in this par- 
ticular, we refer you to tiie letter of April 26th, 
and a paper of March 27th,) yet there is no show 
even of conveniency or advantage, to alter any 
thing of the settled government of the kirk of 
Scotland, wherein all the people are generally 
principled, and do acquiesce. 

You may also inform how necessary it is, 
that the king, in dealing vi'ith this kingdom, do 
give an etjiial countenance to all who have 
adhered to him, in these late revolutions ; and 
that care be taken, that no factions made by any, 
upon any thing, be allowed to the prejudice of 
others no less faithful. You know, that, among 
the king's real friends, some have taken moi-e 
liberty to make the best they could of the late 
times, wlio now seem to set themselves among 
those who would be greiitest courtiers ; and we 
have nothing to say against any particular 
favour the king may jdease to put upon them; 
yet, if those, and others with them, should be 
only countenanced, and others under a cloud 
who have made conscience to abstain fiom the 
least shadow of compliance, it cannot but sadden 
honest men much, give occasion to real compilers 
to insult over tluni, and exceedingly prejudge 

letter Itself. * 

the king's .affairs, who, we trust, will hold to 
his old piunciple, that he came not to be a head 
to a taction, but a king to all. 

As for those among us, with whom you know 
we have had so much vexation, you may inform, 
if you find cause, that we really wish no evil to 
their persons, nor shall, for our part, stumble, if 
the king exercise his moderation toward them; 
yet we apprehend their principles to be such 
(especially their leaders) as their having any 
hand in aifairs cannot but breed continual 
distempers and disorders. 

When you have occasion to speak concerning 
the settling of religion in Eiigland, you may 
further remember to inform thi; king how many 
presbyterians are in England who have cleaved 
to him, who cannot acknowledge episcopacy to 
be of God's institution, and cannot but expect 
hard things if that yoke be imposed upon them : 
also you may inform of what stamp divers of 
the later episcopal divines are, who not only 
run that length in affecting episcopacy, as to 
acknowledge the patriarchates of Rome in the 
western church, but, in point of doctrine, have 
published many strange tenets, contrary to the 
doctrine of tlie reformed churches, and of the 
church of England, and ortliodox bishops in 
former times. The settling of tlie interest and 
way of men of such principles, would give 
sober and orthodox men cause to fear the 
overturning of all religion. You may also 
infonn what errors, Arminianism, popery, &c. 
were hatched under episcopacy, in the latter 
times thereof. 

* Letter to the King's Majesty, from Messrs. 
Robert Dough;s, David Dickson, and George 



That same day, May 10th, Messrs. Doug- 
las and Hutchison write to the earls of 
Crawford and Lauderdale at London, and 
signify how satisfying it is to thcni to under- 
stand that their lordships endeavour to keep 
an entire union and good understanding 
among us in this kingdom. They recom- 
mend the earl of Selkirk as very nmch for 
this. They add, " there is another particular 
we are necessitate to trouble your lordships 
about, concerning the worship of God in 
the king's family, when it shall please the 
Lord to bring him to England. We are 

Hutchison, Edinburgh, May 10th, \mO, with 
the earl of Rothes. 

May it please your Majesty, 

While your majesty's faithful subjects in this 
kingdom were ^vaitiIll]; upon the Lord for a 
comfortable account of the late promising revolu- 
tion of atfairs, it pleased him, who remembereth 
liis people in their low estate, to refresh their 
spirits, which have so long groaned under so 
much bondage, with the news of your majesty's 
gi'acious message to your houses of parliament 
of l/Hgland, and their proceeding thereupon 
toward the instalment of your majesty in your 
just right. Upon the first hearing thereof, such 
of your majesty's faithful subjects, ministers in 
this city, as had occasion at anj' time to be near 
your royal person, did hold it their duty to make 
their humble address, which they desired Mr. 
Sharp to present to your majesty : and now the 
earl of Rothes having made us acquainted with 
his purpose to come and wait upon your majesty, 
w^e ha-ve taken the opportunity again to express 
our humble and sincere affection to j-our majesty, 
and our hearty rejoicing in the Lord, who hath 
filled our mouths with laughter, because of this 
change of his right hand. This noble lord (a 
true lover of your majesty, and his country, and 
the true interests thereof) can infonn your 
majesty with many of om- alHictions of spirit 
under our bondage, and how often our gi'iefs 
have doubled upon us, -while we looked for 
peace, and behold, trouble, and while many 
endeavours to put a period to our miseries have 
been blasted, and contributed only to the aug- 
menting thereof: but now we are like men that 
dream, while we consider how eminently the 
Lord himself hath appeared in turning again 
our caj)tivity. Hereby we are encouraged to 
trust our faithful God in all exigents, who, 
after so many years' success, hath fulfilled what 
he hath recorded in his word agiiinst oppressors 
and usurpers ; and we cannot but look upon his 
doing all tliese great things for your majesty, 
and your kingdom.s, a-s a token for good, and 
pledge of much further kindness to be mani- 
fested. We may assert it to your majesty, that 
as the Lord hath kept our hearts from faintitig 
during our long captivity, and made us confi- 
dently exi)ect a revolution, and overturning of 
all the de>.igns of bloody men ; so no sm-all part 
of our refreshment did flow from our hofics, 
that your majesty, being restored to your king- 
doms, after that Gud hath fur a long time 

sensible how' he liatli been necessitate to 
make use of the Service-book abroad, which 
if it should be set up at his return, your 
lordships know what may be the conse- 
quences. We judge it will trouble many of 
this kingdom, who will account it cheir duty 
to be about his majesty, and yet are engaged 
against that way of worship : it will give a 
great dash to the hopes of many in that 
kingdom whose judgments are against it, 
and yield advantage to many who malign 
this happy change ; and probably upon that 
practice it may be again generally set u{) in 

trained you in the school of affliction, shall give 
singular proofs of your proficiency therein. 
Your faithful subjects do expect, that the Lord's 
so wonderful preserving and restoring of your 
majesty, -will produce no ordinary effects ; but 
as the case is singular, so the consequences 
thereof shall be proportionably comfortable. 
And in all the hazards to which religion may 
be exposed, their eyes are fixed upon your 
majesty as the man of God's right hand, -who 
will not only give your royal assent to what 
your subjects shall humbly propose, in order to 
the security and settlement thereof, but will, 
by your majesty's own example, and bj' improv- 
ing the royal power, make it appear unto the 
world that it is in your heart to order the house 
of God according to his word, who hath been 
pleased to respect your majesty and your royal 
house; so that your subjects maybe excited to 
their duty, and encouraged to walk after such a 
pattern. Your majesty's constant adherence to 
the protestant religion amidst so many tempta- 
tions, and the moderation of your royal spirit, 
expressed in yom* late gracious message, are 
pledges of our hope that religion shall flourish 
in your majesty's reign, and that all good men 
shall reap the tniit of those many desires and 
prayers put up to God in behalf of your majesty 
and' your royal family ; and, in particular, this 
church do nothing doubt of your majesty's royal 
protection and countenance to the religion 
therein established, wherein it hath pleased the 
Lord so to confirm and establish all ranks of 
persons, notw^ithstanding all the delusions of the 
time, that (beside the justice of the thing itself) 
there will be no hazard to any interest to pre- 
serve Jill the privileges thereof inviolable. We 
have brierty laid open these thoughts of our 
heart, wlii<''h our sincere desire of your majesty's 
happiness and prosperity doth suggest unto us ; 
and we trust the Lord will give your majesty 
understanding in all things, and instruct you 
to judge and esteem of counsels, according as 
they shall be found consonant to the will of him 
who is the supreme Lawgiver. To his rich 
grace and wise direction your majesty is recom- 
mended by, 


Your Majesty's humble and faithful 

Subjects an<l Servants, 


For the King's 


Mb. Robert Douglas, 
Mr. David Dickson, 

George Hutchison. 


that kingdom, and so may prejudge al'i 
future settlement of religion. In this exi- 
gent, we could find out no better expedient 
than to recommend this particular to your 
lordships' wisdom and prudence, that if you 
think fit, by dealing with his majesty him- 
self, with fit persons in both houses, and 
with honest ministers, tliis may be prevented, 
and some appointed to attend his majesty, 
for perfornling family worship till there be 
a settlement. And it is our humble opinion, 
that (abstracting from our judgment of the 
thing itself) his majesty's forbearance, till 
there be a settlement, is the most safe 
course. Since the episcopal divines them- 
selves have many of them forborne it in 
England these years bypast, we can see no 
prejudice following upon his majesty's keep- 
ing his way which he observed in Scotland, 
till there be some establishment in matters 
of religion to a more general satisfaction. 
We shall no further trouble your lordships 
at this time, but to request that whatever 
his majesty hath been pleased to declare 
concerning England, yet care may be had, 
that no liberty may be granted in this church 
to overturn the established religion, wherein 
there is so general and harmonious agree- 
ment among us." The same persons, that 
same day, write to Mr. Sharp, signifying, 
" that beside the former instructions they 
sent him by way of London, he may re- 
member the great inconvenience that wUl 
ensue upon the king's using the Service- 
book when he retiu-ns, and use all fit means 
to prevent it ; and mind to inform the king, 
that no such concession is necessary to 
Scotland, as he hath given in his declaration 
as to England." 

May 12th, The above written ministers 
of Edinbm-gh, write a letter to Messrs. Ca- 
lamy. Ash, and Manton, which, because of 
its importance, is referred to frequently after- 
ward, and added (below). * 

* Letter to Messrs. Calamy, Ash, and Manton, 
from Messrs. David Dickson, Robert Douglas, 
James Hamilton, John Smith, and George 
Hutchison, Edinburgh, May 12th, 1660. 
Right reverend and dear brethren, 

As yre often had occasion of comfortable 
correspondence with our brethren in England, 
and under our late distresses have several times 


May 22d, Mi-. Douglas writes to Mr. 
Robert Alison of Newcastle, member of 
parHament, in return to one he had received 
from hun, in which he appears to have 
pressed Mr. Douglas to undertake a Lon- 
don journey at this juncture. After Mr. 
Douglas hath expressed his satisfaction with 
this great turn of affairs, and showed how 
solicitous all honest men are for the settle- 
ment of the church of England ; he adds, 
" these worthy men who revived the league 
and covenant, gave great encouragement to 
all lovers of religion, and of lawfid authority. 
I am not without hopes there are many 
worthy patriots with you, who may be able 
to persuade the parliament of the inexpe- 
diency, to say no more, of returning to 
prelacy and the Service-book. I apprehend 
that indeed you do rightly take up the case, 
that if yourselves do accord to a settlement 
of presbytery, and the directory, the king 
will willingly grant it. I trust, the Lord 
who hath done so great things for us, and 
particularly England, in this revolution, will 
not so far leave them, as they shall forget 
the covenant, and what in pursuance thereof 
hath been done by the assembly and parlia- 
ment, and neglect such an opportunity, 
whereof they never had the like ; and it is 
to be doubted if ever the like return. I am 
unclear as to the expediency of my coming 
up at this time. I have frequently spoken 
and written to the lord general, and doubt 
not of his willingness to concur with honest 
men, and have written lately to the min- 
isters of London, and you have Mi*. Sharp 
with you at London ready to join. Much 
will lie in the parliament's own inclinations, 
and they have the prayers of all honest men, 
that they may be directed to settle that 
government, which we by experience have 
found the most effectual mean for restrain- 
ing error and suppressing profanity. And I 
judge the activity of honest men should be 

given you an account of our case, and have been 
refreshed with youi* tender respects toward us, 
so we held it our duty to pour out our hearts 
unto you, upon occasion of this signal revolution 
of affairs, wherein the Lord's hand hath so emi- 
nently appeared, that our mouths are filled with 
laughter, and our tongues with singing. We 
ai'e indeed as men who dream, when we con- 


exerted to deal with inembers, and if need 
be I shall write again to the general, if Mr. 
Sharp shall advise it." 

Mr. Douglas writes the same day, May 
22d, to Mr. Sharp, signifying what they 
Iiad dene since his departure, contained m 
the above letters sent with the earl of 
Rothes. He doubts not but Mr. Sharp 
hath managed his being with his majesty 
for the interests of Christ ; and wshes he 
may be helpful to the ministers of London, 
with all caution and wariness, that, adds he, 
" yoiu- doing for them tend not to the un- 
doing of ourselves. We are very hopeful 
that his majesty wUl be mindful of us, and 
will be loath to entertain suggestions to the 
prejudice of the established doctrine, wor- 
ship, discipline, and government of this 

sifler how the Lord hath so ordered this dispensa- 
tion, as to give us hopes to see our lawful magis- 
trate possessed in his just rights, in so harmonious 
and peaceable a way. And though we doubt 
not but many will now be active to have refor- 
mation of religion at least obstructed ; yet we 
cannot but hope, that the Lord, who hath done 
ail these things tor us, is so far from a purpose 
to destroy us, that he is putting in our hands a 
blessed opportunity of advancing his kingdom, 
if we were fitted for such a mercy, and the 
dispensation be rightly improved. Though it 
hath pleased the Lord so far to advance his work 
in this church, as that all the privileges and 
interests thereof are established by law, with 
the king's royal consent, whereunto the people 
have generally submitted, even in our late con- 
fusions, and though we purpose not to stretch 
ourselves beyond our line; yet our tender sym- 
pathy with honest men there, and even respect 
to the welfare of this church (experience having 
taught how much influence the condition of 
affairs with you had upon us) makes us appre- 
hensive of the sad consequences of setting up 
episcopacy, and the use of liturgy again, under 
which religion hath suffered so much, as your- 
selves do well remember. We hope the Lord is 
putting it in your and your brethren's hearts to 
lay forth yourselves at this time for preventing 
those evils, and what may have a tendency there- 
unto, or may encourage people to look toward 
these ways. We may assure you, that you have 
to do with a moderate prince, who is ready to 
hearken to sound and wholesome counsel, whereof 
we had large experience, in that his majesty was 
not only content to ratify the religion as it was 
established among us, as to the subjects, but did 
reiidily condescend to lay aside the Service-book, 
and observed the Directory of Worship in his 
own practice and family, all the while it pleased 
God to continue his majesty with us. You 
have now the advantage of humble dealing -ivith 
a prince long trained in the school of affliction, 
and preserved therein, <ind (we trust) fitted 
thereby to be an eminent instrument in God's 
right hand for the advancement of his Son's 


church ; and if the violence of some press 
an alteration, we are confident he will gra- 
ciously repress that insolence, and vouch- 
safe us the enjoyment of the liberties and 
privileges of this kirk, ratified by the laws 
of this kingdom, which we have stood for 
against the opposition of those who plied 
the usurping powers for the overthrow 
thereof, by the plausible argiunent of their 
compliance with them against monarchy, 
whereunto they affirmed we adhered, as in- 
deed we did. We hope his majesty will be 
in case to distinguish betwixt these, who, for 
their own interest, have struck in with all 
changes, and those who were fixed in their 
principles for lawfiil government." 

It is high time now to return to Mr. 
Sharp at Breda, where Mr. Douglas, in his 

kingdom: and therefore we trust his majesty 
will hearken to what humble advice God shall 
put in your hearts for him, that he may be 
exemplary in his own practice, and put forth 
his royal power for satisfaction of honest men 
in the matters of religion. We are far from 
prescribing unto you our reverend and dear 
brethren, or from being any thing doubtful of 
your vigilance and activity in this juncture of 
affairs; but it flows onlj' from our abundance of 
affection, and the conscience of our obligation 
by covenant, that we have given you the trouble 
of these few lines. We know how incumbent 
it is to us in our stations, to forbear to intrude 
upon the work of others, and do purpose to 
demean ourselves accordingly ; yet we are most 
confident that this expression of our brotherly 
love will not be unacceptable unto you. And 
we shall pray, that the Lord may give you under- 
standing in all things, and may lead you forth 
in his right hand, to act in your stations at this 
time for the good of religion, and for the settling 
of that government in the church, which you 
have so solidly asserted by writing, and which is 
the most effectual mean to stop the current of 
profanity, and damnable errrors and heresies, 
as we have found by experience : for we fear 
that if this opportunity, Tvhich God hath put in 
our hands, be lost, it will hardly (if at all) be 
recovered. And if the Lord be pleased to assist 
you in the managing thereof, it shall be your 
r. joicing to have been instrumental in refreshing 
the spirits of honest men in all the three nations, 
and your labour shall be acceptable to God, 
through Jesus Christ, and tend to the advantage 
of the true religion in the present and succeeding 
generations. We add no more, but that we 
heartily recommend you to the Lord's rich grace, 
and are 


To tliP right Reverend 
Mr. Edmund Calamy, 
Mr. Simecn Ash, aod 
Mm. Thomas Manto.v, 
Ministers of the GospcJ 
at London. 

Your very loving Brethren, 

David Dickso.v, 
Mr. Kobeut Doi;glas 
IMr. Jamks Ha.milton, 
Mr. John Smitii, 




Account of the Introduction of i'relacy, is 
of opinion he was corrupted. Perhaps the 
reader may be pleased to have what Mr. 
Douglas says there, in his own words, and 
they are as follow : " I profess, I did not 
suspect IVIr. Sharp, in reference to prelacy, 
more than I did myself, no more than the 
apostles did Judas before his treachery was 
discovered : I did not suspect him for that, 
more than I did suspect him for taking the 
tender, after he came out of the Tower so 
long before us. But since I find that has 
been his truckling ; and when he went over 
to Holland, he had a letter from a prime 
nobleman to the king, sigmf}'ing that he 
was episcopal in his judgment. This was 
revealed to me after he was made a bishop. 
The first thing that gave me a dislike at hhn 
was, when he was in Holland he wrote to 
me in commendation of Hyde, an enemy to 
oiu* nation and presbyterial government. I 
durst not as yet believe myself in this, 
having no more save his commendation of 
Hyde : but it appeared afterwards, that in 
Holland he was a great enem.y to the pres- 
byterian interest; and when we wrote a 
favourable letter for the earl of Rothes, and 
with him a letter to the king, he dissuaded 
the earl from delivering the letter. When 
at London, he was enraged that we had 
written to the ministers of London. He 
dealt also treacherously with the brethren 
who came from L'eland, in dissuading their 
addresses to the king. When he came to 
Scotland, he dealt earnestly against all ad- 
di-esses made to the paiiiament against pre- 
lacy. He dealt treacherously with the king, 
making him believe that there were no con- 
siderable persons against prelacy; but would 
have persuaded the king that all our lives 
were in his hand, and he might do what he 
pleased ; and the man never rested till he 
was brought himself to a chair." This pas- 
sage I thought proper here to insert from 
Mr. Douglas' own original copy now before 
me, both to show the hypocrisy, in what of 
Mr. Sharp's actings we have seen, if his 
treacherous design was a forming all this 
while, as we may suspect from his taking 
the tender ; and to evince it fully, as well 
as lay open some springs of what he says 
and does in the following letters. 

Mr. Sharp's only letter from Breda t^ 
Mr. Douglas, in this collection, is dated 
May 1 1th, where, after he hath given him ai 
account of his voyage, and that on the 8th, 
at night he got to Breda, where he v.'as led 
to the court by Alexander Bruce, where the 
marquis of Ormond introduced him to the 
king, to whom he delivered his letters, 
and next morning at nine, had an hour 
and an half with the king alone in his 
bedchamber. In the evening the king 
took him to walk in the garden near 
an hour. He adds, " he found the king's 
memory perfectly fresh as to all things in 
Scotland ; that he asked by name, how it 
was with Mr. Douglas, Mi-. Dickson, Mr. 
Hamilton, Mr. Hutchison, and Mr. Wood ; 
and having asked how Mr. Smith was, he 
said laughing. Is his broadsword to the 
fore ? * I answered, I knew it was taken 
from him when he was made a prisoner, but 
his majesty might be persuaded Mr. Smith 
would be provided of one when his service 
required it. The king said, he was sure of 
that, and of the affections of all honest 
men, to whom he bid me remember him. 
He further asked how Mr. Bailie was, and 
said, he heai'd ISIr. Law, and Mr. Knox of 
Kelso, was dead, adding, that both he and 
the kingdom had a loss by their removal. 
The king, adds Mr. Shai-p, surpasseth all 
ever I heard or expected of him. I gave 
him an account of my management at Lon- 
don, and congratulate his majesty in your 
name, which he took very kindly. The 
states are to congratulate him, and it is 
happy he is acknowledged by so great a pro- 
testant state : he is little obliged to France 
and Spain." 

May 26th, Mr. Sharp writes from Lon- 
don to ]\Ii-. Douglas, that he is returned 
to that place that day ; that he came in one 
of the king's frigates with the London min- 
isters : he gives the particulars of the king's 
landing, general Monk's meeting him at 
Dover, and the parliament's congratulatory 
letter, and their desire he may come to thj 
city by water. He adds, " I find the sober 
presbyterian party have no reserve but in 

i. e. Has he his broadsword still? 


his majesty's clemency, of which they have 
no cause to doubt ; that he received all 
their letters since the 3d, at London, and 
would take tiie first opportunity to present 
their letter to the king ; had it come to him 
in Holland, he would have presented it 

there, where he had opportunities to have^ , strain of too many protesters in their preach 

spoken to the full as to the matter of it. I 
finil the king very affectionate to Scotland, 
and resolved not to wrong the settled gov- 
ernment of our church. For settling re- 
ligion here, I apprehend they are mistaken 
who go about to settle the presbyterian 

INIr. Douglas, by his letter May 29th, ac- 
quaints Mr. Sharp, that many of all sorts 
are thronging to London, " I trust, adds 
he, the king will not fall upon Scots affairs, 
but remit them to the ordinary way agree- 
able to the laws of the land, I suspect 
counsel may be given to do that which may 
dissatisfy many, for there are many who 
seek their own private good ; but I am not 
afraid his majesty will give way to what 
may be prejudicial to the nation. Cassils, 
and Mr. James Dalrymple of Stair, are 
coming up; the first is beyond all ex- 
ception. The protesters think to obtain 
somewhat by their means, but I believe the 
king will not meddle with that which con- 
cerns the kirk's interest, but refer all to a 
general assembly, which he must call for 
taking away those differences. You know 
the public resolutions are for the king's 
interest, and we have nothing standing as a 
testimony of our loyalty to magistracy, but 
those actings by the commission of the 
kirk and general assembly in defence of our 
lawful niiigistrate, against the attempts made 
upon the government. Those have been 
the ground of our sufferings from the day 
of his majesty's departure to that of his 
return. Before his majesty do any thing 
he will let us have a favoiu-able hearing. 
We intend nothing against men's persons, 
only we desii-e our proceedings may be seen 
to the world, and that our integrity and 
respect to lawful magistracy may appear. 
It will be grievous to all honest men here, 
if England miss this occasion of settling re- 
ligion and government, ^^^latevcr may be 
pretended for us, and the securing of our 


government, it cannot be thought but Eng- 
land's condition in ecclesiastic matters will 
have a great influence upon this nation, at 
least, the troubling our peace. We have 
great hopes his majesty will grant in matters 
of religion what his parliament desires. The 

ings is, that we are in hazard of episcopacy 
and a Service-book, and press private meet^ 
ings as necessai-y to uphold the power of 
godliness. It is looked on strangely here 
that there is never so much as an advertise- 
ment from our brethren in England, con- 
cerning the estate of their kirk, or any 
desire to us to deal for the good of it ; not 
that we have thoughts to go without our 
own line to meddle with the affairs of 
another kirk, though we might plead some 
more interest in them than any other by 
virtue of our solemn league and covenant. 
If they prudently foresee our doing any 
thing in their business might relish ill, and 
resolve to do for themselves : if the Lord 
shall keep them from the Service-book, and 
prelacy, and settle religion among them ac- 
cording to the solemn league and covenant, 
we have all we desb-e, and shall look on it 
as a gracious retm-n to our prayers on their 

May 29th, Mr, Sharp writes to Mr 
Douglas, and gives him a large account of 
his going to Breda. He says, "general 
Monk's design in my going was, that I 
might give his majesty an account of all the 
passages of his undertaking, from his com- 
mg from Scotland to the parliament's own- 
ing the king; that I might acquaint him 
how necessary it was to follow moderation 
in his after-management ; and to move the 
king to write to some of the city ministers, 
by them to be communicate to all presby- 
terians, intimating his majesty's design to 
suppress profanity and countenance religion 
in its power. I insisted on severid things 
in yours to me, and was the first minister of 
the three kingdoms who avowedly addressed 
the king. I made my address in name of 
the ministry of the church of Scotland. I 
was most kindly entertained, and the king 
hath a great affection for our country and 
kirk. After I had been several tunes with 
his majesty, and he naming a paiticular 



time to me to wait on him for his despatches 
to England, and letter to the city ministers, 
I began to speak about Scotland, when he 
told me, lie wtxild reserve a full communing 
about that till his coming to England. I 
found his majesty most willing to restore 
our kingdom to its ancient pri\aleges, and 
preserve the settled government of our 
church, in both which, I was bold expressly 
to move, and had a very gracious satisfying 
answer. The English ministers were much 
satisfied with the king's receiving of them. 
I kept much company with the ministers 
that came over, and returned to England 
with them j and by conversation I can make 
a probable conjecture of the tendency of 
matters as to religion in England. I have 
much to say on this head, which I cannot 
write at present ; I shall only say this, that 
for me to press uniformity for discipline and 
government upon the king and others, I 
find would be a most disgustful employment, 
and successless : for though the king could 
be induced to be for it, it were not in his 
power to effectuate it, the two houses of 
parliament, and body of this nation, being 
against it ; and if I may speak what I know, 
and can demonstrate to you, 'tis already 
past remedjing. I know very few or none 
who desire it, much less appear for it. 
And whoever do report to you, or believe 
that there is a considerable party in Eng- 
land, who have a mind for a covenant-uni- 
formity, they are mistaken ; and as you say 
in yours. May 8th, if they will not press, 
we are free. I see no obligation by cove- 
nant to impose that upon them which they 
care not for. If you knew what I know, I 
am persuaded you would not be very urgent 
upon that point. For my part, I shall have 
no occasion to what may cross that uni- 
formity, but I have no freedom to an em- 
ployment which can have no other effect 
but the heightening an odium upon our 
church, which is obnoxious already to many 
upon such an account, though I know cause- 
lessly. I have heard of your letter to IVIr. 
Ash, who only has seen it, and IVIr. Calamy 
and Manton. The rumour goes in the city, 
I know not if occasion be taken by that 
letter, that the ministers of Scotland have 
declared their dissatisfaction that the kin? 

is brought in but upon tlie terms of the 
covenant. 1 am afraid that such rumours 
are at this time studiously raised, and I see 
more and more the need of using caution 
with those here who have had large ex- 
perience of Anglorum, &c. And I have 
cause to think, that we shall have a dis- 
covery of it, as much now as ever. I shall 
present your letter to his majesty as soon 
as the throng upon his coming to Wliite- 
hall is a little over."* 

* In the preface to an anonymous Alemoir of 
archbishop Sharp, written by a Scottish epis- 
copalian, and published 1723, the writer says: 
" 1 find that Mr. Wodrow, in the Abbreviate he 
gives'us of Rlr. Sharp's letter to Mr. Douglas, 
dated the •29th of May, 16G0, hath, if not wil- 
fully perverted, yet grossly mistaken, the mean- 
ing of the writer, as may be evident to any 
man who will take the pains to compare the 
letter itself set down in the Appendix with the 
said Abbreviate, in Mr. ^^'odI•ow's Introduc- 
tion," preface, p. 10. — We have made the com- 
parison without being able to discover any 
ground for the charge here prt-ferred. On the 
contrary, we think it impossible to read the 
letter itself without feeling that it reflects much 
more severely on the prelate's subsequent con- 
duct than Mr. Wodrow's Abbreviate does. But 
for the reader's satisfaction, and because tlie 
letter is somewhat curious, we subjoin it entire. 

Letter from Mr. Sharp, to Mr. Robert Dovglas, 
Minister at Edinburgh. 

Reverend Sir, 

Yours, that. May 22d, and of the 8th, with 
other letters, I received ; by the last Saturday's 
post 1 could only give you notice of my safe 
return to London. General ."Monk gave the 
occasion for my journey to Holland, and I did 
observe a providence in it, that his motion did 
tryst with your desire, which gave me en- 
couragement to follow the Lord's pointing at 
my going thither, which for anj' thing doth yet 
appear hath been ordered for good. General 
IVIonk's intent for my going was, that 1 might 
give his majesty an account of all the passages 
of his undertaking, from the beginning of it in 
Scotland, to the progression he had made at the 
time of the parliament's owjiing his naajesty's 
title; and that I might acquaint the king how 
necessary it was to follow the counsels of mo- 
deration in the future management of his 
affairs. And, 3dl\', That I might move his 
majesty for writing a letter to some of the em- 
inent city ministers, to be by them communi- 
cated to the presbyterjan ministers throughout 
the kingdom, intimating his majesty's resolu- 
tion, to bear down profanity, and to coun- 
tenance religion in the power of it. IMy own 
special motive for going was, to give a timous 
information of the condition of poor Scotland, 
as to the several particuhirs, which yours of 
May 8th, doth bear. My thoughts at my going 

June 2d, Mr. Sharp writes to Mr. Doug- 
las, " Upon Thursilay night the king called 
me into his closet, where I presented yours 


of the 8th of May to him. Having read some 

over did run upon diverse of these, which 
•lii^estedly and fully that letter doth mention, 
and it halii much ^atistied me, that ujion the 
perusal of yours at my return, J remembered 1 
hit npnn some of tiiose j'ou touched. I came 
very seasoriably in the hegiiuiing of the growth 
of tlie court, and was the first minister of the 
kingdoms, who made an address avowedly to 
the king, since his exile; which I did wit.h tlie 
more confidence, tliat having your warrand 
hefore my going, I made it in name of the body 
of tiie ministry of the church of Scotland, who 
had persevered in their integrity and loyalty in 
all revolutions. I cannot express what wel- 
come I had, and with how kindly an .icceptance 
my application was entertained by his majesty, 
who was graciously pleased to put such a re- 
spective usage upon me, all the lime I was 
tliere, as it was noticed by all at court. I do 
not mention this out of a tickling vanity, but 
as an evidence amongst others ot our prince's 
affection to our country and kirk, of wliich I 
am abundantly satisfied, though before my go- 
ing over, he was falsely represented, even to 
some of the presbyterian judgment, as an enemy 
and hater of both. He did at Breda, at his 
table upon occasion, give his public testimony 
to the fidelity and loyalty of his kingdom of 
Scotland, and to me in private more than once 
or twice ; and I am persuaded, a sweeter and 
more affectionate prince never a people had. 
The first time he allowed me to speak to him 
in private, %vhich was for the space of one hour 
and half, I took it up, in giving a full account 
of general jNIonk's proceedings, and of the 
activity of those of our nation to improve that 
opportunity for his majesty's service. The next 
time he called me to him in the garden, where 
he caused me \valk with him, almost 200 gentle- 
men being at his back, almost two hours, was 
employed in his moving questions and my an- 
swering, about the affairs of the parliament; 
and in the close, somewhat in reference to Scot- 
land, and asking kindly how it w<is with the 
ministers who had been in the Tower, and with 
]Mr. Hutchison, Mr. Wood, Mr. Bayly, of 
which I gave you some touch in my letter from 
Breda. The third time he spoke to me (doing it 
upon every occasion he saw me) was in the 
princess royal's room, where I wiis amazed to 
hear him express such knowledge and remem- 
brance, both as to persons and things relating to | 
Scotland, while he was thei'e, as if the passages 
had been recently acted. He mentioneil min- 
isters south and iu>rth, and otlier persons, not 
forgetting John Boswel of Kinghorn, and an- 
other in Crail, where, he said, himself was 
provost, asking how it was with them. There 
was opportunity of speaking of those with whom 
we have had so mucli vexation, and of the con- 
dition of our kirk, and the carriage of honest 
men in it ; and, had he not been taken up by 
the interposing of a lord come straight from 
England, I think I had said all was then upon 
my heart in reference to that matter. After 
this the court thronging by multitudes from 
England, and the crowd of his affairs growing 

of it, and looked on the subscriptions, he 
told me he was glad to see a letter from 
your hands ; and it being late, and beina to 

go to the house to-morrow, he would after- 

upon him, it was unbecoming for me to press 
for private conference, but when he did call to 
me ; which he was pleased to do twice more 
before his c iming from Breda : and both those 
times lie asked me only about some of his con- 
cernments with general IMonk, bidding me at 
the last time meet him at liis first coming to 
the Hague, which was upon May l.'jth, wait 
upon, to receive my despatch immediately to 
England, both as to general Monk, and the 
letter to the city ministers. When 1 offered to 
speak a word in referei:ce to Scotland, he told 
me, he would reserve a full communing about 
that till his coming to England. And indeed 
it had been unseasonable and impertinent for 
me to have urged further, finding the necessity 
of his affairs in England so urgent: but this 
I can say, that by all these opportunities I had, 
in every of which I did not omit the moving 
about Scotland, I found his majesty resolved 
to restore the kingdom to its former civil lib- 
erties, and to preserve the .settled government of 
our church ; in both which I was bold expressly 
to move, and had a very gracious satisfying 
answer. Upon the apprehension that 1 might 
be sent into England ]>resentiy upon his maj- 
esty's arrival at the Hague, I hastened from 
Breda by the way of Dort, Amsterdam, Har- 
lem, and Leyden, to take a transient view of 
those goodly towns ; and came the next day 
after the king to the Hague, about the very 
time of the reception of the commissioners from 
the two h<!uses and the city, to which I was an 
eye-witness. Dr. Reynolds, Mr. C'alamy, Dr. 
Spoistre, Mr. Case, Mr. Manton, were received 
privately in his bedchamber : they delivered a 
letter signed by above 80 ministers met at 
Si<m College : 1 am promised a copy thereof, 
which 1 shall sen<l unto you (and had done it 
before this, could they have given me one, be- 
cause they had lett it in the city:) they ex- 
pressed much satisfaction with his majesty's 
carriage towards them, speaking him to be a 
prince of a deep knowledge of his own affairs, 
of singular sweetness and moderation, and great 
respectiveness towards them; but they were 
much more satisfied as to these, after they had 
spoke with him two by two, in private, three 
days after, in so far as they speak highly to his 
commendation to all their friends, as a most ex- 
cellent prince, restored for a public blessing to 
these nations ; and do profess it to be their duty 
to promote his interest amongst their people. 
They have often since said to me, they have no 
reserve nor hope, but in his majesty's good dis- 
jiosition and clemency. At my coming to the 
Hague, when I had gone to the "lord chancellor, 
wlio by the king's order was to give me my 
desjiatches, he desired me to stay so long as the 
London ministers staid, telling me he would 
send by anothi-r the king's ple.'isure to general 
INlonk. 1 was ready to lay hold upon this 
motiou, knowing that the king was sjieedily to 
go for England, and so kept in comjiany -with 
those ministers, and thereby had occasion to 
know wb.'it may give me gi'ound of a probable 
conjecture of tlie tendency of matters, as to the 


wards consider it, and send a return ; and 
desired me to come to him two or three 
days after, when the throng was over, I 
had yours of the 10th of May, with that 
to the king, which is not yet delivered, by 
the earl of Rothes. I shall look on the 
earl of Selkirk and lord Lorn as noble 
patriots, well affected to the interest of re- 
ligion. I shall never espouse the interest 
of any person or party; 'tis our common 
interest to keep an equal way with all who 
mind the good of kirk and country : and 
my endeavour is to prevent animosities, and 
to beget and keep harmony. Cementing 
and piecing will be our mercy, and dividing, 
more our reproach than we are aware of. 
The king hath allowed the noblemen who 
are here, to meet and consult what is proper 
to be offered for the good of the nation; 
they meet on Monday : it is in his heart to 
restore us to our liberties and privileges if 
our folly do not mar it. Yesterday the 
king went to the house of peers, passed 
some bills, and emitted a proclamation 
against profaneness. There is a day of 

ordering of religion in England. I have much 
to say of this purpose, wiiich I cannot com- 
municate in this way. At present I shall only 
say this^ that for me to press uniformity^ for 
discipline and government upon the king and 
others, I find, would be a most disgustful em- 
ployment, and successless : for though the king 
could be induced to be for it, it were not in his 
power to effectuate it ; the two houses of par- 
liament, and the body of this nation, being 
against it, and, if I may speak what I know, 
and could demonstrate to you, it is already past 
remedying : I know very few or none M'ho 
desire it, much less appear for it, and whoever 
do report to you, or believe, that there is a con- 
siderable party in England, ^vho have a mind 
for a covenant-uniformity, they are mistaken; 
and, as you judge, by w^hat you write in that 
of May 8th, if they themselves will not press 
it, we are tree. I see no obligation by covenant, 
to impose that uyion them, which they care not 
for. If you knew at a distance, what I have 
occasion to know since m,y coming hither, of 
this matter, I am confident you would not be 
very urgent in that point; for my part, I shall 
have no accession to what may cross that uni- 
formity ; but I have no freedom to an employ- 
ment, which can have no other effect, but the 
heightening of an odium ujwn our church, which 
is obnoxious already to many upon such an ac- 
count, though, I know, causelessly. I have 
lieard of your letter to Messrs. CaJamy, Ash, 
and Manton ; which Mr. Ash only hath seen, 
Calamy and Manton not being in town ; and 
the rumour goes up and down the city ( I know 
not if occasion be taken by that letter) that the 

thanksgiving appohitcd in England : I wish 
we may give some public testimony of our 
sense of the mercy of the king's retixrn in 
Scotland. In the house of peers, upon a 
motion made, that the form of prayer ap- 
pointed in the Liturgy to be used in that 
house, be practised, 'tis done. The Service- 
book is not yet set up by both houses, but 
they will probably soon do it in all churches. 
I shall next week send a copy of the letter 
of the city ministers to the king in Holland. 
They resent his father's murder, but not 
one word of the Directory or Confession of 
Faith. I gave a hint by the Tuesday's 
post, how it concerneth us to use caution, 
in .offering to any here what may seem to 
be meddling or imposing ; and I am every 
day more and more confirmed, that it will 
be a prejudice upon us, both in our religious 
and civil rights. I was at a meeting yester- 
day at Sion College, with about sixty minis- 
ters, where it was very solemnly debated, 
whether they should petition his niajesty 
and the two houses, that the exercise of 
religion by the ordinance of lords and corn- 

ministers of Scotland have declared their dis- 
satisfaction, that the king is brought in, but 
upon the terms of the covenant. I am afraid, 
that such rumours are at this juncture stu- 
diously raised, and I see more and more the 
need we have of using caution with those here: 
we have had large experience of Anglorum, &c., 
and I have cause to think, that we shall have a 
discovery of it, as much now as ever. 

I shall present your letter to his majesty, at 
the first opportunity, which, I think, I cannot 
have till some days pass over, because of the 
great press upon him, at his first entry into 
Whitehall. God hath done great things for him, 
I pray he may do great things by him. It hath 
been observed, that never any prince did enter 
upon his government with such a general re- 
pute and applause. The satisfaction expressed 
by the Dutch could not be more, if he had been 
their sovereign : and for England, the expres- 
sions of ecstatic joy, and universal exultation, 
are admirable. This day from morning till 
seven o'clock I have been a spectator of what 
the magnificence and gallantry of England 
could bring forth in testimony of the greatest 
reception, was, they say, ever given to their 
king; the manner whereof you will have by 
the Diurnal ; and it hath taken up so much 
time to me, that, the post calling, I have con- 
fusedly writ this, and must break off till the 
next, with commending you to the Lord's gracr, 
who am. 

Yours, &c. 

Ja. Sharp 

London, May 29tlK 


yuor coming up, when I was with the king 
on Thursday night, I moved, upon some 
considerations, his majesty might write for 
you. He answered, pray you, let it be 
done ; and calling upon Lauderdale, ordered 
him to ch-aw a letter for him to sign, that 
you might come up to him speedily. This 
letter Lauderdale promised to have ready 
this night, but it will be Monday ere he get 
it done. The nmiour is here, that there 
are several ministers coming as commis- 
sioners from Scotland and L-eland : I know 
not who hath given occasion to it, but I ap- 
prehend it will not be seasonable at this 
time ; we would wait a little, till we see 
how matters frame. I am confident if min- 
isters come here at this juncture they will 
be discountenanced, and give suspicion of 
'driving a disobliging desigh. I find our 
presbyterian friends quite taken off their 
feet, and what they talk of us and our help 
is merely for their own ends. They stick 
not to say, that, had it not been for the 
vehemency of the Scots, Messrs. Hender- 
son, Gillespj'^, &c. set forms had been con- 
tinued ; and they iwere never against them. 
The king and grandees are wholly for epis- 
copacy ; the episcopal men are very high. 

only to be found in the province of London, j I beseech you, sir, decline not to come up. 

and Lancashire, who will be inconsiderable ! It will be necessary you come and speak 

mons, according to the Confession of Faith, 
and Directory for Worship, and Form of 
Church Government, might be continued, 
until the parliament shall provide otherwise. 
This, after long debate, was referred to a 
committee, to be considered of against next 
week. There is a conference on Monday, 
to be betwixt six presbyterians and six 
moderate (as they call them) episcopals; 
but I resolve not to be at it. From any 
observation I can make, I find the presby- 
terian cause wholly given up and lost. The 
influencing men of the presbyterian judg- 
ment are content with episcopacy of bishop 
IJsher's model, and a liturgy somewhat cor- 
rected, with the ceremonies of surplice, 
cross in baptism, kneeling at the com- 
munion, if they be not imposed by a canon, 
sub poena aut culpa. And for the Assem- 
bly's Confession, I am afraid they will yield 
it to be set to the door; and that the 
articles of the church of England, with 
soi^ amendments, take place. The mo- 
derate epbcopalians and presbyterians fear, 
that either the high episcopal men be upper- 
most, or that the Erastians carry it from 
both. As for those they call rigid presby 
tef ians, there are but few of them, and these 


to the rest of the nation. A knowing 
minister told me this day, that if a synod 
should be called by the plurality of in- 
cumbents, they would infallibly carry epis- 
copacy. There are many nominal, few real, 
presbyterians. The cassock men do swarm 
here ; and such who seemed before to be 
for presbytery, would be content of a mo- 
derate episcopacy. We must leave this in 
the Lord's hand, who may be pleased to 
preserve to us what he hath wrought for us. 
I see not what use I can be any longer 
here ; I wish my neck were out of the 
collar. Some of our countrymen go to the 
common prayer. All matters are devolved 
into the hand of the king, in whose power 
'tis to do absolutely what he pleases in 
church and state. His heart is in his hand, 
upon whom are our eyes." , . 

In another, dated likewise June 2d, Mr. 
Sharp acquaints Mr. Douglas that he had 
received his note of May 26th. " As to 

with his majesty for preventing of ill, and 
keeping our noblemen here right. Your 
coming will certainly do much good; and 
though I know the temper of the brethren, 
yet I see not what their coming will signify 
at this time, and am apt to think they will 
not get content. I have no design in this ; 
I speak my heart to you, that you may do 
more alone for the good of kirk and countrj' 
than they all. Few or no Scotsmen ^vill be 
about the king in places of significancy. 
Lauderdale is of the bedchamber ; he pro- 
mises to keep Rothes mth himself. The 
parliament when it meets will make all void 
since 1639, and so the king will be made 
king, (that is, absolute there as here,) and 
dispose of places and offices as he pleases." 
Mr. Douglas and Mr. Smith write a return 
to those two last of Mr. Sharp's, June, 
without the date : — " That they are refreshed 
with his majesty's safe arrival. As to that 
part of your letter about uniforviity, we 



thought fit, say they, to give you this return 
of our thoughts. 1 . It is not our opinion 
to impose any thing upon his majesty ; yet 
humbly to represent to him that he and the 
parliament may settle religion there accord- 
ing to the terms of the covenant, we think 
it no crime, yea, we count it a duty for our 
own exoneration, though it should not prove 
successful; and if it be held a crime to make 
known to his majesty so innocent a desire, 
it may be feared that the keepmg of it here 
may come under the same account. 2. We 
cannot be induced to believe that it were 
unfeasible if his majesty would be pleased 
to intimate his royal inclmations thereunto; 
but we conceive it would find acceptance 
when we remember that the reviving of the 
league and covenant by the ordinance, after 
the restoring the secluded members, was 
acceptable and refreshing. 3. The question 
is not. Whether there be many or few for 
it? but, whether it be our duty, whereto 
we are obliged by the oath of God in such 
an opportunity, when settlement of religion 
is intended, humbly to desire that it may 
be done according to the terms of the cove- 
nant ? And though, if they slight the mat- 
ter, we cannot impose it upon them, yet, 
for our own exoneration before God and 
men, we are obliged to desire it. 4. We 
cannot but be affected with grief to consider 
that it should heighten an odium upon our 
kirk, to desire that ministers may carefully 
endeavour, by their humble addresses to his 
majesty and parliament, to prevent the re- 
introduction of those once rejected relics, 
episcopacy and the Liturgy, which have 
bred so much trouble and persecution to 
the faithful ministers and professors of the 
gospel there, and have had such a bad influ- 
ence upon this kirk. 5. Our letter to some 
brethren there is so innocent, that we are 
not afraid of the judgment of sober men, 
though it were printed ; and for any mis- 
representation that hath been raised, whether 
upon it, or otherwise, it is a mere calumny ; 
for we were, and are, and could not but be 
well satisfied with his majesty's restitution 
to his kingdoms, for wliich we so heartily 
prayed, and so seriously longed. Nor can 
it be interpreted dissatisfaction with his 
majesty's restitution, that when he is re- 

stored, we humbly represent to his majesty 
our desires for settling of religion according 
to the terms of the covenant. There is 
just ground of suspicion, that such reports 
are raised by some of our own countrymen 
there, who are enemies to the reformation 
established, and labour the abolisliing of 
the covenant of the three nations. Dear 
brother, we have writ these things to you, 
for your information and encouragement 
against those discouraging rencounters you 
meet with in this juncture, from men that 
are either downright enemies to the refor- 
mation of religion, or are but friends of Gal- 
lio's temper. Yours of the 2d of June 
holds forth that there is a great defection 
there from the grounds of the league and 
covenant, which continued in, cannot but 
highly provoke the Lord." 

By this plain and full letter of Mr. Doug- 
las and Mr. Smith, we may see how roundly 
they deal with IMr. Sharp, how fixed they 
stand to the principles and profession of 
the church of Scotland ; and the reader 
cannot but regret, that they had such a 
person to correspond with, as this betrayer 
of the church of Scotland. Whether Mr. 
Douglas' jealousies of him by this time 
were fully formed, I know not ; but a great 
deal of plainness is used with him ; and had 
he followed those instructions and principles 
laid down in this letter, and formerly, I 
doubt not but much more might have been 
done for the work of reformation at this 
time. However, these worthy persons did 
lay the matter candidly before him, whom 
they had unhappily confided in as their 
commissioner ; and what could they do 
more in the present circumstances ? Other 
letters were sent, much to the same purpose. 

Accordingly, June 7th, Messrs. Dickson, 
Douglas, Hamilton, Smith, and Hutchison, 
send a joint letter to Mr. Sharp, in which 
they say, " That, upon the occasion of the 
late wonderful and comfortable revolution, 
we held it our duty, upon the account of 
our solemn engagement to God, and our 
brotherly affection, and our respect to the 
quiet of the established interests of this 
church, to express the thoughts of our heart 
to some of the reverend ministers of Lon- 
don, for our exoneration, resolving to inter- 



meddle no farther in the affairs of others, 
save to express our humble opinion. But 
having learned, by your last, of your being 
present at the meeting in Sion College, and 
other conferences of our reverend brethren j 
as we do thankfully acknowledge the re- 
spects hereby put upon you, so we have 
appointed, that yom- being at these consul- 
tations may, through the Lord's blessing, 
not prove unprofitable for the good of the 
common interest of religion, v.'hich, we 
know, is most dear to all honest men; and 
therefore we hope and desire, that (as you 
have opportunity to express your judgment 
before these reverend and worthy men) you 
will not omit to acquaint them how much it 
lieth on the hearts of all good men here, 
that God may lead them forth to a right 
improvement of this opportunity, after which 
many, who now sleep in the Lord, did so 
much thirst and long. We suppose it is 
lot a desperate work, humbly to deal with 
his majesty (who is so excellent and moder- 
ate a prince) for the preventing of episco- 
pacy and the Liturgy, which by experience 
they have found so bitter and prejudicial to 
themselves and many others in England, 
and which, if they once be established, may 
very speedily revive the complaints of godly 
men. And we hope, that the great pains of 
the learned assembly of di\ines (so heartily 
and unanimously approven in this church, 
and so much owned in England,) will not be 
so easily lost; but that godly honest men 
will endeavoiu" what they can to have those 
good beginnings entertained, and yet further 
advanced, as need requires. The condition 
of the times does necessitate us again to 
apologize for what we thus write unto you : 
if we could satisfy our own consciences, and 
approve ourselves to God and posterity, 
who will reap the fruit of our improvement 
of this opportunity, we are so far from any 
pragmatical humour, that we could with 
much ease to ourselves sit down in silence, 
as if no such matters were in agitation about 
us; but ap[)rehending that your being on 
the place in this juncture, and it being 
known that you are owned in your employ- 
ment there by the body of the ministry of 
this church, we conceive that it may be 
looked upon as if we were satisfied vnth 

any proceedings prejudicial to oiu- former 
engagements, unless you express our sense 
of affairs as you have occasion, with that 
prudence, respect, and discretion, that be- 
cometh, whereof we hope you will be careful 
so long as you stay there." 

The prudent and yet zealous concern of 
those faithl'id watchmen, the reverend min- 
isters of Edinburgh, at this juncture, ap- 
pears yet further by their letter next post, 
signed by the last named persons, to Mr. 
Sharp, of the date June 9th, which likewise 
desei^ves to be transcribed here, and follows: 
— " By our last to you of the 7th instant, 
we acquainted you, that however the con- / 
science of our obligation by covenant, and 
om' sense of the hazai'ds to which this 
church hath been exposed by the former 
settlement of England, do put us on ear- 
nestly to desire an acceptable settlement 
there, yet fear of oflTence hath persuaded us 
to move no further in that business (after 
our exoneration by letter to some there) 
than to desire you so to walk in it, as might 
not conclude us, by reason of our silence, 
in an approbation of what may be established 
there contrai'y to our covenant. Yet, 
amongst our solicitudes, we cannot apprehend 
that we will offend any, if we humbly lay 
before his majesty our thoughts of those 
affairs ; and therefore have sent you an en- 
closed paper containing the sum of our 
thoughts and motives inducing us to use 
that humble fi-eedom ; whereof (and of what 
else may occur to yourself to the same 
purpose) we seriously entreat you to make 
prudent use in laying the particulars therein 
contained before his majesty. He is gifted 
to his people in return of their prayers, and 
their expectations are fixed on him, as the 
man of God's right hand, who will refresh 
the hearts of all the lovers of Zion; and 
honest people (whatever be represented to 
their fears) can never be persuaded but his 
majesty will perform all things according to 
the covenant. His majesty hath been 
pleased so much to respect faithfiil and 
honest men in their humble freedom, that 
we will not doubt of his acceptance of this 
mite from your and our hand, which flowetfa 
from much real zeal for his majesty's hap- 
piness, and without which we could not be 


satisfied we luui dealt taitht'ully. Be strong 
in the Lord, and wait for him who hath done 
great things for us, whereof we are glad, 
and hath hereby encouraged us to wait for 
mercy to his Zion. To his grace we com- 
mend you, and are," &c. The paper sent 
along with this letter is subjoined,* and I go 


* Some few pai'ticulars whicli Mr. Sharp is 
di-sired to propound to the king's majesty by con- 
ference, at lit opportunities: 

1. Albeit we doubt not of his majesty's bninc; 
satisfied of our loyalty and good affection to his 
service ; yet you may, from time to time, further 
assure his majesty, tliat oui- gracious God hath 
eased our spirits of a long and sad pressure, by 
overturning all these bloody usurpers, and restor- 
ing his majesty to rule over us, and hath hereby 
sent us a gracious return of these many petitions 
we have put up to him in times of deep distress 
on that behalf, which hath raised our expecta- 
tions, that the Lord, who iiatli done all these 
things for us, hath a purpose of doing much 
good to these kingdoms by his majesty's means. 

2. You may signify unto his majesty, how 
much we are refreshed with intimations we 
have received of his resolution to restore us unto 
our civil liberties, and to preserve the doctrine, 
worship, discipline, and government of this 
church. This we look upon not only as an 
acceptable service to the King of kings whose 
interests we believe these are, and as an act 
of special kindness and favour in his majesty, 
to look to the preservation of their just rights, 
civil and ecclesiastical, who did expose all to 
hazard, and much real and sad suffering, in 
pursuance of their duty and loyalty to his 
majesty, and who have made it their study in 
these trying times, to give evidence that their 
religion and reformation doth teach them loy- 
alty : but we look upon it also as a notable 
advantage to his majesty's own interests, who 
shaH hereby give proof, that (notwithstanding 
the rigid dealing of some toward his majesty in 
some particulars, which you know we do heart- 
ily disapprove, ) no afflictions or temptations have 
prevailed with his majesty, to withdraw him 
from his first voluntary engagement to his peo- 
ple, and the oath of the covenant, and shall also 
fix unto his majesty an interest which, we are 
persuaded, -will cleave f^ist unto him and his 
interests in all exigents ; for you may assure his 
majesty (which we entreat may be understood 
without reflecting on any, without any de-sire 
in us to continue factions among loyal subjects,) 
that among the various tempers of his subjects, 
he will find none more fixea for him than men 
of the principles of the church of Scotland are, 
and will be. 

3. As to the settling of religion in his majes- 
ty's other dominions, you may inform his ma- 
jesty that -we are very far from intruding our- 
selves upon the affairs of others, or meddling 
without our sphere ; and therefore have been 
very sparing to communicate counsels with any 
there, as yourself knows ; yet there are not a 
few considerations (beside cur judgments of 
the things themselves) which prevail with us 
humbly to pour forth our hearts before his 
majesty himself, such as our cordial and sincere 
desires (as the Searcher of hearts knoweth) to- 

on in my abstract of this remarkable cor- 
respondence. — 

June 5th, Mr. Sharp writes to i\L". Doug- 
las, that he had his of the 29th of May; that 
the Scotsmen at London had concurred in 
a paper, containing their desires to his ma- 
jesty as to Scotland, which was that week 

wards the prosperity of his majesty's throne and 
the completing of this so glorious a work, our 
fear to be found unfaithful to his majesty, who 
as he hath been pleased graciously to admit of 
our freedom formerly, so, we believe, doth still 
expect it from us, having by his gracious letter 
since the late sad separation, not only invited, 
but conjured some of us to it, our knowledge of 
the temper of many people here and elsewhere, 
whereof possibly his majesty may not be so 
fully informed, and our hearty desire that this 
blessed revolution may be completely comfortable 
to all honest and loyal subjects who have suffered 
under the late tj-ranny, and have been earnest 
dealers with God for the accomplishment of 
what they now see with their eyes : these are 
some of the motives which prevail w^ith us, to 
desire that his majesty may be informed in 
these few particulars. 

1. How much it will concern his majesty to 
reflect upon the proceedings at his majesty's 
coronation here, and seriously consider what is 
incumbent now to be done thereupon, that 
being his first public transaction w^ith his 

2. His majp^sty would be informed, how- 
suitable it would be for a prince, so educated by 
God, and prescr^'ed and restored by him, not 
only to agree to the humble desires of his sub- 
jects, but to let forth somewhat of his own 
inclination tow^ard an acceptable settlement of 
religion. As his majesty's practice in Scotland, 
and his resolution to preserve these things with 
us, do assure us of hLs majesty's approbation 
thereof in his judgment ; and of his readiness to 
give his royal assent to what shall be proposed 
agreeable thereunto : so his majesty's roj'al incli- 
nation being known, we doubt not of a more 
general concurrence, than while good people are 
kept in suspense. 

3. You may inform his majesty, that we 
humbly propose this expedient of his majesty's 
prudent putting forth himself in this business, 
not only upon the account of conscience as to 
the thing itself, but ujMjn point of prudence 
also, for the good of his majesty's affairs. We 
shall not concern ourselves to dive into the 
temper of independents and other sectaries, and 
how they may relish episcopacy and the Liturgy 
in this recent settlement of affairs, nor trouble 
you with an account of what noise is raised 
upon the very appearance thereof by others 
whom vou know : but if his majesty knew what 
grief or heart the fear of cpiscop.K'y and the 
Service-book is to many loyal and honest sul>- 

jects, who have much and often mourned in 
secret for him, and do now rejoice in his won- 
derful restitution, and how much it would 
refresh them to be secured against these fears ; 
we are confident he would be most ready to 
satisfy such subjects, who will count nothing 
temporal too dear to be laid forth as his majesty's 
affairs shall require : and though it may be con- 


to be presented. He hath not yet had op- 
portunity to speak to the king : that he 
reads that day in the newspaper, that Mr. 
Douglas and Mr. Dickson are repairing to 
London, and wishes it may hold, and de- 
signs to move to the king, that some 
brethren best known to his majesty may be 
sent for. He does not perceive the minis- 
ters at London design to give them any 
advertisement concerning the state of the 
church : and adds, " I pray the Lord keep 
them from the Service-book and prelacy. 
K the king should be determined in matters 
of religion by the advice of the two houses, 
'tis feared that covenanted engagements 
shall not be much regarded. All sober 
men depend more upon the king's modera- 
tion and condescensions, than what can be 
expected from others. The episcopalians 
drive so furiously, that all lovers of religion 
are awakened to look about them, and to 
endeavour the stemming of that feared im- 
petuousness of these men : all that is hoped 
is to bring them to some moderation and 
closure with an episcopacy of a new make. 
You may easily judge how little any en- 
deavour of mine can signify to the prevent- 
ing of this evil ; and, therefore, how desirous 
I am to be taken off, and returned to my 
charge. I am still full of fears, that Eng- 
land shall lose this opportunity of settling 
religion. It is broadly rumoured in the 
city and at court, that Scotland are all in 
arms for the covenant : this is a pretext 
made to keep us under force. There is 
talk of a petition from the city in reference 
to the covenant, and that we from Scotland 
are the promoters of it ; but I apprehend 


that it will come to nothing. However, 
the high carriage of the episcopal men gives 
great dissatisfaction : the Lord may permit 
them thus to lift up themselves, that thereby 
they may meet with a more effectual check. 
Bishop Wren preached last Sabbath in his 
lawn sleeves at Whitehall. Mr. Calamy 
and Dr. Reynolds are named chaplains to 
his majesty. I hear IVIr. Leighton is here in 
town in private." 

Mr. Douglas, June 12th, answers the 
former, and tells Mr. Sharp, there was never 
an intention of Mr. Dickson and his coming 
to London. " If," says he, " our brethren, 
after what we have writ to them and you, 
lay not to heart the reformation of their 
kirk, we are exonered, and must regret their 
archness (backwardness) to improve such 
an opportunity, and be grieved for the re- 
lapse into the sickly condition, and grievous 
bondage of the hierarchy and ceremonies. 
If the presbyterians would deal effectually 
with those concerned, making use of the 
advantages of a good cause far advanced in 
the former parliament, the covenant en- 
gagements, the gracious disposition, and 
moderation of the king, and of the high and 
furious drivings of the episcopalians, they 
might, by the blessing of God, be in a far 
better condition, than 'tis probable they 
shall be, considering their neglect. That 
Scotland is in arms for the covenant, is a 
broad lie, when broadly rumoured ; if such 
pretexts be forged for keeping an army on 
us (and they are daily coming with more 
forces) it \vill be a sin against God, and a 
dishonour to his majesty. But we are per- 
suaded his majesty will defend us, and our 

ceived that the affairs of England do nothing 
concern them ; yet they cannot hut remember, 
from former experience, what influence the 
state of the church of England hath had upon 
this church. Beside this, as we know there is 
a very considerable plantation in Ireland of 
loyal and honest presbyterians, ■who will be 
ruined by episcopacy and the Liturgy, so we 
apprehend that in England, however people, 
fearing the worst, be content of any thiug that 
is better than it, yet when they shall see a settle- 
ment of these things wherewith they are dis- 
satisfied, it cannot but be very grievous to them. 
4. His majesty is to be humbly informed, 
that at least (if these humble intimations from 
us have no weight) it would be expedient not to 
conclude and determine in these things suddenly ; 
but that his majesty and his parliament take 

time till he know the true temper of his sub- 
jects, and what ■will be his real interest, which 
will be better known afterward when his ma- 
jesty shall have leisure to understand his peo- 
ple's inclinations by himself, and his good people 
shall have confidence, knowing his majesty's 
disposition, freely to represent the true state of 

These things have lien upon our hearts, to 
have them freely imparted to his majesty, out of 
no other design, next unto the glory of our Lord, 
but that we may witness our zeal to his majesty's 
prosperity and happiness. And we shall not 
cease to pray that God may guide his majesty, 
and make him wise as an angel of God, to do 
these things that shall be well pleasing in his 
sight, and which may happily settle these long . 
distracted kingdoms. 



ancient privileges. 'Tis much to be la- 
mented, that such men as Wren, whose 
corrupt principles, and wicked practices, in 
persecuting conscientious ministers, though 
conform, ;u"e too well known to be so soon 
forgotten, should have the impudence to 
appear in public vath these Babylonish 
brats. The excommunicate Sydeserf, pre- 
tended bishop of Galloway, and Mr. James 
Atkin, a deposed minister and excommuni- 
cate, took journey hence on Friday last, for 
London, persuading themselves, that prelacy 
will come again in fashion here ; but I hope 
they shall never see that day, or rather 
eclipse of our day. I doubt not but you 
will carefully guard against all that is in- 
tended to the prejudice of the established 
doctrine, worship, discipline, and govern- 
ment, of this kirk." 

June 9th, IVlr. Sharp, in his to Mr. Dou- 
glas, signifies, that he has little pleasing 
matter to write of: " That he is pleased 
with my lord Cassils' coming up ; he feai's 
we have not many like him to look to. My 
lord Loudon is not yet come up. That he 
himself endeavours not to mingle in their 
particular interests and differences, but 
presses union. There are none (adds he) 
here, but disclaim the protesters : that he 
visited the earl of Selkirk, lord Lorn, and 
Tweeddale, who professeth his abandoning 
the protesters : that twenty-eight Scots 
noblemen, and some gentlemen, had pre- 
sented a petition to the king for withdi'aw- 
ing the forces and calling a pai-liament ; the 
king received it graciously. It is thought 
the committee of estates will first meet, in 
order to the calling a parliament. The 
French ambassador is commanded forthwith 
to remove. Those who are incumbents in 
sequestrate livings are left to the course of 
law, whereby above a thousand* in the 
country and universities will be ejected. I 
can (says he) do no good here for the 
stemming of the current for prelacy, and 
long to be home: whatever dissatisfaction 
may be upon good people, yet no consider- 
able opposition will be made to prelacy. I 
hope the Lord will see to the preservation 

• This number seems too great. — Wodrow. 

of his interests among us. I gave some 
hints formerly about this, and by what yet 
appeareth, I see no ground to alter my 
thoughts, that oiu: meddling with affairs now 
will be useless, and of no advantage to our 
cause. The sad apprehensions I have of 
what I find and see as to these matters, 
bring me into a languishing desire to retire 
home and look to God, from whom our help 
alone can come. I hope you will consider 
of what is fit to be done. If you see cause 
of application in this critic^ juncture, you 
will tal^e me off, after my long continued 

Mr. Douglas answers this last, June 14th, 
and signifies to Blr. Sharp, he wishes all 
were as fixed as Cassils. " You may," adds 
he, " let the protesters sleep, for they are 
not to be feared, they are to be pitied rather 
than envied. Concerning prelacy, we have 
delivered our mind fully in former letters ; 
and when we have exonered ourselves, we 
must leave that business on the Lord, who 
will root out that stinking weed in his own 
time, whatever pains men take to plant it 
and make it grow. We expect at your 
conveniency you will give us an account of 
what letters and papers you have received 
since your return to London ; after which, 
we shall give you an answer about your 
abiding there, or coming home." 

In another letter wthout date, but by a 
passage in it, I conjecture it is writ June 
10th, Mr. Sharp tells Mr. Douglas, " I now 
begin to fear the long contended for cause 
is given up. Three months ago, some here 
were pressing upon the presbyterian party, 
both in the house and city, to make them- 
selves considerable by conjunction of coun- 
sels, and piu-suing in a united way the same 
end and interest: this could not be com- 
passed. Then the dissolving of the se- 
cluded members, (which some attribute to 
some of themselves, others to general Monk, 
I know both had a hand in it,) and jealousies 
mutual between army and parliament, made 
way for the king's coming in without condi- 
tions ; whereupon the episcopal party have 
taken the advantage : and they finding now 
that the influencing men of the presbyterian 
party are content to yield to a moderate 
episcopacy and a reformed Liturgy, craving 


only that ceremonieg be not imposed by 
canon, do shift all offers for accommodation, 
and do resolve to set up their way, and 
under pretext of fixing and conforming all 
to their rule, for avoiding of disorder and 
schism, (as they say,) give cause to appre- 
hend, that matters ecclesiastic in England 
v\dll be reduced to their former state. This 
does exceedingly sadden and perplex the 
hearts of sober good people, and episcopal 
men carry as if they concluded nothing 
could stand in their way. There were, last 
week and this, some endeavours for getting 
a petition in name of the city, that religion 
might be settled according to the league 
and covenant; but the inconsiderate and 
not right timeing of that motion has ex- 
ceedingly prejudged that business, if not 
totally crushed the design, so as it occa- 
sioned a cross petition by the most consid- 
erable of the city, that in all petitions here- 
after there might be nothing mentioned 
which had a relation to the league and 
covenant, and that nothing should be moved 
of this nature to the common council, till 
their meeting be full. It hath been generally 
bruited here, and had belief with some, that 
the petition for setthng rehgion according to 
the covenant, was set on foot and influenced 
by the Scots, and commissioners were 
coming from the church : they name in the 
Diurnals, Mr. Douglas and INIr. Dickson, with 
a gibe. This was so openly spoke of, that, 
in their meeting at the common council, it 
was moved by one, that they might put off 
their petition till the Scots commissioners 
came to town, they being upon the way; 
and currently it was talked of in and about 
the city, and I inquired by divers, if I 
knew any thing of it ? I apprehend this 
rumour has been industriously raised and 
spread by some, to cast the greater preju- 
dice upon us, who will have it still believed 
that we are sticklers to inflame all, and will 
not rest till we have our presbytery imposed 
upon England, (this is their strain,) and 
therefore it will be necessary for the kin/ 
to keep on a force upon us. I have done 
what I could for vindicating us from gi\'ing 
any ground to tliat malicious report, pro- 
fessing, that whatever the judgment of the 
church of Scotland might be as to these 

UCTIO.V. 39 

matters (which is sufficiently known), yet 
we had no hand or meddling in that petition : 
for my own part, I knew nothing of it till 
the morrow after it was framed, (as indeed 
I heard not of it till the Monday, when the 
talk was, that it was to be presented to the 
house,) neither had I heard of any commis- 
sioners coining from the church. I said 
further, that from the northern counties 
and other places, there had been endeavours 
used to draw petitions for the settling of 
presbyterian government; and this hath been 
by an underhand way set on foot, by some 
of the house of commons, giving this en- 
couragement, that the church of Scotland 
would join -with them. But the crushing of 
the city petition \vill render all these motions 
ineffectual, and, I fear, give advantage and 
ground to the episcopal party, who now 
make it their work to put oflT the meeting of 
a synod, which hitherto hath been in the 
talk of all, seeking to settle their way be- 
fore a synod can be called. I see generally 
the cassock men appearing every where 
boldly, the Liturgy in many places setting 
up. The service in the chapel at Whitehall 
is to be set up with organs and choristers, as 
formerly. No remedy for this can be ex- 
pected from the parliament, who, for the 
majority, are ready to set up episcopacy to 
the height in matters ecclesiastical; and 
with the rest moderate episcopacy will go 
down. The sober party have no reserve 
but in the king, whose inclinations lead him 
to moderation ; God bless him, and prevent 
the sad consequences which may come upon 
this way. 

" Our noblemen and others here keep yet 
in a fair way of seeming accord, but I find 
a high loose spirit appearing in some of 
them, and I hear they talk of bringing in 
episcopacy into Scotland; which, I tnist, 
they shall never be able to effect. I am 
much saddened and wearied out with what 
I he:ir and see. Some leading presbyterian s 
tell me they must resolve to close in with 
what they call moderate episcopacy, else 
open profanity will upon the one hand 
overwhelm them, or Erastianism (which 
may be the design of some statesmen) on 
the other. I am often thinking of coming 
away, for my stay here I see is to little 



purpose. I clearly see the general will not 
stand by the presbyterians. IVIr. Calamy is 
at a stand whether to accept of being king's 
chaplain, and I think it will not be much 
pressed upon him. The king has taken into 
his council divers who were upon the par- 
liament's side, but none of them are against 
moderate episcopacy. The general took 
me to his majesty on Thm'sday last ; but 
the throng is so great, I could have no 
opportunity for private communication. 

" As to your coming up, though upon 
my motion, upon Thursday was se'ennight, 
that you should be sent for, the king did 
most willingly yield to it, and desired a 
letter might be drawn to that purpose by 
Lauderdale; yet I am tossed in my thoughts 
about it since, which I have communicated 
to Crawford and Lauderdale ; and they are 
at a stand in it. Upon the one hand, I 
consider your coming might be of great 
use to the church and country at this time; 
his majesty bearing a great respect to you, 
would certainly be much swayed \vith your 
advice : upon the other hand, when I weigh 
how much the prelatical men do here signify, 
and what a jealous eye they will have upon 
you and your carriage, beai'ing no good will, 
I perceive, to you; and the public affairs noi 

your coming at this time, which will be 
attended with charge and toil, may give you 
small content, when you will find that you 
can have but little time with the king, and 
it is not your way to deal with any body 
else ; so that in ten days you will weary. 
When matters come to a greater ripeness, 
two or three months hence, your coming 
may be of more use and satisfaction to 
yoiu'self, and advantage to the public. I 
know the king will not be desu'ous as yet to 
send for any other of the brethren. And if 
I thought you would come hither before the 
instructions for the king's commissioner to 
the parliament were drawn, you might do 
much good ; else I know a little of your 
way, and am so tender of your content, that 
I fear it will not be so convenient. How- 
ever, I have put all off tUl I speak with the 
king, and know his mind fully in it. K I 
find him positive in his desire of your coming, 
immediately you shall have notice ; if not, 

I shall give you an account accordingly 
Pardon my writing thus confusedly my 
heart unto you. Your coming at this time 
can do no good, I am persuaded, to the 
presbyterian interest here, but you will 
expose yourself and our government at 
home to more jealousies and sinister con- 
struction ; and for our church government , 
I trust it shall be preserved in spite of 
opposition, and I would have you reserved 
from inconveniences on all hands, that you 
may be in better capacity to act for it. As 
for myself, I see that here which gives me 
small content, and were you here, I believe 
you would have less; and therefore I entreat 
r may have leave speedily to return. I 
know you are not capable of being tickled 
with a desire of seeing the grandeur of 
a court, and you would soon tire were you 
here; and the toil and charge of coming 
hither, and returning in so short a time, (it 
being necessary you be at home against the 
sitting of the parliament,) will be in my 
apprehension, much more than any good 
can be done at this time. The protesters' 
interest cannot be kept up, and I apprehend 
the parliament will handle them but too 
severely. The design is to overturn all 
since the year 1640, and to make the king 

yet put in a way of consistency; I fear v ^absolute. Elisha Leighton is not so signifi- 

cant a person as that by his means his 
brother can do us hurt." 

June 12th, Mr. Sharp answers Mr. Doug- 
las his letter of the 5th, and tells him, that 
since a thanksgiving is ordered in England, 
they will consider what is to be done in 
Scotland; that he has not j'etgot any return 
from the king to their letter, he is so throng. 
That two days ago my lord Rothes told him 
he was taking an opportunity to deliver that 
letter sent by him. That the ministers of 
London will make a return to that letter 
sent them. That letter, adds he, may he 
owned, and contains only a testimony of 
your affection to this church ; I vpish they 
may repay the like to you. What use they 
will make of it, he knows not. He adds, 
" For my pai-t, whatever constructions may 
be put on my way here, I have a testimon}- 
that my endeavours have not been wanting 
for promoting the presbyterian interest ac- 
cording to the covenant. I cannot say 



they have been significant, as matters aie 
now stated. There are few ministers of the 
presbyterian persuasion of any note here, to 
whom I have not communicated your readi- 
ness to concur in your sphere, for advancing 
the ends of the covenant ; and upon several 
occasions both here and in Holland, I have 
acted with them in order thereunto. I have 
spoke also with some of another judgment, 
and given them an account of our princi- 
ples and way, to evidence we are not persons 
of that surly temper, nor our profession so 
inconsistent with magistracy and peace, as 
hath been represented. Possibly thereby I 
have not avoided that fate which is incident 
to men of such employment, in this ticklish 
time ; and therefore must prepare for a lash 
from both hands. But I am the less solici- 
tous what usage I meet with, that I am 
assured my ends have been straight, and if 
I have failed in any mean, it hath been 
through mistake, and not any dishonest 
purpose: I leave my reputation to the Lord. 
It is my duty to acquaint you from time to 
time with the condition of affairs, as they 
relate to our cause, and according to my 
apprehensions, to give you my collections 
from them. Others may be of another 
opinion, but I am still of the mind, that our 
interposing in their matters here, further 
than we have done, will not bring any 
advantage to our cause, nor further those 
ends we think ourselves obliged to pursue 
at this time. I have not yet come to 
know his majesty's resolution, for sending 
for some of the ministers of Scotland : but 
for what I can learn, it is not his purpose 
to do it till his affairs here take some set- 
tlement. He was pleased last week to say 
to me before general Monk, that he would 
preserve our religion, as it was settled in 
Scotland, entirely to us. My stay here will 
be of no use upon many accounts; it is 
most necessary I come home, and speak 
with you before resolution be taken vvliat is 
incumbent to be done by you. I am not 
edified by the speeches and carriage of 
divers of our countrymen in reference to the 
covenant and ministry, when they are come 
up here. I have small hopes the garrisons 
in Scotland will be removed; the Lord's 
controversy is not yet at an end \vith us." 

Mr. Douglas answers this in his to Mr. 
Sharp, June 19th, and says, that before they 
heard of the thanksgiving in England, they 
had appointed the day he writes upon, as a 
day of thanksgiving for the king's return, in 
the presbytery of Edinburgh, and wrote of 
their appointment to other presbytenes, who, 
he hears, are to keep the same day. He 
adds, " I suspect the king's coronation is 
delayed upon a prelatic interest. I wish 
the king were crowned before any thing of 
that nature be concluded upon, that his 
majesty may not run to a contrary oath; 
my heart trembles to apprehend any thing 
of that kind. It were a happy thing to 
have religion settled upon covenant terms, 
that prelacy, so solemnly cast out, may not 
creep in again under pretext of a moderate 
episcopacy. This will be found a playing 
with the oath of God, seeing moderate 
episcopacy, as they call it, is unlawful, and 
a step to the highest of episcopacy. Min- 
isters there need not deceive themselves by 
thinking that it will stand there without the 
ceremonies, that is impossible ; and it is a 
received maxim, no ceremony no bishop, 
they having nothing to uphold their ponij) 
but the ceremonies. You know I am 
against episcopacy, root and branch. I 
wish the king would put that business off 
himself, upon the parliament and synod of 
divines ; and if they will have that moderate 
episcopacy, let it be a deed of their own, 
without approbation by his majesty. I fear 
our gracious prince meet with too manv 
temptations from the generality of that 
people, who love prelacy and the Service- 
book. I pray he may be kept from doing 
that which may offend God, who has deliv- 
ered him." 

June 14th, Mr. Sharp writes to Mr. 
Douglas, " This day the king called for me, 
and heard me speak upon our church mat- 
ters, which I perceive he does thoroughlv 
understand, and remembered all the passages 
of the public resolutions. He was pleased 
again to profess, that he was resolved to 
preserve to us the discipline and government 
of our church, as it is settled among us. 
WTien I spoke of calling a general assembly, 
he said he would call one how soon he 
could; but he thought the parliament would 



be ciilled and sit first. I found the end of 
his majesty's calling for me, was to give me 

notice that he thought it not convenient to 
send for ministers from Scotland at present: 
when his affairs were here brought to some 
settlement, he would then have time and 
freedom to speak with them, and to send 
for them to come to him. He thought it 
was fit for me to go down and give you 
notice of this, and the state of his affairs 
here, and that he would write by me to you; 
and called to one of his bedchamber to 
seek for your letter, which I delivered, 
saying, it would be found in one of his 
pockets, and a return shoidd be sent, and 
my dispatch prepared this next week. I 
find his majesty speaking of us and our 
concernments most affectionately. There 
hath been some talk in the city of a petition 
from the ministers about religion ; but some 
leading men not thinking it expedient, it 
was waved. Mr. Calamy, Mr. Manton, and 
Dr. Reynolds, are sworn chaplains : some 
say Mr. Baxter is to be admitted likewise, 
and when it is their course to officiate, they 
are not tied to the Liturgy, but others hav- 
ing performed that service, they shall only 
preach till they be clear to use it. The 
king hath ordered a letter to Dr. Reynolds 
and Ml-. Calamy, ordering them to nominate 
ten to themselves, of their judgment, to 
meet in a conference with twelve of the 
episcopal party whom he will nominate." 

Messrs. Dickson, Douglas, Wood, Hamil- 
ton, Smith, and A. Ker, write to Mr. Sharp, 
June 21st, that since the king desires he 
should come down, they are willing he 
come. They are confident he will refresh 
them with the tidings of his majesty's con- 
stant purpose, to presen'e to them their 
liberties and privileges, so solemnly engaged 
to, and advantageous to his majesty's great- 
ness and government: they profess they 
never intended, nor do intend, to press 
presbyterian government on other kirks, 
otherwise than by lajing before them the 
warrantableness thereof from God's word, 
and the efficaciousness of it, being God's 
ordinance, by his blessing to suppress errors 
and profaneness. And particularly, they 
thought it incumbent on them to lay before 
their brethren their duty, to endeavour by 

addresses to king and parliament, that the 
sin of a party who laid aside the covenant, 
may not now be made the sin of the nation. 
Since the Lord in his gracious and wise 
providence has restored the king's majesty 
and parliament to then- just rights and 
privileges, so notoriously and wickedly 
wronged against the express obligation of 
the third article of the covenant; they wish, 
and it may be in equity expected, that the 
rights of God and of religion, unto whicii 
there is an obligation in the other articles, 
should be established ; that what is God's 
may be given unto him, as what is Ca^sai 's 
is and ought to be given to him : that their 
tenderness to his majesty makes them 
desire that he may be kept free from giving 
his royal approbation to prelacy and the 
Service-book, and may rather lay the whole 
matter upon a synod of divines, who, by 
peaceable debates, may come to resolve 
upon that which is most agreeable to the 
word of God and upon his parliament, who 
may come to further clearness upon the 
result of their debates. 

IVIr. Sharp, June 16th, acquaints IVIr. 
Douglas he had received by that post one 
of the 7th, and two of the 9th, with the 
enclosed paper, " which," adds he, " con- 
tains matters of such ample and important 
consequences, as will take larger time 
to manage, than I have in this place, and 
give work for employing more than one 
or two : considering the king's present 
throng, 1 would take three or foiu- months 
to propose them in a way effectual, 
or becoming the grandeur of so great a 
prince. These are materials, I hope, will 
be laid up for more solemn addresses. I 
have a testimony, that I have not been 
wanting to improve any opportunity I had 
during these transactions for the interest of 
our country and the covenant. This will 
bear me up under the constructions my 
employment at such a ticklish juncture lays 
me open to. I ti'ust when I return to 
make it appear, I have pursued the public 
ends of religion, as far as the condition of 
affairs would bear ; and I have been biassed 
b)' no selfish ends. If informations you 
have received about the state of affairs here, 
have come from better grounds than what 



I have given, 1 shall not justify uiy mistake; 
but for any observation I can make, I 
[)rofess it still to be my opinion, that 1 
know no considerable number, and no party 
in England, that will join with you for 
settling presbyterian government, and pur- 
suing the ends of the covenant. And albeit 
I am persuaded that our engagements are 
to be religiously obsen'ed ; and of all con- 
cernments, that of religion ought to be 
secured, yet, with all submission and rever- 
ence to your judgments, I am not satisfied 
that it is incumbent to me (as the present 
state of affairs is ciixumstanced) to press 
further than I have done the matter of the 
coronation oath in Scotland, and settling of 
presbyterian government upon this nation, 
which I know will not bear it on many 
accounts. And under correction, I appre- 
hend our doing of that which may savour of 
meddling or interposing in those matters 
here, will exceedingly prejudice us, both as 
to oiu- civil liberty and settlement of religion. 
It is obvious how much the manner of 
settling religion here may influence the 
disturbing and endangering of our establish- 
ment : yet providence having concluded us 
under a moral impossibility of preventing 
this evil ; if, upon a remote fear of hazard 
to our religious interests, we shall do that 
which will provoke and exasperate those 
who wait for an opportunity of a pretext to 
overturn what the Lord hath built among 
us, who knows what sad effects it may have ? 
The present posture of affairs looks like a 
ship foundered with the waves from all 
corners, so that it is not known what course 
will be steered : but discerning men see, 
that the gale is like to blow for the prelatic 
party ; and those who are sober will yield 
to a Liturgy and moderate episcopacy, 
which they phrase to be effectual presbytery; 
and by this salvo, they think they guard 
against breach of covenant. I know this 
purpose is not pleasing to you, neither to 
me. I shall, if I find opportunity before 
my coming away, acquaint his majesty with 
as many of your desires as conveniency 
^^^ll allow. I shall also make them known 
to such ministers as I meet with ; and at 
present, till a door be opened for a more 

effectual way, this w ill be a testunony, that 
you are not involved in an approbation of 
what may pass here in prejudice of the 
covenant. Parliament men know that I 
have often spoke to them of our fu^m ad- 
herence to the covenant; and if any of them 
would excuse their not taking notice of it, 
by our not clamoiu-ing by papers to the 
house about it, I am doubtful they think 
what they speak : but more of this upon my 
return, which I so much desire, when I 
have so much dissatisfaction with the course 
of affairs here. The king speaks to om* 
countrymen about the affaii"s of Scotland 
on Monday next : I wish we were all soon 
home, for little good is either gotten or 
done here. The Lord fit us for future 
trials, and establish us in his way." 

June 19th, I\Ir. Sharp writes again to 
Mr. Douglas, acquainting him, " that he had 
his of the 12th, and had little to add: that 
he had been with some city ministers, and 
Mr. Gower of Dorchester, an eminent pres- 
byterian minister, who speaks with regret of 
the neglect of the covenant ; but, says he, 
I see no effectual way taken to help this ; 
your exoneration is sufficiently known to 
them, and I wish I could write you had any 
encouragement from them to go further. I 
see little the presbyterians can, or intend to 
do for the promoting that interest. The 
surest friends to our religion and liberty of 
our countrymen, since they came here, are 
of opinion, that your further interposing 
can do no good, but will probably bring 
hazard to the settlement among us. I hope 
this week to have his majesty's letter sig- 
nifying his resolution to preserve the estab- 
lished doctrine, worship, discipline, and go- 
vernment of our kirk, and that we shall 
have a general assembly ; and then I shall 
come home with jour leave. If we knew 
how little our interests are regarded by the 
most part here, we would not much concern 
ourselves in theu's. If we cannot prevent 
the course taken here, we are to trust God 
with the preservation of what he hath 
wrought for us. Yesterday his majesty 
gii\e audience to the commissioners from 
Ireland, who, among other desires, moved, 
that religion might be settled there, as it 



WHS in the days of the king's grandfather 
and fatlier, that establishment being the only 
fence against schism and confusion. From 
this we may guess what our presbyterian 
brethren may meet with. In the evening 
our lords attended the king, and general 
Monk was present. Crawford and Lauder- 
dale spoke so before the king for the re- 
moving garrisons, that the general could 
not answer them. At the end the king 
desired they would consult among them- 
selves, and give their advice about calling a 
parliament, and till then how the govern- 
ment of the kingdom was to be settled. 
This day they met frequently, and, after 
some debates, not without heat and re- 
flections, it was referred to a committee of 
twelve to draw up a petition to his majesty, 
that the government might be managed by 
his majesty, and the committee of estates 
nominated by the parliament at Stirling, 
until the sitting of the parliament, which, 
they thought, might be called by proclama- 
tion legally ; and they humbly desired that 
all the forces might be withdrawn, and, if it 
seem good to his majesty, he might, in the 
place of the English garrisons, put in Scot- 
tish. This paper in a day or two they are 
to present. By the temper that appeared 
in the generality of this meeting, I know 
not what may be expected by us ; the Lord 
fit us for the trials that abide us. Mrs. 
Gillespie is come up to petition the king 
fpr the continuance of her husband's place, 
and he is thought not to be far off." 

June 21st, Mr. Sharp writes to Mr. 
Douglas, that his of the 14th was come 
to him : " that the course of prelacy is 
carrying on without any opposition ; so that 
they who were for the moderation thereof, 
apprehend they have lost their game. No 
man knows what this overdriving will 
come to. The parliament complain of his 
majesty's moderation, and that he does not 
press the settling all sicut ante. God only 
knows what temptations and trials are abid- 
ing us. I have made such use of your 
papers as is possible. You stand exonered 
as to any compliance with the times, or 
betraying the common cause by your silence, 
in the judgment of all to whom I have 

communicate what you liave ordered me to 
do. Our task is to wait upon God, who 
hath done great things we looked not for, 
and can make those mountains plains." 

June 23d, he writes to IVIr. Douglas, 
" all is wrong here as to church affairs ; 
episcopacy will be settled here to the 
height; their lands will be all restored: 
none of the presbyterian way here oppose 
this, or do any thing but mourn in secret. 
We know not the temper of this people, to 
have any tiling to do with them. All 
the bishops in Ireland are nominate. Dr. 
Bramble is archbishop of Armagh : and they 
are to sit dov/n next session of parliament. 
I am divers times vrith Cassils and Lorn, 
who are fixed to us. I suspect, the general 
bent of our countrymen carries them to 
Ei-astianism among us. I hear your pulpits 
ring against the course of affairs here, and 
your sermons are observed particularly. All 
persons in England, who have acted in the 
public contests since the (year) 1640, are 
like to suffer one way or other ; and this will 
cast a copy to the proceedings in Scotland. 
I find some very eager to prosecute such at 
the next meeting of the committee of estates 
or parliament." 

June 26th, Mr. Sharp writes to Mr. 
Douglas, that he had received his of the 
19th J " that the king's coronation is thought 
to be delayed, upon the reason he spoke of 
Dr. Gauden hath written against the cove- 
nant. Petitions come up from counties, 
for episcopacy and Liturgy. The Lord's 
anger is not turned away. The generality 
of the people are doting after prelacy and 
the Service-book. Dr. Crofts, preaching 
before the king last Sabbath, said, that for 
the guilt he had contracted in Scotland, and 
the injuries he was brought to do against 
the church of England, God had defeated 
him at Worcester, and pursued his contro- 
versy with a nine years' exile ; and yet he 
would fui'ther pursue him, if he did close 
with his enemies, meaning those of the 
presbyterian persuasion, who are of the 
privy council. The king expressed his 
dislike after sermon, calling him a passion- 
ate preacher. The episcopal party take all 
methods to strengthen themselves : they 


have reprinted Mr. Jenkins's Petition in the 
Tower, and Recantation Sermon. Some 
ministers of the city tell me they are endeav- 
ouring to promote a petition, that religion 
may be settled with moderation; j'et, for 
avoiding offence they will, not take notice of 
the covenant, or presbyterian government." 
By another letter of the same date, Mr. 
Sharp tells Mr. Douglas, " That he had 
seen a paper of Sir John Chiesly's, in his 
vindication, wherein he declares, that by 
the remonstrance they intended not to 
exclude the king, but proposed, if they had 
carried the victory at Hamilton, to have 
joined him : in it. Sir John insists upon his 
not complying with the English, and refusing 
offices under them. Lauderdale and Cassils 
are both convinced we ought not to meddle 
with the affairs of England. We thought 
best to put off the speaking to the king of 
a general assembly, till he signify his 
pleasure about calling a parliament. Some 
of our noblemen here are against the 
covenant and a general assembly, men of 
no principle railing against the ministry; 
but the leading sober men are for both ; 
only they differ about the time of calling 
the assembly : if it should be before the 
parliament, it woidd have no authority; 
and they fear you would be too tender of 
the remonstrators, for they are resolved to 
take order with the remonstrance at the 
parliament. Some think the assembly 
might sit before the parliament, but most 
are for its sitting afterwards. In the king's 
declaration for calling a general assembly, 
Lauderdale and I were thinldng it is fit 
the assemblies at St. Andrews and Dundee 
be mentioned as what his majesty owns; 
which will put a bar upon the elections of 
remonstrators, or else they must renounce 
then- judgment. We were speaking whether 
it were fit that the assembly which was 
interrupted by Lilburn, 1G53, should be 
called to sit again. These hints I give 
you, that you may send your mind, and a 
draught for calling an assembly in the way 
you would have it. When it shall please 
God to give it us, it will be expected that 
the remonstrance, protestation, and all that 
has followed, be disclaimed. Cassils thinks 
vou went too far in yom- propositions for 


peace; and that they not being embraced, 
you ought not now to stand to them, but, 
for the vindication of the government of 
our church, you ought to disown all the 
absurdities of the protesters. I know no 
call nor shadow of reason for us to mingle 
with what relates to the English church. 
The presbyterian ministers are now busy to 
get terms of moderation from the episco- 
palians. There are discontents and grum- 
blings, but the episcopal men have the wind 
i of them, and know how to make use of it. 
I am convinced your coming up, either 
before this, or now, would have been to no 
advantage, but much to your discontent 
afterwards the opportunity, I believe, will 
be far more seasonable. A friend of Lam- 
bert's did move, that the king should send 
Lauderdale to the Tower, to speak with 
him privately, and he would discover all 
the treacheries in Scotland, which he 
knows better than any Englishman : he 
promised he would send Lauderdale to 
Lambert, to know these villanies. I find 
the king bears no respect to Loudon or 
Lothian. Dr. Reynolds, Mr. Manton, and 
Baxter, were this day with the king. Mr. 
Calamy is ill of the gout. Mr. Ash tells 
me they will write an answer to yours. 
The king, after the general and chamberlain 
had spoke to him of endeavouring recon- 
ciliation betwixt episcopal men and others, 
said, he would make them agree. The 
calling of a synod is put off. The king 
having spoke the other night of Mr. Cant's 
passionateness, fell a commending of you. 
I have spoke with Broghill to the full> and 
cleared his mistake of any stirs among us ; 
he professeth great friendship for us." 

By his next to Mr. Douglas, June 28th, 
Mr. Sharp tells him, " I cannot see how it 
is possible for me, or any one else, to man- 
age the business committed to me by your 
letters of the other week, with any shadow 
of advantage; but a certain prejudice will 
follow upon oiu- further moving in these par- 
ticulars, that are so disgustful here. I am 
baited upon all occasions with the act of the 
West-kirk, and the declaration at Dunferm- 
line. The protesters will not be welcome 
here; their doom is dight, unless some, 
upon design of heightening our division, give 



them countenance, wliich I hear 
among some noblemen. No good will fol- 
low on the accommodation with the episco- 
pal party ; for these who profess the presby- 
terian way, resolve to admit moderate epis- 
copacy; and the managing this business by 
papers will undo them : the episcopal men 
will catch at any advantage they get by their 
concessions, and, after all, resolve to carry 
their own way. Those motions, about their 
putting in writing what the)' would desire in 
point of accommodation, are but to gain 
time, and prevent petitionings, and smooth 
over matters till the episcopal men be more 
strengthened. I find that there is a conjec- 
ture, and not without ground, that Middle- 
ton will be commissioner to the parliament. 
The garrisons will not be taken off till next 
summer. The committee of estates will sit 
down, and make work for the next parlia- 
ment, which will be soon called. The king 
hath declared his resolution not to meddle 
with our church government; which hath 
quieted the clamoiu"ings of some ranting men 
here, as if it were easy to set up episcopacy 
among us. I saw this day a letter from one 
in Paris, that some learned protestants in 
France, and of the professors at Leyden, 
were writing for the lawfulness of episco- 
pacy ; and, if the king would write to the 
assembly in Charenton, July next, there 
would be no doubt of their approving his 
purpose to settle episcopacy in England. 
Om- noblemen who are of any worth, are 
fast enough against episcopacy amongst us ; 
but I suspect some of them are so upon a 
state interest rather than conscience, and all 
incline to bring our church government to a 
subordination to the civil power. The com- 
mittee of estates and parliament will exercise 
severity against the protesters. It will be 
yet ten d^s before I get off." 

Mr. Sharp writes another letter to Mr. 
Douglas, June 28th, and signifies his receipt 
ef that of the 21st, and his satisfaction that 
they have given him leave to return ; and 
runs out upon the great mercy of the king's 
restoration ; and adds, " although we want 
not our fears, let us procure what is wanting 
by prayer, and not dwell too much on fear, 
lest we sour our spuits :" that he writes this, 
because he hears some in Scotland cast 

down all that is done, because the great 
work of reformation is not done. He adds, 
" yesterday I asked our friends, honest INIr. 
Godfrey and Mr. Swinton, what they 
thought was fit for us to do at present? 
They answered they saw nothing remaining, 
but prayer and waiting on God. The other 
day. Ml-. Calamy, Dr. Reynolds, Mr. Baxter, 
and Mr. Ash, had a conference with the 
king, whose moderation and sweetness 
much satisfied them. It issued in this, that 
the king desired them to draw up in writ 
the lengths they could go for meeting those 
of the episcopal way; and promised he 
would order the prelates and their adherents 
to draw their condescensions, and after he 
had seen both, he would bring them to an 
accommodation, in spite of all who would 
oppose it. Some friends of the presbyterian 
way are very solicitous about this business, 
fearing that what they do now may conclude 
all their party, and lest they fall into an 
error in limine, which cannot be retracted, 
that is, if they give in their paper of con- 
cessions, those will be laid hold on, and 
made use of by the other party as granted; 
and yet they remit nothing of their way, 
and so break all with advantage : I spake 
to them to guard against those inconveni- 
ences. Mr. Calamy sent to me yesterday, 
to tell me of their proceedings ; but I told 
him and others I would not meddle in 
those matters; that their accommodation, 
and falling in to moderate episcopacy and 
reformed Liturgy, was destructive to the 
settlement among us. Next week they are 
to have meetings on these heads; but I 
see not through them, and expect no good 
of them." 

July 3d, Ml'. Douglas acknowledges the 
receipt of Mr. Sharp's of the 23d, 26th, and 
28th, and notices, that Crofts's seditious 
sermon before the king is much like the 
way of the usurpers, who justified all their 
procedure by the signal providence of God 
against the royal family. Crofts's sermon, 
and Gauden's book, says he, may stir up 
men to speak for presbytery against prelacy. 
He desires him, when he comes off, to 
appoint some to receive letters from them, 
and deliver them to Lauderdale. " After 
this," adds he, " assembhes are not to 


interweave civil matters with ecclesiastic; 
and he wisheth that the king were informed 
of this, that, after our brethren went from 
us, our proceedings were abstract from all 
civil affairs ; and he is confident, when the 
assembly sits, all those former ways will be 
laid aside." That same day he writes 
another letter to Mr. Sharp ; and as to his 
and others preaching against the course car- 
rying on in England, he says, " except it be 
to pray that the kirk of England be settled 
according to the word of God, and the king 
and parliament directed, we meddle not 
with England; neither can it be thought 
that we should preach against prelacy in 
England, where there are none of that way 
to hear us. Some indeed here make it their 
work to possess people wth the king's pur- 
pose to bring in prelacy to Scotland, which 
hath necessitate me often in public to vin- 
dicate his majesty, and signify he hath never 
discovered any such purpose, but rather 
professed the contrary, which hath satisfied 
honest people here who were discouraged 
with such apprehensions. If it be your 
mind at court that we should not speak of 
presbyterial government in Scotland, and 
that our covenant may be kept here, then I 
hope never to be of it, for we had never 
more need, considering the temper of many 
here, and our countrymen with you. Mr. 
John Stirling and Mr. Gillespie came to me 
from a meeting of the protesters, desiring 
us to join with them in a representation to 
the king, but I declined this, as I hinted 
before in one of mine. I think an assembly 
cannot sit till the government of the nation 
be settled ; but when the parliament has sit, 
it will be necessary. I have sent you the 
draught of a proclamation for a free gene- 
ral assembly; or if his majesty will have the 
assembly that was raised, 1653, a small al- 
teration will make it answer. (This draught 
is annexed.*) I think it necessary, that 


* Draught of a Proclamation for an Assembly. 
■ — Charles, by the grace of God king of Scotland, 
England, France, and Ireland, defender of the 
faith, to our lovites, heralds, messengers, our 
sheriffs in that part, conjunctly and severally, 
specially constitute, greeting: — Forasmuch as, 
through and uj>on occasion of the looseness and 
distraction of these late times, divers disorders 
have broken forth in the church of this our an- 

when the king intimates a parliament, a 
petition come from this to his majesty, for 
his convening that assembly pro re nata ; 
upon which petition, a proclamation may be 
issued. Let our noble friends know of this, 
and such a petition may be soon got. 

" As to what you write of the declaration 
at Dunfermline, I was one who went to his 
majesty with it first, before any commission- 
ers were sent; and, after hearing his scruples, 
he knows, if he remember, that I did no 
more press him with it; and when I re- 
tm'ned, I endeavoured to satisfy the com- 
missioners ; and when they were naming 
other commissioners to send again to his 
majesty, I said, I would not go; and they 
thought me too favourable a messenger for 
such an errand, and sent good Mr. Hamil- 
ton, with some whom they thought would 
press it more : and after his majesty had 
signed it, and written a very honest letter 
to the commission, to alter some expressions 
in the declaration, the protesters carried it 
by multitudes, that not one word of it 
should be altered. 

" As for the act of the West-kirk, I shall 
declare to you the truth of that business, 
for none can do it better than Mr. Dickson, 
Andrew Ker, and I. We met first at Leith, 
IVIr. Dickson, Mr. Hamilton, Mr. Thomas 
Kirkaldy, and I only, all the rest were pro- 
testers. When such an act was offered, we 
debated on it about the space of three 
hours, and findmg them obstinate, I being 
moderator, dissolved the meeting. After 
that, the officers being dealt with by them, 
a great many of them professed that they 
would not fight at all, except they got 
somethmg of that nature, and upon that 
there was a meeting at the West-lcii-k drawn 
on for accommodation, where the quorum 
was twenty-three ministers, eighteen of 
whom were for satisfying the officers with 
such an act ; and nine ruling eld^ six of 

cient kingdom of Scotland, which we do hold it 
oui- duty, in our royal station, to heal and re- 
strain by proper and lit remedies : and consid- 
ering that national and general assemblies are 
the most proper and effectual remedies for pre- 
venting and curing such distempers within this 
church ; and that notwithstanding there ai'e 
divers laws and acts of pai'liament of this king- 
dom, warranting and securing the national as- 



whom were violent for it. Messrs. Dickson, 
Hamilton, Kiikaldy, and I, were still 
against it, till after conference, two of us, 
with some of them, after solemn protesta- 
tion, that there should be no use made 
thereof, but to show it to the officers for 
satisfaction, it was agreed on by that plu- 
rality that it should be enacted, which was 
carried to the committee of estates by them; 
and approven there ; and it was by me en- 
closed in a letter to David Lesly, in which 
I declared it was merely for satisfaction of 
some officers, that now they might fight 
against the common enem}'. My memory 
serves me not to declare what fm'ther was 
in it, yet, notwithstanding of all professions 
to the contrary, it was published that night 
in print, without either my hand at it as 
moderator, or Mr. Ker's as clerk; which 
afterwards was made evident at Perth, and 
the chancellor being posed, who gave war- 
rant to print it ? he professed publicly he 
gave none. The king's subscribing the 
declaration at Dunfermlinej made the act 
null : but that did not satisfy us, after we 
saw their way which tliey took, notwith- 
standing of his majesty's subscription, con- 
tinuing to oppose all the resolutions which 
were taken for his majesty's preservation, 
and the kingdom's defence; and in the 
assembly at St. Andrews and Dundee, 
where his majesty's commissioner was 

scmblies w^ithin the same, and it hath been the 
laudable practice of our royal predecessors to 
authorise and countenance these meetings, and 
we ourselves were gi-aciously pleased to honour 
the assembly at St. Andrews and Dundee with 
the presence of our commissioner ; yet the armed 
violence of the late usurper did not spare to make 
forcible interruption to these meetings, so that 
the same have been intermitted for a long time : 
and seeing it hath pleased God graciously and 
wonderfully to restore us to our just and ancient 
right and government, and to hear and satisfy 
the earnest prayers and desires of the good people 
of this nation in that behalf, we are resolved to 
improve the power and authority he has given 
us, to his honour, and for promoting and ad- 
vancing religion and piety, and repressing error, 
profaneness, and disorder within this kingdom, 
and, in order to these ends, to apply and re- 
store these remedies, which have been so long 
wanting and withhoLlen upon the occasion fore- 
said. Therefore we have thought fit to indict 
and call a general assembly, and, by these pre- 
sents, we do indict, appoint, and ordain a free 
general assembly of this church, to be kept 
Bad holden at Eilinbui'gh the day of 

present, the assembly took to their con- 
sideration that act of the West-kirk, anc] 
put an explication upon it. It is not full 
enough, because by the enemy's coming 
to Fife, we were forced to go to Dundee. 
Thereafter our troubles growing upon us, 
after much hot debate about the condemn- 
ing it altogether, having so many to deal 
with in that troublesome tune, the assembly 
only came this length; I hope the next 
assembly shall make it fiill enough. 

" Two things would be well considered : 
these men now called protesters were not 
then discovered to be such enemies to the 
proceedings of the kingdom as afterward 
they appeared; and therefore pains was 
taken to condescend in some things to 
keep them fast : and next, they had infected 
many of the officers, who were made un 
willing to fight, except they were satisfied 
in theu" scruples, and we behoved to con- 
descend in some things to engage them, as 
in granting a warrant to raise an army in 
the west, to encourage them to fight. But 
after they were found to fall on the remon- 
strance, and those ways, there was never 
any thing in the least yielded to them, as 
all our procedure will make evident when 
seen by a general assembly, which will be 
to us a standing testimony of our honesty 
and reality in pursuing his majesty's interest 
and the kingdoms, in oiu: sphere, against 

next, at which time we purpose, God willing, 
that a commissioner from us shall be there, to 
represent us and our authority; and we will 
and ordain, that presbyteries, and others con. 
cerned, may choose, elect, and send their com.- 
missioners to that meeting. 

Our will is herefore, and we charge you 
straightly, and command, that, incontinent these 
our letters seen, you pass, and make publication 
hereof at the market-cross of Edinburgh, and 
other burghs of this kingdom, wherethrougii 
none pretend ignorance ; and that you warn 
thereat all and sundiy presbyteries, and others 
concerned in the election of commissioners to 
general assemblies, to the eifect aforesaid, and 
also all commissioners from presbyteries, and 
others having place and vote in assemblies, to 
repair and address themselves to the said town 
of Edinburgh, the said day of and to 

attend the said assembly during the time thereof, 
and aye and while the same be dissolved; and 
to do and perform all which, to their charges, iu 
such cases appertaineth, as they will answer to 
the contrary. 

Per Regem. 


all opposcrs. 'flie misconstructions of those 
with you, made me at such length lay before 
you what may inform you in these matters." 

July 5th, Mr. Douglas adds, " In my last 
I overlooked the matter of the accommoda- 
tion. My thoughts of it are, 1. That the 
matters of offices and ordinances, which 
ought to be of Christ's appointment, admit 
not of a latitude to come and go upon : 
which they suppose, who by way of trysting, 
give commissions and condescensions in the 
matter of episcopacy, and the Service-book. 
2. By their accommodation they yield up 
what they had gained through the blessing 
of God by the labours of a learned assem- 
bly, and was agreed to by the parliament. 
.3. Not only their concessions will be im- 
proven, as you well observe, but also what- 
ever the hierarchists may happen to conde- 
scend to at present, ad faciendum popuhnn, 
they will not keep longer than they find a 
convenience to step over at their own ease, 
to their wonted height. Their present car- 
riage, and the open appearances of the most 
violent of them, makes this plain. 4. I 
believe those learned men will, on second 
thoughts, perceive that it is a task, if not 
impossible, yet very difficult to propose 
concessions, which may satisfy the presby- 
terians in England, without conference with 
them, and communication of counsels. For 
which effect, and that the odium of the 
miscarriage lie not on them, it may be 
expected from their wisdom that they will 
endeavour a meeting of the honest and 
learned men of the ministry to consider 
of the matter. 5. Whatever be the event 
and effects, it will be a comfort to honest 
men, they had no hand in the re-introduction 
of those things they cannot be free of in a 
way of treaty and condescension. Those 
things being considered, we cannot approve 
of that way, and you do well not to meddle 
in it." 

Mr. Sharp writes to Mr. Douglas, July 
3d, and says, " I lately spoke with some 
who have the chief management, and had 
opportunity to clear the integrity of honest 
men, from the year 1651, to this. For any 
thing I can observe, the king and his min- 
isters have such a resentment of the pro- 
testers' way, that we shall need rather to 


plead some indulgence, than fear any favour. 
Lauderdale denies he sent any letter to 
Mr. Patrick Gillespie; and all his eloquence 
will scarce secure him from being account- 
able, when an inquisition is made into the 
affronts he put upon the king and his 
authority, and his intrusions upon the town 
and university. The king told the four 
presbyterian ministers at their last confer 
ence, he would have the church of England 
governed by bishops. And when it was 
replied, that they were not enemies to 
regulated episcopacy, he bid them put in 
writ their concessions, and what regulations 
they thought needful. He promised that 
none of them should be pressed to con- 
formity, until a synod determined that 
point, and that all who had entered into 
livings whose incumbents are dead, should 
be continued, and others, before they were 
outed, should be provided for. They have 
had several meetings since. At their first, 
they voted they would treat vnth the 
episcopal party upon bishop Usher's reduc- 
tion ; but I apprehend they will go a 
greater length, and to-morrow I shall know 
of Mr. Calamy the particulars. I trust you 
wdll not think it convenient I be present at 
meetings where such concessions are made. 
The king will give our countrymen their 
answer very soon ; and it is, that the com- 
mittee of estates will speedily sit down, 
with limitations as to the time, and their 
proceeding as to sequestrations, or finings, 
till the parliament sit. F the accounts here 
of expressions ministers use in their puij)its 
be true, I wish ministers would moderate 
their passions at such a time." 

By another letter, same date, Mr. Sharp 
acquaints Mr. Douglas, " That he sees no 
ground to think undeserving men will be in 
request, as is reported with them in Scotland. 
I have, adds he, acquainted the king's prime 
minister with Mr. GUlespie's character in 
case he come here : I have also acquainted 
that great man with your deservings of the 
king. The king hath not yet considered 
how to manage his affairs as to Scotlan d, 
and all he says to our countrymen here 
will be but for the fashion. That which 
will be effectual, must proceed from his 
cabinet council, consisting of three j)ersons. 


whom he will call in a few days, and set 
apart some time with them on purpose to 
manage Scots afTairs. Middletoa will be 
commissioner, who professeth a great re- 
gard to you. I apprehend Glencau-n will 
be chancellor, Crawford treasm-er, New- 
burgh secretary, Sir Archibald Primrose 
register, Mr. John Fletcher advocate. Gen- 
eral Monk desires you may write to the 
presbyterian ministers in the north of Ire- 
land, to leave off their indiscreet preach- 
ing against the king, and not praying for 
him. I hope these reports are aggravated, 
but since the commissioners of that king- 
dom have petitioned for episcopacy, I am 
afraid they be persecuted. Cassils is honest, 
but not for this com't." 

Mr. Douglas answers the two last, July 
12th. As to the expressions in pulpits, he 
says, some men take a liberty to speak, 
which will riot be remedied but by a 
general assembly j and if this be meant of 
others who have been all along for the 
king, 'tis but a calumny. 'Tis another for- 
gery which you write, of the ministers of 
the north of Ireland: Mr. Peter Blair is 
just now come over, and assures us they all 
pray most cordially for his majesty. I hear 
of some protesters in the north of Scot- 
land who pray not for the king, but none in 
L'eland. A general assembly will help us, 
and give them advice in Ireland, Yoiu- 
matters at London are yet a mystery to me. 

July 7th, Mr. Sharp writes to Mr. Doug- 
las he had his June 28th. " The ministers 
have had several meetings at Sion College 
since my last: they have many debates, 
and are not all in one mind ; yet they have 
all agreed to bishop Usher's model, to set 
forms, and an amended Liturgyj they desii'c 
freedom from the ceremonies. Some yester- 
day spoke in the house for episcopacy, and 
Mr. Bainfield speaking against it, was hissed 
down. The English lawyers have given in 
papers to show that the bishops have not 
jbeen outed by law. The cloud is more 
dark than was apprehended. Messrs. Hart, 
Ricl)ardson, and Kays, are to be in town 
this night from the -ministers of the north 
of L-eland. Their coming is ill taken by 
the commissioners from the convention 
ttiere, who have petitioned for episcopacy. 


Affairs begin to be embroiled here ; many 
fear a break. The presbyterians are like to 
be ground betwixt two millstones. The 
papists and fanatics are busy. Argyle is 
this day come to town, and he will not be 

July 10th, Mr. Sharp writes to Mr. 
Douglas, that Crofts is discharged the 
court. The episcopal men are bowing a 
little ; the presbyterians have finished their 
concessions ; the issue will be the emitting 
of a declaration by the king about moderate 
episcopacy, amended Liturgy, and dispensing 
with the ceremonies. They will subject to 
any episcopacy; they will act under mo- 
derate episcopacy, and own bishops may be 
acknowledged as civil officers imposed by 
the king, I find no inclination in the king 
to meddle with our church government. 
The marquis of Argyle was sent to the 
Tower last Lord's day. He adds, " He is 
not of their mind, who would not have you 
preach for presbyterial government, holding 
up the covenant, and keeping out prelacy 
from Scotland ; but I am still of the opinion, 
that there is neither necessity, nor advan- 
tage to meddle with the settlement, whether 
civil or ecclesiastic, here in England. Dear 
bought experience should make us wary of 
mingling with the concerns of a people, 
who bear no regard to us. You'll have 
many letters as to the manner of Argyle's 
commitment, and I say nothing of it. His 
warrant mentions the cause to be high 
treason, whether for past actings, or what 
he may do at this time against the king's 
interest, I know not. This day the lord 
Lorn was permitted to see his father. I'll 
endeavour to move that one of the in- 
structions to the committee of estates may 
be to see to the preserving the government 
of the kirk, and particularly of the acts of 
the general assembly at St. Andrews and 
Dundee, and then that after the parliament 
a general assembly be called. I doubt if 
the motion, for the king's taking notice of 
the assemblies since the interruption of his 
goverrunent, take. I have frequently ob- 
served in converse here for our vindication, 
that by the influence of the protesting 
party among us, we were led out to some 
exorbitancies not charceable on us or our 



kirk. Honest Cassils, Loudon, Lothian, 
and Lorn, have been pressing a conference 
before the king, with Crawford, Lauderdale, 
Rothes, and Glencairn, to debate the ex- 
pediency of a committee of estates ; but 
this, savouring of faction and division, is 
not liked by the king. The motive of 
Cassils and the rest for avoiding the com- 
mittee, is the a{)prehension they have of 
the others' design to quarrel the parliament, 
1649, and so to remler their actings cul- 
pable. I engage in no party, while I am 
here, that I may know how the wheels 
move. There is a necessity I get and keep 
acquaintance with the episcopal party, as 
well as presbyterians, and with those about 
court who manage the king's affairs though 
they be no friends to presbyterians, though 
I will hereby be exposed to the construc- 
tions of men. I am confident the king 
hath no purpose to wrong our chiu-ch in 
her settlement ; my greatest fear is their 
introducing Erastianism. Chancellor Hyde, 
and those of that party, will have Middleton 
commissioner, and some of our noblemen 
have told the king it is theu* desire he be 
the man. 'Tis probable Lauderdale will 
be secretary." 

July 19th, Mr. Douglas answers the last, 
and tells ]VIr Sharp, " That there is no fear 
of their meddling with civil affairs in their 
judicatories : we, adds he, have reason to 
kiiow that these are to be kept distinct with- 
out encroachment. When the king grants a 
general assemblj', it will be seen how con- 
sistent presbytery is with monarchy I was 
never urging for an assembly before, or in 
time of parliament. It shall be sufficient to 
us, that nothing be done in parliament to the 
prejudice of our established kirk government, 
and that the assembly be indicted shortly 
after. I think it will do as well, that the 
members of the assembly be chosen after 
the established order, as that the last as- 
sembly be called. Some of the protesters 
are here met, they will get none of us to 
join them in what they do." 

July 21st, Mr. Douglas writes again, and 
desires Mr. Sharp to give the lady Argyle 
all the comfort and assistance he can when 
she comes up to see her lord. He adds, 
" When Sir Jiuiics Stuart and Sir John 

Chiesly were seized, Mr. Gillespie was here 
at the meeting of protesters, and saw fit to 
remove. Two came to me from the meet- 
ing, and desired we would join them in a 
letter to the king anent episcopacy in Eng- 
land. I told them we could not join with 
them in any thing of that kind ; and wished 
them to consider that the circumstances 
they stood in, with reference to the king, 
were not good. When they asked me, if 
I thought not it requisite to bear testimony 
against prelacy there ? I answered, I thought 
not ; and told them, I was afraid it might 
be hurtful to them ; and we could not, to 
any advantage, press any thing now for 
England. 1 hear they have resolved to do 
nothing at this time ; but, if any thing were 
done in Reference to the remonstrance, they 
would give their testimony." 

Mr. Sharp writes to Mr. Douglas, July 
14th, " that he iiad communicate his 
thoughts upon the accommodation to the 
brethren of the city. They have some 
sense of the inconveniencies you mention j 
but they excuse themselves from the present 
necessity they are under, and the duty they 
owe to the peace of the church. They 
gave in their paper to the king on Tuesday 
last, which he ordered them not to com- 
municate, till he made his pleasure known. 
After he heard them read it, he com- 
mended it, as savouring of learning and 
moderation, and hoped it might give a 
beginning to a good settlement in the 
churcL When I heard of the contents of 
that paper, I asked if they thought it con- 
sistent with their covenant engagements? 
They said they judged so, for they had 
only yielded to a constant precedency and 
a reformed Litiu"gy. I fear they have here- 
by given a knife to cut their own tlu"oats, 
and do find the episcopalians prosecute 
their own way. This morning the king 
called me to his closet alone, where I had 
the opportunity to give a full information, 
as to all those particulars you by yoiu- 
former letter did desii-e; and, I jnust say, 
we have cause to bless the Lord for so 
gracious a king. A fetter will be writ in a 
day or two, and I will get off. Ere long 
the parliament will restore the bishops' 
lands. There are universal ronij)laints of 



the ejection of many honest ministers 
throughout the land, and the re-admission 
of many not well qualified." 

Next post, Mr. Sharp writes to Mr. 
Douglas, and acquamts him, " That upon 
Monday there was a long and a hot debate 
in the house of commons about religion. 
The high episcopal men laboured to put to 
the question the whole complex business 
about tloctrine, worship, discipline, and gov- 
ernment of the church of England, that 
none other should take place, but what was 
according to law. The other side, consist- 
ing of presbyterians, i. e. for the most part 
moderate episcopal men, urged, that the 
particular about doctrine might only at that 
time be put to the question. After debates 
till night, it came to this issue, that the 
house should adjourn the taking the matter 
of religion into their consideration until the 
23d of October; and, in the mean time, 
they should desire his majesty to take the 
advice of some divines about the settling 
and composing of differences about church 
matters. Thus all is put into his majesty's 
hands. Whether this shall contribute to 
the regulating or heightening the episcopal 
way, there ai'e different conjectures : how- 
ever, all offices in the church and universi- 
ties are just filling with men of that way. 
Two ministers from Ireland, Mi*. Kays, an 
Englishman, and Mr. Richardson, a Scots- 
man, came to town some time since ; they 
have been several times with me, and let me 
see their address, signed by sixty ministers 
and upwards, and their letter to the London 
ministers. Their address is well penned, 
and contains nothing which can give offence, 
unless the episcopalians except against the 
designing the king to be our covenanted 
king, and engaged against error and schism, 
popery and prelacy; and therefore pray, 
that reformation may be settled according 
to the covenant. The London ministers 
civilly received them, but I do not hear of 
their assisting them. I have given them 
advice as to the managing of their employ- 
ment, and have made way for them to the 
general, if by him they may have access to 
the king. I have brought them to my lord 
Cassils, and am to take them to Crawford 
and Lauderdale. I am afraid their success 

be little ; but it is well they are come over, 
to vindicate the aspersions cast upon them 
as to undutifulness, and to obtain some 
abatement of the rigour and persecution 
they have cause to fear from the prelates. 
They have need, honest men, of our prayers; 
for the crushing of them will blast the 
Lord's work, in that kingdom, in the bud. 
I told you in my last, that on Saturday I 
was with the king : the sum of what he is 
graciously pleased to grant as to chm-ch 
matters, was by his order cast into a letter, 
which was read to him on Monday, and 
approven, I being present, and ordered to 
be put in mundo, for signing with his hand, 
and affixing his privy seal. I tnist it shall 
be refreshing to all honest men, (and he 
gives the heads of it, which need not be 
here insert.) He adds. This is all I could 
desii'e, as matters are stated ; and I adore 
the goodness of God, who hath brought 
my six months' toilsome employment to this 
issue. I have asserted oiu* cause to his 
majesty and others, and pleaded for pity 
and compassion to oiu* opposers. I have 
not spoke of any thing savoming of severity 
or revenge. I had almost forgot my urging 
his majesty to call a general assembly, which 
he told me, could not now be resolved upon 
as to the time, till he should more fully 
advise about ordering his affairs in Scotland. 
And, upon the motion of his owning the 
assembly at St. Andrews, 1651, he readUy 
yielded to it, as the fittest expedient to 
testify his approbation of oiu* cause, and his 
pleasure that the disorders of our chiu-ch 
be remedied in the approven way. You 
will easily see why he could not own these 
assemblies, that were holden after the in- 
terruptions of his government." 

July 26th, Mr. Sharp acquaints Mr. 
Douglas, that several of our countrymen 
are not satisfied with the king's gracious 
declaration as to the preserving our gov- 
ernment, I am advised to put off my 
journey two or three days, that I may take 
care that, by instructions to the committee 
of estates, the king's assurance in his letter 
may be made good; and probably those 
instructions will be perfected this week. 
The king's condescension, that the acts and 
authority of the general assembly at St. 



Andrews and Dundee be owned, doth take 
in the acts of the commission preceding it. 
Upon my motion of it to his majesty, he 
was satisfied with the reasons I gave, from 
his own concernments and om'S. After the 
parliament, the assembly, I hope, will be 
indicted. As soon as the king hath nomi- 
nated a secretary, I shall leave the copy of 
the proclamation you sent with him, for 
calling the assembly. I gave you account, 
on the 24th, of the large opportunity I had 
with his majesty to clear you from all 
mistakes and aspersions, according to the 
particulars of the information you sent me ; ' 
and the king is sensible the stretches came 
from the overbearing sway of those men. 
We hear here of another meeting of theirs : 
I wish they would forbear them; and if they 
forbear them not in time, they will draw a 
check upon themselves. You will have had 
notice of the king's answer to the paper 
presented by our lords : after insinuations of 
his great regard for Scotland, he tells them, 
the field forces shall be withdrawn presently, 
the garrisons as soon as may be, and the 
garrison of Edinburgh, as soon as a Scottish 
garrison can be raised. The committee of 
estates sits down, August 23d, and is not 
to meddle with persons or estates, and to 
fill up their number with those, who, by 
remonstrance or otherwise, have not dis- 
claimed the king's authority: the procla- 
mation for this committee is preparing. 
The proceedings to settle episcopacy in 
England and Ireland go on apace : the 
bishops will be speedily nominate for Eng- 
land, as they are mostly already for Ireland. 
The brethren from Ireland are at a great 
stand what to do : the general, Manchester, 
or any person of interest, refuse to intro- 
duce them to the king, if they present their 
address. They have writ to their brethren 
for ad\'ice. The most they can expect, will 
be a forbearance a little in the exercise of 
their ministry, but they will not be permitted 
to meet in presbyteries, or a synod. I give 
them all the assistance I can, though they 
get none from the city ministers. 

Mr. Sharp writes next, JiUy 28th, and 
tells Mr. Douglas, that Argyle will be sent 
down to the parliament, to be tried: iiis 

friends wish rather he were tried before the 
king. No petition from the protesters will 
be acceptable to the king. I wonder how 
they expect you should, by a conjunction 
with them, involve yourself in their guih 
and hazard. Their remonstrance will be 
censured. Yesterday the king went to the 
house, and, in an excellent speech, pressed 
an indemnity to all who had not an imme- 
diate hand in his father's murder. I spoke 
this day with our brethren from Ireland, 
who tell me, by the advice of their best 
friends here, they are resolved to expunge 
out of their address the expressions which 
might be most offensive, and to tender a 
smooth one to his majesty, without men- 
tioning their exception against prelacy, or 
craving reformation according to the cove- 
nant ; and the drift of their desires are, to 
be permitted the exercise of their ministry, 
and such a discipline as may guard against 
error and profaneness. By his next, of 
August 4th, to Mr. Douglas, he tells him. 
That the two brethren from Ireland had 
been with him, and signified, that yesterday 
they had been introduced to the king, who 
received their address and petition, (which 
they did smooth,) and caused read them, 
and spoke kindly to them, bidding them be 
confident, they should be protected in their 
ministry, and not imposed upon ; he would 
give orders to the deputy of Ireland to have 
a tender regard of them. They are going 
home much satisfied with this answer. 

August 11th, Mr. Sharp signifies, " That 
the apprehensions of Scotsmen here arc 
much altered, since his majesty hath been 
pleased to yield to what I humbly offered, 
by his condescensions in that letter. I 
thought, it was not amiss to acquaint several 
here \vith it; and their expressions about 
the government of our church are much 
moderated. The letter of the ministers of 
London, in answer to yours, is, after much 
belabouring, signed by them ; and I am to 
have it to-morrow. The episcopal party 
here are still increasing in number, as well 
as confidence. Some think, they fly so 
high, that they will undo their own interest." 
This collection of letters ends with a letter 
from Messrs. Calamy, Ash, and Manton, in 



answer to that of the ministers of Edinburgh, 
of June 12th, and it is insert,* and with 
this I shall conclude this extract, and large 
abbreviate of this correspondence. The 
king's letter to Mr. Douglas, to be com- 
municated to the presbytery of Edinburgh, 
with what followed thereupon, will come in 
upon the history itself. 

* Letter from Messrs. Calamy, Ash, and 
Manton, to Messrs. David Dickson, Iloberf, 
DouglaSj James Hamilton, John Smith, and 
George Hutchison, London, August 10th, 

Reverend and beloved brethren, 

We had sooner returned our thanks to j'ou, 
for your brotherly salutation and remembrance 
of us, but that we expected the conveniency of 
Mr. Sharp's return, hoping by that time things 
would grow to such a consistency, that we 
might be able to give you a satisfactory account 
of the state of religion among us. M'e do, with 
you, heartily rejoice in the return of our sove- 
reign to the exercise of government over those 
his kingdoms ; and as we cannot but own much 
of God in the way of bringing it about, so we 
look upon the thing itself as the fruit of prayers, 
and a mercy not to be forgotten. Hitherto our 
God hath helped us, in breaking the formidable 
power of sectaries, causing them to fall by the 
violence of their own attempts, and in restoring 
to us our ancient government after so many 
shakings, the only proper basis to support the 
happiness and just liberties of tliese nations, and 
freeing us from the many snares and dangers to 
w^hich we were exposed by the former confu- 
sions and usurpations : therefore we will yet 
wait upon the Lord, who hath in part heard us, 
until all those things, concerning which we have 
humbly sought to him, be accomplished and 
brought about. We heartily thank you for your 
kind and brotherly encouragements, and sliall in 
oiu" places endeavour the advancing of the cove- 
nanted reformation, according to the bonds yet 
remaining upon our own consciences, and our 
renewed professions before God and man ; and 
though we cannot but foresee potent oppositions 
and sad discouragements iu the work, yet we 
hope our God wiU carry us through all difficul- 
ties and hazards, at length cause the founda- 
tions now laid to increase into a perfect building, 
that the top-stone may be brought forth witii 
shoutings, and his people cry, Grace, grace uuto 

We bless God on your behalf, that your war- 
fare is in a great measure accomplished, and the 
church of Christ, and the interests thereof, so 
far owned iu Scotland, as to be secured, not only 
by the uniform submission of the people, but 
also by laws, and those confirmed by the royal 
assent, a complication of blessings, which yet 
the kingdom of England hath not obtained and 
(though we promise ourselves much from the 
wisdom, piety, and clemency of his royal majesty) 
through our manifold distractions, distances 
and prejudices, not like suddenly to obtain: 
therefoi'e we earnestly beg the continuance of 
your prayers for us, iu this day of our conHict, 

I have chosen to give this introduction 
mostly in the very words of the letters 
themselves, and I have omitted nothing in 
them I thought necessary to give light to 
this great change of affairs. Some things 
minute, and of no great importance in them- 
selves, are inserted, because they tend to 
give light to other matters of greater weight. 

fears and temptations, as also your advice and 
counsel, that, on the one side, we may neither 
by any forwardness and rigid counsels of our 
own, hazard the peace and safety of a late sadly 
distempered, and not yet healed nation, and on 
the other side, by undue compliances, destroy 
the hopes of a begun reformation. We have to 
do with men of different humours and princi- 
ples ; the general stream and cun-ent is for the 
old prelacy in all its pomp and height, and 
therefore it cannot be hoped for, that the pres- 
byterial government should be ovmed as the 
public establishment of this nation, while the 
tide runneth so strongly that way ; and the bare 
toleration of it will certainly produce a mischief, 
whilst papists, and sectaries of jill sorts, will 
wind in themselves under the covert of such a 
favour : therefore no course seemeth likely to us 
to secure religion and the interests of Christ 
Jesus our Lord, but by making presbytery a 
part of the public establishment ; which will not 
be effected but by moderating and reducing epis- 
copacy to the form of synodical government, and 
a mutual condescendency of both parties in some 
lesser things, which fully come within the lati- 
tude of allowable differences in the chiu-ch. This 
is all we can for the present hope for; and if we 
could obtain it, vrt: should account it a mercy, 
and the best expedient to ease his majesty, in his 
great difficulties about the matter of religion ; 
and we hope none that fear God and seek the 
peace of Sion, considering the perplexed posture 
of our affairs, wLU interpret this to be any ter- 
giversation from our principles or apostasy from 
the covenant : but if we cannot obtain this, 
we must be content, with prayers and tears, 
to commend our cause to God, and, by meek 
and humble sufferings, to wait upon him, until 
he be pleased to prepare the hearts of the people 
for his beautiful work, and to bring his ways 
(at which they are now so much scandalized) 
into request with them. 

Thus we have, with all plainness and simpli- 
city of heart, laid forth our straits before you, 
who again beg yom- advice aiul prayers, and 
heartily recommend you to the Lord's grace, iu 
whom we are 

Your loving brethren, 

and fellow-laboui-ers in the woik 
of the Gospel, 
Directed, Edm. Calamy, 

To our reverend and highly Simeon Ash, 

esteemed brethren, Tho. Manton. 

I\Ir. David Dickson, 
Mr. Robert Douglas, 
]Mr. James Hamilton, 
]\Ir. John Smith, and 
Mr. George Hutchison, 
these present, Edinburgh. 



And though this abbreviate be larger than 
what at first I hoped it migiit have been, 
vet containing a summary of upwards of 
thirty sheets of paper, and a great variety 
of matter, both as to the church of Scot- 
land, and matters in England at this critical 
juncture, and nothing being left out that 
might clear this part of our history, I flatter 
myself, it will not be unacceptable to the 
curious reader. I could not avoid some 
repetitions, neither could I, without spend- 
ing more time than I had to allow, reduce 
this narrative to any other method than 
what it lies under in the letters themselves ; 
and by this, the reader hath the benefit of 
having it in the very words of the writers. 
Some passages in them need to be explained, 
yet 1 was not willing to write notes upon 
them, but let them continue in their own 
native dress. A few wann passages, relative 
to the late unhappy debates, I thought good 
to bury, as of no great use to us now. 

Upon the whole, this abstract will give a 
fuller view, than I have any where seen, of 

the apostasy of that violent pei-secutor Mt 
Sharp, and how inconsistent he proved 
with his own pretensions and professions. 
I suspect, and there seems ground for it 
from what is above, that Mr. Sharp, Mr. 
Leighton, bishop Sideserf, and others at 
London, were concerting the overthrow of 
the church of Scotland, with the high-fliers 
in England, when Mr. Sharp is writing 
such letters as we have seen, and, in the 
mean time, waving and burying the applica- 
tions made to him by the reverend ministers 
of Edinburgh. And here we have an 
undoubted proof of the diligence, activity, 
and faithfulness, of worthy Mr. Douglas, 
and the rest of the ministers who joined 
him : and, when we compare what is above 
insert, with what shall occur in the body of 
the history, as to the letter to the presby- 
tery of Edinburgh, and the senses put upon 
it, the reader must observe the disingenu- 
ous and base trick put upon the church of 
Scotland therein. I come now to the 
history itself. 





()!•■ THE 




,.p^ The heavy persecution of presby- 
terians in Scotland, from tlie restora- 
tion 1660 to the revolution 1688, is as ama- 
zing in the springs of it, as surprising in its 
nature and circumstances : and the following 
narrative of it will open a very horrid scene 
of oppression, hardships, and cruelty, which, 
were it not incontestably true, and well 
vouched and supported, could not be cred- 
ited in after ages. I am persuaded the 
advocates for the methods taken during the 
two reigns I am to describe, must be put 
hard to it, to assign any tolerable reason of 
so much ungrateful and unparalleled severity, 
against a set of persons who had, with 
the greatest warmth and firmness, appeared 
for the king's interest, when at its lowest, 
and suffered so much, and so long, for their 
loyalty to him, in the time of the usm-pation. 
The violences of this period, and the 
playing one part of protestants against 
another, in my opinion, can no way be so 
well accounted for, as when lodged at the 
door of papists, and our Scots prelates; 
who, generally speaking, were much of a 
spirit with them. Indeed so much of the 
cruel, bloody, and tyrannical spirit of anti- 
christ, runs through the laws and actings of 
this period, as makes this very evident to 

me. I am not so unchai'itable as to charge 
with popery all the prelatists, who held 
hand to, and were the authors of this perse- 
cution; but I am veiy sure they played 
the game of Rome very fast, and bewrayed 
too much of one of the worst branches of 
popery, a cruel persecuting temper, towards 
such who differed from them for conscience' 

It is useless, and in some cases unfaii*, to 
load princes with all the iniquity committed 
under theu* reign : how far king Charles 11. 
was chargeable with all the steps taken by 
those he made use of in Scotland, is not my 
business to determine. It is probable he 
wished, when it was too late, that he had 
less followed the counsels of France and his 
brother. Whether the two brothers, in 
then- exile, or almost with their milk, drunk 
in the spirit and temper of popery ; whether 
both of them in their wanderings were pres- 
ent at mass, and assisted at processions; 
whether the eldest died as really in the 
communion of the church of Rome, as his 
brother gave out, I do not say : but to me it 
is evident, and, ere I end, will be so to the 
reader, that under their reigns, matters, both 
in Scotland and England, were ripening 
very fast toward popery and slavery. Every 



thing pointed this way, and favoured 
the darling project of Rome and 
France, the rooting out the northern heresy. 


in this book. By such steps as those, and 
others to be mentioned in the progress of 
this history, popery mounted the throne, and 

The hasty dissoUition of the parliament of oiu- holy religion and excellent constitution 

England, which had so cheerfully invited the 
king home, most of whom were firm protes- 
tants ; the gradual putting of the most im- 
portant posts and trusts in the hands of such 
as were indifferent to all religions, and no 
enemies to that of Rome ; the breaking in 
upon the constitution, liberties, and excellent 
laws of Scotland ; the evident caressing and 
showing favour to every person and course 
that tended to advance arbitrary government 
and the enlargement of the prerogative, and 
sen'ed to abridge the power of parliament 
and liberty of the subject; the open tolera- 
tion of papists ; the plain spite and hatred 
which appeared against the Dutch and 
Holland, the great bulwark of the refor- 
mation abroad; the burning of London; 
the Dover league ; the mighty efforts made 
to compass a popish succession, and many 
other things, put it beyond all question, 
that papists were not only open, but very 
successful in their designs, during this 

Among all their projects, they succeeded 
in none more than that of playing oiu- Scots 
bishops, and their supporters, against the 
presbyterians. And nothing could more 
advance the hellish design, than the remov- 
ing out of the way such zealous protestants 
and excellent patriots, as the noble marquis 
of Argj'le, the good lord Warriston, and the 
bold and worthy Mr. James Guthrie. No- 
thing could gratify the papists more than the 
banishing such eminent lights, as the reve- 
rend Messrs. M'Ward, Livingstone, Brown, 
Nevoy, Trail, Simpson, and others ; together 
with the illegal imprisoning and confining, 
without any crime, libel, or cause assigned, 
such excellent gentlemen as Sir George 
Maxwell of Nether Pollock, Sir William 
Cunningham of Cunningham-head, Sir Hugh 
Campbell of Cesnock, Sir William Muir of 
Rowallan, Sir James Stuart, provost of Edin- 
burgh, Sir John Chiesly of Carsewell, major- 
general Montgomery, brother to the earl of 
Eglinton, major Holbiu-n, George Porterfield 
and John Graham, provosts of Glasgow, with 
several others who will come to be noticed 

were brought to the greatest danger and tlie , 
very brink cf ruin ; from which, by a most 
extraordinary appearance of providence, the 
Lord delivered us at the late happy revolu- 
tion, which, under God, we owe to the never- 
to-be-forgotten king William, of immortal 

In my accounts of the barbarities of this 
unhappy time, I shall go through the trans- 
actions of each year as they lie in order, 
as far as my materials and vouchers will 
carry me. This appears to me the plainest 
and most entertaining method ; and though 
now and then some hints at other affairs 
besides the persecution of presbyterians will 
come in of course, and I hope will be the 
rather allowed, that as yet we have no tole- 
rable history of this period, as to the church 
and kingdom of Scotland, yet I shall still 
keep principally in my view the sufferings 
of Scots presbyterians in their religious and 
civil rights. Agreeably therefore unto the 
three most remarkable eras of the period I 
have undertaken, I have divided this history, 
as in the title, into three books : and for the 
reader's easier access and recourse to every 
particular, and the help of his memory, as 
well as my better ranging the great variety 
of matter come to my hand, it will not be 
improper, however unfashionable, to divide 
every book into chapters, and those again 
into sections, according as each year offers 
more or less matter. This book, then, T 
begin wth 



When the king was restored to his do- 
minions, May 29th, 1660, no part of his 
subjects had a better title to his favour 
than the presbyterians. English writers 
can tell what influence the London minis- 
ters had upon the city petition, which, 
by papers I have seen, appears to have 
had a very considerable branch of its rise 

CHAP. I.] 

from Scotland ; as also what interest the 
I)resbyterian ministers in the city had with 
the prime managers there, and what re- 
turn they very quickly had for their share 
in the restoration. In Scotland, ISIr. Robert 



of: the earl of Middleton was to be 
commissioner when the parliament 
should meet; the earl of Glencaim is made 
chancellor, the earl of Lauderdale secreUirj', 
the earl of Crawford lord treasurer, Sir John 

Douglas was the first, as far as I can find, j Gilmour president of the session. Sir Archi- 
bald Primrose clerk-register, and Mr. (after- 
wards Sir) John Fletcher king's advocate. 

Some view hath been given in the intro- 
duction of the transactions of the former 
part of this year, yet it may be of some 
use to draw dowTi an abstract of matters 
from general Monk's leaving Scotland, until 
the king's putting the government of affairs 
in the hands of the committee of estates, 
who sat down in August; and next, to 
consider their proceedings, and the hard- 
ships they put upon ministers, gentlemen, 
and others, till the sitting down of the 
Thus this chapter will fall ir 

who ventured to propose the king's re- 
storation to general Monk, and that very 
early : he travelled, it is said, incognito, in 
England, and in Scotland engaged con- 
siderable numbers of noblemen and gentle- 
men in this project. From his own original 
papers, I find, that when Monk returned 
from his first projected march into Eng- 
land, Mr. Douglas met him, and engaged 
him again in the attempt; and when at 
London, the general appeiu-ed to hun slow 
in his measures for the king's restoration ; 
Mr. Douglas WTOte hun a very pressing 
letter, and plainly told him, " that if he 
lost time much longer, without declaring 
for the king, there were a good number in 
Scotland, with their brethren in Ireland, 
ready to bring his majesty home without 
him." Yea, the ministers in Scotland were I 
all of them vigorous asserters of the king's 
right, and early embarked in his interest. 
Yet all this was soon forgot, and Mr. | 
(afterwards chancellor) Hyde, a violent 1 
zealot for the English hierarchy, is made 
chief favourite, and lord chancellor of Eng- 
land ; and Mr. James Sharp, who was the 
earliest, and most scandalous compiler with 
Cromwell, and the only one he had for 
some years, not only signed his owning of 
the commonwealth, and that neither directly 
nor indirectly he should ever act for the 
king, but by taking the tender he solemnly 
abjured the whole family of the Stuarts, 
this infamous and timesei'ving person, by 
Middleton's means, is put at the head of 
affairs in the church of Scotland, and man- 
aged matters entirely to Hyde, and the 
high-flying party in England, their satis- 

Upon the king's return great was the 
run of our nobility and gentry to London. 
It was impossible to satisfy all their ex- 
pectations : such who missed posts were 
entertained with promises, and for a while 
behoved to please themselves with hopes. 
The chief offices of state were soon disposed 

two halves. 

Containing a short dedicction of our affairs 
in Scotland, from general MorJc's leaving 
it, to the sitting down of the committee of 
estates at Edinburgh, August 23d, 1660. 

Had we any tolerable history of this church 
and kingdom, since the union of the two 
trowns, I should have come straight to the 
proper subject of this history : but I shall, 
tUl a larger account be given, hand myself 
and the reader into it, by the following 
short hint of things in Scotland. 

After the death of Oliver Cromwell, there 
was nothing in England but one confusion 
upon the back of another. April 1659, his 
son Richard dissolved the parliament ; and 
in a little time he is forced to demit, and 
things fall into a new shape almost every 
month : several of the counties in England 
run to arms, and matters were in the 
greatest disorder imaginable. Meanwhile 
general Monk manages all in Scotland ; and, 
during these risings in England, appre- 
hended and imprisoned the earls Mariiihal, 
Montrose, Eglinton, Selkirk, Glencairn, and 
Loudon, lord Montgomery, lieutenant-gen- 
eral David Lesly, viscount of Kenmure, 
the lord Lorn, eail of Seaforth, Sir James 




their prejudice, whose help he was not to 

Lumsden, colonel James Hay, earl 
of Kelly, major Livingstone, and 
the earl of Rothes. Such of them as took 
the Tender, and gave bond for their peace- 
able behaviour, were soon liberate. 

In October, Lambert threatened to attack 
the parliament then sitting at London, but 
was repulsed, and by them divested of his 
command, and seven persons appointed to 
govern the army, whereof Monk was one. 
But in a little time Lambert returned, dis- 
missed the parliament, and shut the doors 
of the parliament-house. October lOtii, 
Monk called together all the officers of the 
army in Scotland, and engaged them by I 
oath, to submit to, and serve the parlia- 
ment, cashiered all he sus])ected, imprisoned 
some, and modelled all according to his 

The army now prevailing in England, 
chose first a council of state, consisting of 
ten persons, and next a council of twenty- 
fom", made up of the officers of the army : 
Monk was left out of both ; and they sent 
down orders for the meeting of the session, 
exchequer, and other courts in Scotland, 
which had not met since Richard Cromwell's 
demission. General Monk refused to put 
those orders in execution, as coming from 
an incompetent authority, and resolves to 
march up with his army to London and 
restore the privileges of pai'liament. Before 
his depai'tm-e, he called together to Edin- 
burgh the commissioners from most part of 
the shu'es in Scotland, the magistrates of 
biu-ghs, and a good many of the nobility 
and barons, who met in the parliament 
house, November 15th, 1659. The general 
had a speech to them to this purpose: — 
" That it was not unknown to them what 
revolutions were happened; that some of 
the army had put a force on the pai'liament 
of England, which he was resolved with 
God's assistance to re-establish, and for that 
end was going with his army to England ; 
that with respect to the nation of Scotland, 
his regard to them was such, that if he had 
success in his design he would befriend 
them in all their just liberties, and study 
the abatement of their cess : if the business 
went contrary to his expectation, then his 
fall should be alone to hunself, and not to 

take ; but desired, as they loved theii" 
country and their own standing, that they 
would live peaceably, and see to the peace 
of their several shires and burghs, according 
to their stations ; and if any rising should 
fall out during his absence, that they should 
suppress the same, let the pretext be what it 
would; and that he would leave orders 
with the garrisons he left, to assist them in 
so doing, and give his mind more fully to 
them in writ." ^ 

November 22d, Monk and his ^rmy 
marched off to England; and when at 
Haddington he received articles from the 
council in England, which not being satis- 
fying, he returned with his officers to 
Edinburgh, where, after consultation, they 
rejected the articles as contrary to their 
principles, which were to be governed not 
by the sword, but a parliament lawfully 
called, in the maintenance of which they 
were engaged by oath. Accordingly an 
answer was returned to England, November 
24th ; and December 2d, he marched with 
his array to Berwick, where he continued 
some time; and December 12th, the com- 
missioners of the shires received from him 
thek commissions for keeping the peace in 
his absence. 

The city of London, and many other 
places, having declared for a pai'liament, 
and against the army, Lambert mai'ches up 
from the borders, whither he had come with 
the army to oppose Monk ; the paiiiament 
sit down December 25th, and Monk is 
declared general over all the forces of the 
tliree kingdoms. And January 1st, 1660, 
he follows Lambert, Fleetwood, and their 
armies, and marches straight to London. 
The daily melting away of the army under 
Lambert and the rest, and the almost 
general cry through England and L'eland 
for a free parliament, with Monk's success- 
ful arrival at London, and his management 
till the king's return, is at full length to be 
found in the English historians ; and some 
hints have been given of what concerns 
Scots affairs in the introduction, so that I 
may pass over the former pai't of this year 
very briefly. 

February 21st, the secluded members 

CHAP, r.] 
took their places in the parliament, to the 
number of about eighty, and of the rump 
there were but twenty-one; so the former 
curried all as they pleased. General Monk 
is made commander-in-chief by sea and 
land. Writs are issued for a free parliament 
to meet April 25th. Meanwhile they con- 
firmed the solemn league and covenant, and 
ordered it to be set up and read in all the 
churches of England. Thus, as bishop 
Kennet remarks, the solemn league and 
covenant did really conduce to the bringing 
in of the king. They ratified the assembly's 
Confession of Faith, with a reservation of 
chap. XXX. and xxxi. to further consideration. 
Colonel Morgan, whom Monk had ordered 
in January to return to Scotland with a 
thousand of the army, when he saw all 
going so well in England, is appointed 
commander of the forces and garrisons in 
Scotland. Mai-ch 13th, they rescind the 
engfigement taken by all ranks, to be faithful 
to the commonwealth of England, without 
king and house of lords ; and in room of 
this, ordain all in office to declare the wai" 
undertaken by both houses of parliament 
against the late king, just and lawful, and 
that magistracy and ministry were the 
ordinances of God. 

In Scotland, Edward Moyslie, Henry 

Goodyear, Crook junior, John Howie, 

esquires, and Sii" John Wemyss, Sir James 
Hope, James Dalrymple, John Scougal of 
Humbie, James Robertoun, and David Fal- 
coner, were appointed to be civil and crimi- 
nal judges, their quorum five, and to go in 
circuits : but this order took no effect, every 
body now expecting the king's retm'n. The 
parliament at London likewise liberate the 
earl of Lauderdale, the earl of Crawford, and 
lord Sinclair, whom the usurper and the 
rump had kept prisoners in the Tower now 
near ten years. A day of fasting and prayer 
was also appointed to be kept, April Gth, for 
conduct to the parliament. , 

April 25th, the parliament sat down, and 
upon the 1st of May came to several resolu- 
tions, " that the government of England is 
by king, lords, and commons ; that the king 
of Scotland is king of England," and others, 
which the reader will meet with in the 
printed accounts of this great turn of affairs ; 



and I shall not repeat them. May 
8th the king was proclaimed at Lon- 
don, and May 14th, at Edinburgh. Sir John 
Granvil went over to his majesty with money ; 
Lauderdale and Crawford went over with 
him; and we have seen that Mr. Sharp 
went about the same time, and there prob- 
ably concerted the ruin of this church, and 
the measures very soon now entered upon 
against presbyterians. May 29th, the king 
entered London with great solemnity, and 
published a proclamation against profane- 
ness. I shall only take notice of a few 
more hints relative to the state of affairs in 
Scotland, before the settling the government 
in the committee of estates. 

In April and May, the synods met, where 
there appeared a very good disposition 
towards healing the rent betwixt the resolu- 
tioners and protesters; and had not Mr. 
Sharp, by his letters from London, diverted 
this upon the king's return, and put him, 
and the managers about him, upon begin- 
ning the persecution, with attacking the 
remonstrators, and the ministers who were 
antiresolutioners, a little time would have 
completed the union. But Mr, Sharp had 
his own private resentments against Mr. 
Rutherford, Mr. James Guthrie, the lord 
Warriston, and others of the protesters, to 
gratify ; and by that was to pave the way to 
ruin all firm presbyterians, and therefore he 
put the government upon the measures we 
shall hear of, in which some of our noble- 
men, fretted at the discipline of the church, 
willingly joined him ; and we have seen by 
his letters, so dunned Mr. Douglas and 
others at Edinburgh, with his accounts of 
the king's dislike of the protesters, and the 
approaching evils upon them, all of his own 
procuring, that those good men kept off 
from compromising matters, and nothing in 
the affair of the union was effectually done, 
till all were cast to the furnace together. 

May 1st, the synod of Lothian met. Mr. 
Douglas opened it with a sermon from 1 
Cor. iv. 1 . the notes whereof are in mine eye. 
Therein, after many judicious remarks against 
prelacy, from ministers being stewai'ds, he 
warns his brethren to keep equally at dis- 
tance from malignancy and sectarianism; 
he compares profaneness and malignancy to 



Mr. Douglas preaching in Edinburgh, upon 

I /5^n rocks at sea, which appear ; and sec- 
1660. . . ' . , \' . , 

tananisni to quicksands on the shore, 

which swallow up people, before they are 
aware. He notices that kingly government in 
the state, and presbyterian in the church, are 
the greatest curbs to profaneness. He ex- 
plodes the foolish saying. No bishop, no king. 
* Shall," says he, " kings, which are God's 
ordinance, not stand, because bishops, which 
are not God's ordinance, cannot stand? 
The government by presbyterj' is good, 
but prelacy is neither good in Christian 
policy or civil. Some say, may we not 
have a moderate episcopacy ? But 'tis a 
plant God never planted, and the ladder 
whereby antichrist mounted his throne. 
Bishops got caveats, and never kept one of 
them, and will just do the like again. We 
have abjui'ed episcopacy, let us not lick it 
up again. Consider the times past, how 
unconstant men have proven, like cock- 
boats tossing up and down ; leave them, and 
come into the ship, walk up to the way of 
the covenant ; and if this be not the plank 
we come ashore upon, I fear a storm come 
and ruin all." 

The presbyterians in Scotland were ex- 
tremely lift up with the king's safe return, 
and in a little time were but ill handled for 
their hearty concern in the restoration.* 

* The following graphic description, by a co- 
temporary writer, of the state of Scotland at the 
period of the restoration, and the immediate 
effects of that event, will, w^e doubt not, be very 
interesting to the reader. — Sd. 

" The king's return from his miserable exile 
into his languishing, confounded country, was 
both the object of many fervent desires, and the 
foundation of very many high expectations ; nor 
am I able to judge whether he longed more to 
enjoy his royal palace, or his people to see him 
established upon his throne. Indeed his exile 
was very comfortless to himself, for, in France, 
first he was coldly entertained by his nearest 
neighbours and relations, and thereafter shame- 
fully banished, and partly upon Mazarine's base 
pick. In Colen he quickly found himself a 
burdine to his host, and thereafter became the 
publick object of his dishonour, the boys in the 
city making a solemn anniversary mock pageant 
to the scorn of the king without land. And 
when he was driven to seek shelter and rest in 
the Spanish Netherlands, where he made his 
longest abode, yet was he still hunted by his 
enemies, betrayed by his servants, and most un- 
successful in all his attempts, besides his con- 
tinual sorrow for his loss, his fear from his 
hazard, and the poor shift he was constrained to 
make among strangers for his supply. And 

the Monday after the parliament of England 
agreed on the above resolutions, gave his 
auditory an account of the great turn oi 
afFaii's, adding, that " it hath pleased the 
Lord to roll away all difficulties which hin- 
dered the king from his crown, and he who 
sold us for our iniquities without price hath 
restored us without money." A day of 
thanksgiving was kept at Edinburgh, June 
19th, for the king's restoration. After ser- 
mons were over the magistrates came to the 
Cross, where was a covered table with sweet- 
meats ; the Cross run with wine, three hun- 
dred dozen of glasses were broke, the bells 
tolled, trumpets soimded, and drums beat. 
There were fire-works upon the Castle-hill, 
with the effigies of Cromwell, and the devil 
pursuing hun, tUl all was blown up in the air. 
Great solemnity, bonfires, music, and the 
like, were in other places upon this occasion. 
But very quickly a good many who had 
been sharers of those public rejoicings found 
they had hardships to reap from the resto- 
ration, and perhaps that they had exceeded 
a little in them. We shall afterwards hear, 
that upon the 8th of July, the marquis of 
Argyle is seized at London ; and upon the 
14th of July, orders came down to major- 
general Morgan, to secure Sir James Stuart, 

there he lejirned to believe kings might have 
reason to pray for their daily bread from the 
Lord, which he could never believe from his 
tutor, inculcating into his mind the petitions of 
the Lord's prayer, while he was yet a young 
child. All tiiese, and many more, you may 
think were enough to make him long for what 
might attend the command of lirittain. Upon 
the other side, his people were most impatient 
under the grief from his absence, partly from 
their discontent with, and disdain they hade to- 
wai'ds their present lords, and partly from the 
love they bore to his unknown person. Indeed 
the nations were brought under and kept mider 
by a party of men, small for their number, being 
only the rump of that body of people who com- 
menced the warr against Charles the First ; and 
likewayes inconsiderable for their parts, few of 
them being men of either birth or breeding ; and 
though they were wonderfully successlull, yet 
their victories smeUed alwayes more of ane ad- 
mireable air of prosperity, than ordinary mili- 
tary valor. And, lastly, that party was despi- 
cable for their quality in the world, being almost 
all of them citizens or husbandmen, which the 
nobles of JtJrittain disdained very much. More- 
over, tho' these men were of the most sober be- 
haviour of any that ever commanded by the 
sword, yet you may expect something would 


provost of Edinburgh, Sir ArchibiilJ Joiin- king Charles. The first and hist .,,„ 
ston of Warriston, and Sii- John Chiesly of ; were catched, but WaiTiston got off 
Carsewell, who was knighted in the Isle of for a little : whereupon he was summoned 
Wight, and protested against the death of i by sound of trumpet to render himself j and 

happen in their administration that would be 
tfrievous : forasmuch as even justice and courtesie 
both were disdained from their hand. Besides*, 
they were constrain-.'d to keep up an army lor 
their own support, and heavily to burdine the 
nations for the maintenance of the same ; which 
was the more odious, being from those who 
called themselves patrons of the people's liberty. 
And nothing made the nations roar louder for 
their king, than that a people, that h.ul taken 
arms upon a pretence of conscience to purge the 
reformed religion of superstitions of the epis- 
copal church, should not only tolerate, but also 
encourage, the vilest bljisphemies : and tho' it 
was sore iigainst the heart of their head (Oliver 
Cromwell), yet so much did that whole party 
adore the iilol of liberty, he was necessitate to 
forbear what he durst not suppresse. It is also 
to be considered that it is ane easy matter for a 
man in discontent to imagine any condition 
sweeter than the present case, so very many 
considerations drawn from the king's case and 
jiersonal character heightened much the desire 
of the nations after their king's return. The 
compassions the world had for his father's mis- 
fortunes and sufferings, and his own youth being 
spent in continual toyle, attended with losse, 
dishonoiu", and grief, weie enough to make a 
gentle nature to pity him. He was known to 
be of a meek temper, which he could well im- 
prove by his wonilerfull reservedness, courtesie, 
and dissimulation, for every man had at least 
fair words and big promises : so compassion 
begat affection, and affection heightened every 
shadow of virtue in him. Few conversed in his 
court except these who were full of the same 
spirit wit!) himself; all those suppressed all 
noise of his imperfections, and proclaimed his 
virtues, so he was made to the world a paragon 
of virtue, as well as an example of pity. The 
people of Scotland had no correspondence with 
him, or what they had came fi'om those courtiers 
■vvho study more to be smooth than faithfull. 
He wrote indeed a friendly letter to Mr. Ham- 
ilton, the minister in Edinburgh, (whom in a 
special manner he seemed to aifect,) assui'ing him 
he was the same in France that he had been in 
Scotland, by which ambiguous expression he 
seemed both to defend his own constancy and 
outreach the minister : yet was that letter looked 
at by many in Scotland as if it hade been a re- 
newing of the covenant. And tho' it be now 
confidently affirmed that he corresponded with 
the pope, and no crime now to say he was then 
a papist, yet was it at that time high laese majesty 
to doubt he was any other thing than a sincere 
i^ovenanter. If it were told them he used the 
English Liturgy in his chapel, it was excused as 
being rather necessity than choice, people be- 
lieving he could have no other ; so their affec- 
tions to his person were equal to their discontent 
with the republican governors. And to com- 
pleat the people's appetite for the king's return, 
the hopes founded upon his restauration were 
nothing behind either the discontent under 
Cromwell, or the affection to his person : for 
then did every fellow that hade catched a scarr in 

a fray among the tories (though perchance pil- 
laging ane honest house) expect to be a man ail 
of gold. All that had suffered for him in his 
warr, lossed for him of their estate, or been ad- 
vocates for him in a tavern dispute, hoped well to 
be noticed as his friends, or to receive not only a 
compensation from his justice, but a gratuity 
from his bounty. I believe there were more 
gaping after prizes than his sufficiency, hade it 
been ten times greater than it was, could ever 
have satisfied. AU believed it would be the 
golden age when the king returned in peace j 
and some of our Brittish divines made the date 
of the accomplishment of the glorious promises 
in the apocalypse, not doubting he was assuredly 
to be the man should distroy Rome as sure as he 
was Constantine's successor. In fine, the eager- 
ness of their longing was so great, some would 
never cut their hair, some would never diiiik 
wine, some would never wear linen, till they 
might see the desire of their eyes, the king. 

" Weell : when time was ripe, a sort of par- 
liament conveened in England by the authority 
of the committee of council, upon which the 
rump of the long-successfull parliament hade de- 
rived their power, before their voluntary disso- 
lution, as general Monk and his cabal had re- 
solved; and immediately upon their first assem- 
bling the king thought good, by Sir John 
Greenvile, to address to them ane obliging letter, 
wherein he engadged to preserve every man in 
his profession, and protect every man in tlie 
freedom of his conscience, with many otRer large 
promises: upon which the parliament (being 
mostly made of presbyterians) thought fitt to in- 
vite him home by a splendid legation of lords 
and commons, among whom was the lord Fair- 
fax, that he who had ruined the father in the 
field might do the world reason by restoring the 
son in peace. Accordingly the king, accompa- 
nied with his two brothers, his triumphant 
court, and manj' a poor maimed cavaleer, having 
sett sail from Schevelin, took land at Dover 
upon the 23th of Rlay, 1660, where he was re- 
ceived with all the honour and reverent splendor 
England could strain in the highest degree. 
From thence he was conveyed through London 
to Westminster, upon the 29th of May, 1660, 
which was the so much celebrated date of the 
blessed restauration. 

" Now before we speak of the alteration court 
influences made upon the church of Scotland, 
let us consider in what case it was at this time. 
There be in all Scotland some 900 paroches, di- 
vided into 68 presbyteries, which are again can- 
ton'd into fourteen synods, out of all which, by 
a solemn legation of commissioners from every 
presbytrie, they used yearly to constitute a na- 
tional assembly. At the king's return every 
paroche hade a minister, every village hade a 
school, every family almost hade a Bible, yea. in 
most of the countrey all the children of age 
could read the Scriptures, and were provided of 
Bibles, either by the parents or by th('ir minis- 
ters. Every minister wiis a very full professor 
of the reformed religion, according to the large 
confession of faith framed at Westminster by 



. a printed proclamation was publish- 

ed with tuck of drum, discharging 
all persons to reset him, and offering a reward 
to such as should apprehend him, as follows : 

the divines of both nations. Every minister 
was obliedged to preach thrice a- week, to lecture 
and catechise once, besides other private duties 
in which they abounded, accord! risj to their pro- 
portion of faithfulness and abilities. None of 
them might be scandalous in their conversation, 
or negligent in their office, so long as a pres- 
bytrie stood ; and among them were many holy 
in conversation and eminent in gifts ; nor did 
a minister satisfy himself except his ministry 
hade the seal of a divine approbation, as might 
witness him to he really sent from God. In- 
deed, in many places the Spirit seemed to be 
poured out with the word, both by the multi- 
tudes of sincere converts, and also by the common 
work of reformation upon many who never 
came the length of a communion ; there were 
no fewer than sixty aged people, men and wo- 
men, who went to school, that even then they 
might be able to read the Scriptiu-es with their 
own eyes. I have lived many years in a paroch 
^vhere I never heard ane oath, and you might 
have ridde many miles before you hade heard 
any : also, you could not for a great part of the 
country have lodged in a family where the Lord 
was not worshipped by reading, singing, and 
publick prayer. Nobody complained more of our 
church government than our taverners, whose 
ordinary lamentation was, their trade was broke, 
people were become so sober. The great blemish 
of our church was, the division betwixt protest- 
ers and resolution-men (as they were called) ; 
but as this was inconsiderable upon the matter, 
so was it also pretty well composed by express 
agreement among brethren, even while the 
English continued our governours. 

" Now, in the midst of this deep tranquility, 
as soon as the certainty of the king's return 
arrived in Scotland, I believe there was never 
accident in the world altered the disposition of a 
people more than that did the Scottish nation. 
Sober men observed, it not only inebriat but 
really intoxicate, and made people not only 
drunk but frantic ; men did not think they 
could handsomely express their joy, except they 
turned brutes for debauch, rebels and pugeants ; 
yea, many a sober man was tempted to exceed, 
lest he should be condemned as unnatural, dis- 
loyal, and unsensible. Most of the nobility, and 
many of the gentry and hungry old soldiers flew 
to London, just as the vulture does to the carcase. 
Then when they were come to court, they de- 
sired no more advice than to know the king's 
inclinations, and he was the best politician that 
could outrun obedience, by anticipating a com- 
mand. Always at their arrival almost all hade 
good words, some hade pensions never to be paid, 
and some who came in time had offices for a 
while. Glencairn was made chancellor for his 
adventure among the tories, Crawford theasurer 
for his long imprisonment, Lauderdale was 
made secretary, and the only one Scottish gen- 
tleman of the bed-chamber, that he might be al- 
ways near his very kind master. Sir William 
Fleeming was made clerk of the register, a place 
of great gain, for which he was as fitt as to be 
professor of the metaphysics in ane university ; 

[hook I. 

" Bj) the cwnmander-in-chief of his majcsty^s 
forces in Scotland^ 
"Whereas I have received an order from 
his majesty, for apprehending the lord War- 

but he was so wise as to sell it to Sir Archibald 
Pi-imrose, wlio could husband it better, as in- 
deed he did, for in a few years he multiplied his 
estate, by just computation, from one to sixteen. 
Sir John Fletcher was made king's advocate, 
though he hade been one of the first in Scotland 
who forsware the king, that he might find em- 
ployment under the English. But partly by 
Middleton's procurement (of whose affinity he 
was), and partly because he was ane honest man 
of the mode (that is a man void of principles), 
he was placed in that dangerous office, in which 
he hade the opportunity to make all the subjects 
of Scotland redeem their lives at his own price, 
from his criminal pursuit, upon the account of 
their old alleadged rebellions, and their late com- 
pliances with the English, in which he had 
been a ringleader, Middleton w^as judged a fitt 
man to act the part which afterward he did dis- 
charge over and above. He hade, from the de- 
gree of a pickman in colonel Hepbm'u's regi- 
ment in France, by his great gallantry, raised 
himself to the chief command, sometimes in the 
parliament's armies, and afterw.ards in the 
king's, though he was as unhappy inider 
the latter, as he was successful under the 
first. Alwayes because of his constant ad- 
herence to the king, even in his exile, (wherein 
he suffered much) and the great adventures he 
hade made among the tories in the Highlands, 
when the English commanded Scotland, and 
most of all because of his fierce soldier-like dis- 
position, he was judged a tit instrument to cow 
Scotland, and bring that people down from their 
ancient freedom of spirit, (so much displeasing 
to their late king) to that plian', softness which t 
might better suit with th" designs of a free 
(despotic) prince. The earle of Lithgow he was 
made colonel of the regiment of foot-guards, a 
place in which he feathered his nest w^ell ; but 
no m^an could give the reason of his promotion, 
unless the descent of a popish family might 
perhaps promise satisfying inclinations toward 
hidden designs. The poor old maimed officers, 
colonels, majors, and captains, who expected 
great promotion, were preferred to be troopers 
in the king's troop of life-guards, of which New- 
burgh was made captain. This goodly employ- 
ment obliged them to spend with one another the 
small remnant of the stock their miseries hade 
left them, but more they could not have, after 
aU their hopes and sufferings. Gentlemen and 
lords came down from court with empty purses 
and discontented minds, having nothing to put in 
place of their flown money, except the experience 
of a disappointment, which uses to be a bitter 
reflection on a man's own indiscretion, in mis- 
taking measures, and making false judgment 
upon events as they hade done. There remained 
only one comfoi't among them, which was, that 
when the fanatic should be fined and forfaulted 
they would glut themselves with the spoil ; and 
this was enough to some thoughtless minds, but 
■vvas indeed as groundless as fruitless, for never 
one of them ever tasted that much desired fruit." 
— Kirkton's History of the Church of Scotland, i ; 
pp. 69—69. I i 

CHAP. I.] 

riston, and securing his person in the ciistle 
of Edinburgh ; and he being withdrawn, and 
obscuring himself, as also making refusal to 
yield obedience to his majesty's commands : 
these are to authorize and empower any per- 
son or persons, in his majesty's name, to 
use their utmost endeavours for apprehend- 
ing the said lord Warriston, to keep him in 
safe custody, and bring him in to me ; for 
which exercise they shall receive one hun- 
dred pounds Scots. And in case any per- 
son or persons shall harbour and conceal the 
said lord Warriston, and not make speedy 
discovery of him, they will be deemed guilty 
of treason; and will be proceeded against 
accordingly. Given under my hand at 
Edinburgh, July IGth, 1(3G0. 

" Morgan." 

This is the first public arbitrary step, and 
in the progress of this work we shall meet 
with a great many of this nature. Without 
libel or cause given, by a private order, not 
only a worthy gentleman is attacked, and a 
reward offered, though a very mean one, 
to liis apprehenders ; but resetting him is 
declared treason, and those guilty, to be 
proceeded against to the death. Ko doubt 
the English commander had warrant from 
our Scots managers at court for so severe a 
proclamation, and it is of a piece with the 
after-steps we shall see were taken. 

July 20th, Sir John Sv.inton of that ilk, 
one of the judges under Cromwell, and called 
the lord Swinton, was taken out of his bed, 
in a Quaker's house, in King's street, Lon- 
don, and sent in fetters to the Gate-house. 
We shall afterwards hear he was sent down 
to Scotland with the marquis of Argyle. 
He had been once a zealous professor of 
reformation, and a covenanter; but falling in 
with the usurper and English sectaries, he 
first turned lax, and of late took on the 
mask of quakerism. It is said, the queen 
mother and papists took a care of him, and 
brought him off; and indeed quakerism is 
but a small remove from popery and Jesuit- 
ism. He was no more a presbyterian, and 
the present run was against such, as being 
chiefly opposite to the designs in hand. — 
Upon the •26th of July, one William Giffen, 
or Govan, whom we shall find execute the 



same day with Mr. James Guthrie, .„„^ 
was seized, upon a false information, 
that he had been present upon the scaffold 
when king Charles L was beheaded, and im- 
prisoned in the castle of Edinburgh ; and for 
what I know, he continued in prison, till next 
year he was brought to a public death. Those 
are some of the previous steps, as an intro- 
duction to the committee of estates, in 
whose hands the king lodged the govern- 
ment of Scotland, by his proclamation 
August 2d, till the parliament should meet 
and a council be named ; and their procedure 
will take in what is further remarkable this 
year. This will be the subject of the next 

Of the jiroceedlngs of the committee of estates, 
their imprisoning Mr. James Guthrie and 
other ministers, August 23d; the king's 
letter to the presbytery of Edinburgh, and 
other things this year. 

It was some time before the throng of 
English and foreign affairs allowed the king 
to consider the case of Scotland ; and after 
several meetings of those who were now in 
great numbers from this kingdom at court, 
his majesty came to a resolution to lodge 
the government in the hands of the commit- 
tee of estates, named by the last parliament 
we had in Scotland. This he signified by 
the following proclamation : — 

" Charles R. To all our loving subjects 
of the kingdom of Scotland, or others 
whom these do or may concern, greeting. 
Forasmuch as it hath pleased Almighty 
God to remove that force and armed 
violence, by which the administration of 
our royal government, among our people 
there, was interrupted; and we being 
desirous to witness our affection to, and 
care of that our ancient kingdom, of 
whose loyalty we have had many testi- 
monies, have resolved, that until a meeting 
of parliament, which we are presently to 
call, the government shall be administrate 
by us, and the conmiittee of estates named 
by us and our parliament, IdfA ; and 
therefore do hercbj' call and authorize the 


, „ „„ said coniiiiittce to meet at Edinburgh, 
looU. , , ^ , . . , 

the 23u or August instant. And we 

do hereby require our heralds, pursuivants, 
and messengers at arms, to make pubheation 
hereof at the mai'ket-crosa of Edinburgh, 
and all other places, &:c. Given at our court 
at Whitehall, August 2d, 1660, and of our 
reign the twelfth j'car." 

The members of this committee had all 
of them appeared hearty in profession for 
the constitution of this church and our 
reformation ; they had concurred with the 
king, in taking the national and solemn 
league and covenant; and some of them 
had advised the king to make that remark- 
able declaration at Dunfermline, August, 
1650, which since has made such a noise, 
as being a hardship put upon the king, 
and is so diametrically opposite to the 
course now entering on, that I thought it 
worth the inserting." I have seen no 

* Declaration at Dunfermline, August 16th, 

By the Kikg. 
Charles R. 

His majesty taking into consideration that 
merciful dispensation of divine providence, by 
which he hath been recovered out of the snare 
of evil counsel, and having attained so full per- 
suasion and confidence of the loyalty of his 
people in Scotland, with whom he hath too 
long stood at a distance, and of the righteousness 
of their cause, as to join in one covenant with 
them, and to cast himself and his interest wholly 
upon God, and in all matters civU to follow the 
advice of his parliament, and such as shall be 
intrusted by them, and in all matters ecclesiastic 
the advice of the general assembly and their 
commissioners, and being sensible of his duty to 
God, and desirous to approve himself to the 
consciences of all his good subjects, and to stop 
the mouths of his and their enemies and tra- 
ducers ; doth, in reference to his former deport- 
ments, and as to his resolutions for the future, 
de^'lare as follows : 

Though his majesty as a dutiful son, be 
obliged to honour the memory of his royal 
father, and have in estimation the person of his 
mother ; yet doth he desire to be deeply humbled 
and afflicted in spirit before God, because of his 
father's hearkening to, and following evil coun- 
sels, and his opposition to the work of reforma- 
tion, and to the solemn league and covenant, by 
which so much of the blood of the Lord's people 
hath been shed in these kingdoms ; and for the 
idolatry of his mother, the toleration whereof 
in the king's house, as it was matter of gi'eat 
stumbling to all the protestant churches, so 
could it not but be a high provocation against 
him, Avho is a jealous God, visiting the sins of 
\.he fathers upon the children; and albeit his 
majesty migiit extenuate his former carriage 


exact list of the memljers of this committee, 
but I little doubt persons were named upor 
it, 1651, who did not now meet with them^ 
The earl of Glencaii'n came down, and was 
received with great pai'ade as high chan- 
cellor of Scotland at Edinburgh, August 
22d ; and next day, August 23d, the com- 
mittee sat down, nine noblemen, ten barons, 
and as many burgesses ; and the chancellor 
presided. The members were all of one 
kidney, and hearty in prosecuting the de- 
signs now on foot. 

That same day Mr. James Guthrie, min- 
ister at Stirling, Mr. John Stirling, and Mr. 
Robert Trail, ministers at Edinburgh, Messrs. 
Alexander Moncrief at Scone, John Sample 
at Carsfairn, Mr. Thomas Ramsay at Mor- 
dington, Mr. John Scott at Oxnam, Mr. 
Gilbert Hall at Kirkliston, Mr. John Murray 
at Methven, Mr. George Nairn at Burnt- 
island, ministers, with two gentlemen, ruling 

and actions, in following of the advice, and walk- 
ing in the way of those who are opposite to 
the covenant, and to the work of C!od, and 
might excuse his delaying to give satisfaction to 
the just and necessary desires of the kirk and 
kingdom of Scotland, from his education and 
age, and evil counsel and company, and from 
the strange and insolent proceedings of sectaries 
against his royal father, and in reference to 
religion, and the ancient government of the 
kingdom of England, to which he hath un- 
doubted right of succession ; yet knowing that 
he hath to do with God, he doth ingenuously 
acknowledge all his own sins, and all the sins 
of his father's house, craving pardon, and hop- 
ing for mercy and reconciliation through the 
blood of Jesus Christ. And as he doth value 
the constant addresses that were made by his 
people to the throne of grace in his behalf, when 
he stood in opposition to the Avork of God, as a 
singular testimony of long suffering patience 
and mercy upon the Lord's part, and loyalty 
upon theirs ; so doth he hope, and shall take it 
as one of the greatest tokens of their love and 
affection to him and to his government, that 
they will continue in prayer and supplication to 
God for him, that the Lord, who spared and 
preserved him to this day, notwithstanding of 
all his own guiltiness, may be at peace with him, 
and give him to fear the Lord his God, and to 
serve him with a perfect heart, and with a 
willing mind, all the days of his life. 

And his majesty having, upon the full per- 
suasion of the justice and equity of all the heads 
and articles thereof, now sworn and subscribed 
the national covenant of the kingdom of Scot- 
land, and the solemn league and covenant of the 
three kingdoms of Scotland, England, and Ire- 
land, doth declare that he hath not sworn and 
subscribed these covenants, and entered into 
the oath of God with his people, upon any 
sinister intention and crooked design for attain- 


elders, Mr. Andrew Hay of Craignethan, were met and convened in the 
near Lanark, and James Kirkco of Sundi- ' private house of Robert Simjiscjn in 
well, in the parish of Dunscore, in Nithsdalc, | Edinbiii-gh, to draw up an humble address 



ing his own ends, but so far as human weakness 
will i»t'nnit, la the truth and sincerity of his 
heart, and tliat he is firmly resolved in the 
Lord's strengtii to adhere thereto, and to prose- 
cute to the utmost of his power all the ends 
thereof in his station and eallinic, really, con- 
stantly, and sincerely all the days of his life. 
In order to which, he doth in the first place i>ro- 
fess and declare, that he will have no enemies but 
the enemies of the covenant, and that he will have 
no friends but the friends of the covenant. And 
therefore, as he doth now detest and abhor all 
popery, superstition, and idolatry, together with 
prelacj', and all errors, heresy, schism, and pro- 
i'aneness, and resolves not to tolerate, much less 
allow any of these in any part of his majesty's 
dominions, but to oppose himself thereto, and to 
endeavour the extirpation thereof to the utmost of 
his power; so doth he, as a Christian, exhort, and, 
as a king, require, that all such of his subjects 
ivho have stood in opposition to the solemn 
league and covenant, and work of reformation, 
upon a pretence of kingly interest, or any other 
pretext whatsoever, to lay down their enmity 
jigainst the cause and people of God, and to cease 
to prefer the interest of man to the interest of 
God, which hath been one of those things that 
hath occasioned many troubles and calamities in 
these kingdoms, and being insisted into will be 
so far from establishing of the king's throne, 
that it will ])rove an idol of jealousy to provoke 
unto wrath him ^vho is King of kings and Lord 
of lords; the king shall always esteem them 
best servants, and most loyal subjects, who 
serve him, and seek his greatness in a right line 
of subordination unto God, giving unto God the 
things that are God's, and unto Cesar the things 
that are Cesai"'s; and resolveth not to love or 
countenance any who have so little conscience 
and piety, as to follow his interest with a preju- 
dice to the gospel, and the kingdom of Jesus 
Christ, which he looks not upon as duty, but as 
flattery, and driving of self dssigns, under a 
pretence of maintaining royal authority and 

2. His miijesty being convinced in conscience 
of the exceeding great sinfulness and unlawful- 
ness of that treaty and peace made with the 
bloody Irish rebels, who treacherously shed the 
blood of so manj' of his faithful and loyal sub- 
jects in Ireland, and of allowing unto them the 
liberty of the popish religion, for the which he 
doth from his heart desire to be deeply humbled 
before the Lord; and likewise considering how 
many breaches have been upon their part, doth 
declare the same to be void, and that his majesty 
is absolved therefrom, being truly sorry that he 
should have sought unto so unla^vtul help for 
restoring of him to his throne, and resolving 
for the time to come, rather to choose afllictioii 
than sin. 

3. As his majesty did, in the late treaty with 
his peojdo in this kingdom, agree to reciill and 
annul all commissions against any of his subjects 
who did adhere to the covenant and monarchical 
g.overnment in any of his kingdoms; so doth he 
now declare, that by his couimissionating of 
fome persons by sea against the people of Eng- 

land, he did not intend dam<-igc or injury to 
his oppressed and harmless subjects in thist king- 
dom, who follow their trade of merchandise in 
their lawful callings, but only the opposing and 
sujtpressing of those wlio had usurped the gov- 
ernment, and not only barred him Iriim his just 
right, but also exercise- an arbitrary power over 
his people, in those things which concern their 
persons, consciences, and estates ; and as, since 
his coming into Scotland, lie hath given no 
commissions against any of his subjects in Eng- 
land or Ireland, so he doth hereby assure and 
declare, that he will give none to their pre- 
judice or damage; and whatever shall be the 
wrongs of these usurpers, that he will be so 
far from avenging these upon any who are 
free thereof, by interrupting and stopping the 
liberty of trade and merchandise, or other\i ise, 
that he will seek their good, and to the utmost 
employ his royal power, that they may be pro- 
tected and defended against the unjust violence 
of all men whatsoever. And albeit his majesty 
desireth to construct well of the intentions of 
those (in reference to his majesty) who have 
been active in counsel or arms against the cove- 
nant ; yet being convinced that it doth conduce 
for the honour of God, the good of his cause, and 
his own honour and hap])iness, and for the 
peace and safety of these kingdoms, that such be 
not employed in places of power and trust ; he 
doth declare that he will not employ, nor give 
commissions to any such, until they have not 
only taken or renewed the covenant, but also 
have given sufficient evidences of their integrity, 
carriage and affection to the work of reformation, 
and shall be declared capable of trust by the 
parliament of either kingdom respective. And 
his majesty, upon the same grounds, doth hereby 
recall all commissions given to any sui'h jiersons, 
conceiving all such persons will so much tender 
a good understanding betwixt him and his sub- 
jects, and the settling and preserving a firm 
peace in these kingdoms, that they will not 
grudge nor repine at his majesty's resolutions 
and proceedings herein, much less upon discon- 
tent act any thing in a divided way, unto the 
raising of new troubles, especially since, upon 
their pious and good deportment, there is a regress 
left unto them in manner above expressed. 
And as his majesty hath given satisfaction unto 
the just and necessary desires of the kirk and 
kingdom of Scotland, so doth he hereby assure 
and declare, that he is no less willing and desir- 
ous to give satisfaction to the just and necessary 
desires of his good subjects of England and 
Ireland ; and in token thereof, if the houses of 
l)arliament of England sitting in freedom, should 
think fit to present unto him the propositions of 
jieace agreed upon by both kingdoms, he will 
not only accord to the same, and such alterations 
thereanent, as the houses of parliament, in 
regard of the constitution of affairs, and the good 
of his majesty and his kingdoms, shall judge 
necessary ; but do what is further necessai-y for 
the prosecuting th<! ends of the stdemn league 
and covenant, esjiecially in those things which 
concern the reformation of the church of Eng- 
land, in doctrine, worship, discijdine, and gov- 


and supplication to the king, " con- I tion's covenant with the, and earnestly 

gratulating his return, expressing | praying that his reign might be like that of 

their entire and unfeigned loyalty, humbly | David, Solomon, Jehoshaphat, and Heze- 

putting him in mind of his own and the na- kiah." As may be seen in the paper itself.* 

prnment ; that not only the Directory of Wor- 
ship, the Confession of Faith and Catechism, 
but also the Propositions and Directory for 
Ciuirch Government, accorded upon by the synod 
of divines at Westminster, may be settled, and 
that the church of England may enjoy the full 
liberty and freedom of all assemblies and power 
of kirk censures, and of all the ordinances of 
Jesus Christ, according to the rule of his own 
word ; and that whatsoever is commanded by 
the God of heaven, may be diligenily done for 
the house of the God of heaven. And whatever 
heretofore hath been the suggestions of some to 
him, to render his majesty jealous of his parlia- 
ment, and of the servants of God ; yet as he hath 
declared that in Scotland he will hearken to 
their counsel, and follow their advice in those 
things that concern that kingdom and kirk ; so 
doth he also declare his firm resolution to man- 
age the government of the kingdom of England 
by the advice of his parliament, consisting of a 
house of lords, and of a house of commons 
there ; and, in those things that concern religion, 
to prefer the counsels of the ministers of the 
gospel to all other counsels whatsoever: and that 
all the world may see, how much he tenders the 
safety of his people, and how precious their 
blood is in hi-j sight, and how desirous he is to 
recover his crown and government in England 
by peaceable means, as he doth esteem the servica 
of those who first engaged in the covenant, and 
have since that time faithfully followed the ends 
thereof, to be duty to God, and loyalty to him ; 
60 is he willing, in regard of others who have 
been involved in these late commotions in Eng- 
land against religion and government, to pass an 
act of oblivion, excepting only some few in that 
nation, who have been chief obstructors of the 
work of reformation, and chief authors of the 
change of the government, and of the murder of \ 
his royal father: provided that these who are to 
have the benefit of this act, lay down arms, and 
retm-n unto the obedience of their lawful sove- 

The committee of estates of the kingdom, and 
general assembly of the kirk of Scotland, having 
declared so fully in ■what concerns the sectaries, 
and the present designs, resolutions, and actings 
of their army against the kingdom of Scotland, 
and the same committee and assembly having 
sufficiently laid open public dangers and duties, 
both upon the right hand and upon the left, it is 
not needful for his majesty to add any thing 
thereunto, except that in those things he doth 
commend and approve them, and that he resolves 
to live and die with them and his ioyal subjects, 
in prosecution of the ends of the covenant. 

And whereas that prevailing party in Eng- 
land, after all their strange usurpations, and 
insolent actings in that land, do not only keep 
his majesty fi"om the government of that king- 
dom by force of arras, but also have now invaded 
the kingdom of Scotland, who have deserved 
better things at their hands, and against w^hom 
they have no just quarrel ; his majesty therefore 
dotli desire and exjject that all his good subjects 
iu England, who are and resolve to be faithful 

to God, and to their king, according to the 
covenant, will lay hold upon such an oj^portun- 
ity and use their utmost endeavours to j)romove 
the covenant and all the ends then of, and to 
recover and re-establish the ancient government 
of the kingdom of England (under which for 
many generations it did flourish in peace and 
plenty at home, and in reputation abroad) and 
privileges of the parliament, and native and 
just liberty of the people : his majesty desires to 
assm'e himself, that there doth remain in these 
so much conscience of their duty to religion, 
their king and country, and so many sparkles of 
the ancient English valour which shined so 
eminently in their noble ancestors, as will put 
them on to bestir themselves for breaking the 
yoke of those men's oppressions from off their 
necks. Shall men of conscience and honour set 
religion, liberties, and government at so low a 
rate, as not rather to undergo any hazard, before 
they be thus deprived of them? Will not all 
generous men comit anj' death more tolerable 
than to live in servitude nil their days? And 
will not posterity blame those who dare attempt 
nothing for themselves and for their children in 
so good a cause, in such an exigent? ^V'hereas 
if they gather themselves and take courage, 
putting on a resolution answerable to so a noble 
and just an enterprise, they shall honour God, 
and gain themselves the reputation of pious 
men, worthy patriots, and loyal subjects, and be 
called the repairers of the breach, by the present 
and succeeding generations, and they may cer- 
tainly promise to themselves a blessing from 
God, upon so just and honourable imdertaking 
for the Lord and for his cause, their own liber- 
ties, their native king and country, and the 
unvaluable good and happiness of the posterity. 
Whatever hath formerly been his majesty's 
guiltiness before God, and the bad success that 
these have had who owned his affairs whilst he 
stood in opposition to the work of God, j'et the 
state of the question being now altered, and his 
majesty having obtained mercy to be on God's 
side, and to prefer God's interest before his own ; 
he hopes that the Lord will be gracious, and 
countenance his own cause in the hands of weak 
and sinful instruments, against all enemies what- 
soever. This is all that can be said by his 
majesty at present, to these in England and 
Ireland, at such a distance ; and as they shall 
acquit themselves at this time in active discharge 
of their necessary duties, so shall they be ac- 
cepted before God, endeared to his majesty, and 
their names had in remembrance throughout 
the world. 

Given at our court at Dunfermline, the 
sixteenth day of August, 1650, and iu 
the second year of our reign. 

* Ministers' [designed] supplication August 
23d, 1660. " ' 

JMost gracious and dread sovereign, 

We your majesty's most humble subjects, 
considering the duty which, as Christians, we 
owe unto oiu* Lord Jesus Christ, who is King 
of kings, and Lord of lords, and which, as 

CHAP. I.j 



The occasion of this nieetinp;, upon which so I much fear and jealouse (suspect) w.^^ 

much followed, was tiiis : — the brethren and 
ministers, who in their sentiments could not 
approve of the public resolutions, did very 

subjects, we owe imto your majesty as our law- 
ful aiul native kiii;^ inidiT him; we hold our- 
selves bound to tender unto yotjr majesty this 
our most humble address and supplication. How 
hateful the actings of the late usurping powers, 
in offering violence unto the parliament of Eng- 
land, in their unchristian and barbarous mur- 
der of your royal father, in their insolent chang- 
ing of the ancient civil government of the king- 
dom of England, and by armed violence imjustly 
secluding your majesty therefrom, in their unjust 
invading of the kingdom of Scotland, and 
enthralling the same in subjection to themselves, 
afiil beyond all, in their impious encroachings 
upon tne kingdom of Jesus Christ, and the 
liberties thereof, and in promoting and establish- 
ing a vast toleration in things religious through- 
out these nations, luito the perverting of the 
precious truths of the gospel, and defacing of 
the ordinances of Jesus Christ, in opening a 
wide door to all sorts of errors, heresies, schisms, 
impiety, and profaneness ; how abominable and 
hateful these things were unto us, the Lord, 
\vho searcheth the reins .and trieth the hearts, 
doth know; against w^hich we gave many public 
testimonies before the world, to ■witness our 
abhorrency thereof: and the same Lord know- 
eth, that as we did earnestly pray for and breathe 
after his appearing to witness against these, so 
(saving that christian pity and compassion that 
w^e owe unto the persons of men, though our 
very enemies) we do rejoice in his putting 
down of them that did lift up themselves, and 
staining of the pride of their glory, and breaking 
the yoke of their power off the necks of these 
kingdoms. We hold ourselves also bound thank- 
fully to acknowledge the Lord's signal preserv- 
ing of your majesty's person, in the midst of 
manifold dangers and designs threatening the 
same these years p;ist, and that after a long exile 
from your own hoiuse and people, he hath been 
pleased to bring you back to the same; and 
when the foundations of the ancient civil govern- 
ment of these kingdoms were overthrown, again 
to make way for repairing the ruins, and build- 
ing up the breaches thereof, for establishing of 
the same upon right and sure foundations, in 
your majesty's person and family, and to do 
these things when they were so little expected, 
in so quiet and pea(;eable a way, and without the 
effusion of christian blood, and embroiling of 
these kingdoms in the miseries and calamities of 
a new ■war : and as we do adore the wonderful 
and wise hand of God, and bless his name who 
hath done these great things; so it is not only 
our practice for the present, but our sincere 
])urpose and res(dution atso for the time to come, 
to jtour forth the fervent desires and supplica- 
tions of our souls, unto the most High, by whom 
kings reign, for the preservation and safety of 
your majesty's person, and for the multiplica- 
tion and increase of his Spirit upon you, that 
you may employ your power unto his praise and 
the comfort of his people, and for the establish- 
ing of your just power and greatness, and, in 
subordination to him, to be faithful and loyul in 
tendering of iill the duties of honour, and sub- 

Mr. James Sharp, now at Lon- 
don, by the allowance, and at the desire of 
a good many of the brethren for the resolu- 

jection, and obedience to your majesty, that are 
due from humble and loving subje(-ts to their 
native and lawful sovereign. And we desin; to 
be persuaded, and with confidence to promise to 
ourselves, that your majesty will accept of these 
our professions as proceeding fi-om honest and 
loyal hearts, and allow us that protection, coun- 
tenance, and encouragement, in om* stations and 
callings, that may be expected from a gracious 
king. And considering the great happiness that 
ariseth both to kirk and state, and all the mem- 
bers thereof by the mutual embracements of 
religion and righteousness, of truth and peace, 
and from the mutual good understanding betwixt 
the supreme magistrate and the faithful of the 
land, when it pleaseth divine providence so to 
dispose, and the many calamities and miseries 
that, in the holy justice and indignation of God, 
do attend the separating or violating of these 
onlj' sure foundations of states and kingdoms ; 
we are bold, in the integrity of our hearts, and 
in the zeal of the glory of God, and of the good 
of his church, and of your majest j^'s honour and 
happiness, and from the sense of the manifold 
and great obligations that be upon us, before the 
Lord, so to do, and particularly that of the 
covenant, that what lets we are not able our- 
selves to suppress or overcome, we shall reveal 
and make known, that it may be truly prevented 
or removed, humbly to represent imto your 
majesty the great danger that threatens religion, 
and the work of reformation in the churches of 
God in these kingdoms, from the designs and 
endeavours of the remnant of the popish, prelat- 
ical, and malignant party therein, which is 
beginning again to lift up the head, and, not 
only to render hateful and bear down many of 
your majesty's good subjects, who have been 
employed as instruments in that work, and 
have kept within the bounds of their duty in 
promoting and pursuing the same, so far as 
human infirmity would permit ; but also to 
overthrow that blessed work itself, and to 
re-introduce prelacy, and the ceremonies, and 
the Service-book, and all these corruptions which 
were formerly cast out, as inconsistent with 
that pure and spotless rule of church govern- 
ment, and discipline, and divine worship, deliv- 
ered unto us in the Avord of God, and as a yoke 
of bondage which neither we nor our fathers 
were able to bear. Although we know that 
that spirit will not want specious pretences, and 
plausible and subtile insinuations for compassing 
these ends ; yet as there cannot readily be greater 
disservice to the church of God, and to yoiu* 
kingdoms, and to your majesty's honour and 
happiness, than actings of that nature, so we 
cannot without horror of heart, and astonish- 
ment of spirit, think upon what dreadful guilti- 
ness, kings, princes, ministers, an<l peo])le shall 
be involved into, and what fearful wrath shall 
attend them from the face of an angry and 
jealous God, if after all the light that he hath 
made to shine in these kingdoms from his blessed 
word, for discovering the error and imi>iety of 
these things, and after his hand lifted up so high 
fur citsting out of the same, and after such 




tions. They were apprehensive of 
designs hatching just now against the 
church, not from the public resolutioners, but 
Mr. Sharp, and others who struck in with 

solemn vows and engagements taken upon 
themselves before God, angels, and men, against 
them, they should again lick up the vomit 
thereof. God forbid that ever we should hear 
or see such heart-astonishing things, which 
would turn the mirth of the Lord's people into 
mourning, and their songs into most sad and 
bitter lamentation. Neither are we less appre- 
liensive of the endeavours of the spirit of error, 
that possesseth sectaries in these nations, which, 
as it did at first promote the practice of a vast 
toleration in things religious, and afterwards 
proceeded unto the framing of the mischief 
thereof into a law ; so we doubt not, but it will 
still be active unto the promoting and prociu-ing 
the same, under the specious pretence of liberty 
for tender consciences ; the effects whereof have, 
in a few years past, been so dreadful, that we 
cannot think of the continuing of it, but with 
much trembling and fear: therefore knowing 
that to kings, princes, rulers, and magistrates, 
appertains the conservation and purgation of 
religion, and that unity and peace be preser\'ed 
in the church, and that the truth of God be kept 
pure and entire, that all blasphemies and heresies 
be suppressed, all corruptions or abuses in dis- 
cipline and worship prevented or reformed, and 
all the ordinances of God duly settled, adminis- 
tered, and observed; and that nothing can more 
contribute unto the preserving and promoting 
of religion, and of the work of reformation, than 
that all places of power and trust be filled with 
men of a blameless and christian conversation, 
and of approven integrity, and known affection 
to the cause of God : we your majesty's most 
humble subjects do, with bowed knees and 
bended affections, humbly supplicate your 
majesty, that you would employ your royal 
power unto the preservation of the reformed 
religion in the church of Scotland, in doctrine, 
worship, discipline, and government; and in 
the reformation of religion in the kingdoms of 
England and Ireland, in doctrine, worship, 
discipline, and government ; and unto the carry- 
ing on of the work of uniformity in religion in 
the churches of God in the three kingdoms, in 
one confession of faith, form of church govern- 
ment, directory for worship and catechising, 
and to the extirpation of popery, prelacy, super- 
stition, heresy, schism, profaneness, and whatso- 
ever shall be found contrary to sound doctrine, 
and the power of godliness : and that all places 
of power and trust under your majesty may be 
filled with such as have taken the covenant, and 
are of approven integi'ity and known affection 
to the cause of God, if in a matter that so much 
concerns the honoui- of God, and the good of 
this church, and youi- majesty's honour and 
happiness, we be jealous with a godly jealousy, 
we know your majesty's wisdom and piety to 
be such, as will easily pardon it. The sense of 
our duty to God, and to your majesty, with the 
importunity of men of a contrary mind, who 
seek to make your majesty and these kingdoms 
transgressors, by building again the things that 
were formerly warrantably destroyed, constrain 
us to be petitioners against the same, and ear- 

[book I. 

them. Whereupon once and again they wrote 
to the ministers of Edinburgh of the other 
side, that they might join with them in a 
dutiful address to his majesty at such a 

nestly to entreat that any beginnings of stum- 
bling which have already been given in these 
things, especially in the matter of prelacy, 
and the ceremonies, and Service-book in your 
majesty's chapel and family, and in other places 
of your dominions, may be removed and taken 
away, and that there may be no further proceed- 
ings in these things which grieve the Spirit of 
God, and give offence to your majesty's good 
subjects, ■who are engaged with you in the same 
covenant and work of reformation : and that 
your majesty, for establishing the hearts, and 
strengthening the hands of these who are faithful 
in the work of the Lord, and for quashing the 
hopes and endeavours of adversaries, will be 
pleased to give public signification of your 
approbation of the covenant, and of youi" pur- 
I)ose to adhere unto the same, and to caiTy on 
the work of God in these kingdoms according 
thereto ; and that your majesty's eyes may be 
upon the faithful of the land, that they may 
dwell with you. We hope that your majesty 
will not take offence, if we be the Lord's remem- 
brancers to you, that you were pleased, a little 
before your coming into this kingdom, and 
afterwards at the time of your coronation, to 
assure and declare by your solemn oath, under 
j'our hand and seal, in the presence of Almighty 
God, the searcher of hearts, your allowance and 
approbation of the national covenant, and of the 
solemn league and covenant, fiiithfully obliging 
yourself to prosecute the ends thereof in your 
station and calling : and that your majesty, for 
yourself and successors, shall consent and agree 
to all acts of parliament enjoining the national 
covenant, and the solemn league and covenant, 
and fully establishing presbyterial government, 
the Directory of Worship, Confession of Faith, 
and Catechisms, in the kingdom of Scotland, .is 
they are approven by the general assemblies of 
this kirk, and parliaments of this kingdom ; 
and that your majesty shall give your royal 
assent to acts and ordinances of parliament, past 
or to be past, enjoining the same in your other 
dominions, and that you shall observe these in 
your own practice and family, and shall never 
make opposition to any of these, or endeavour any 
change thereof. And we desire to be persuaded, 
that no length of time hath made your majesty 
to forget, or weakened tipon your heart, the 
sense of the obligation of that great and solemn 
oath of God in the covenant ; yea, that the 
afflictions wherewith God hath exercised your 
majesty these years past, and the great and 
w^onderful deliverance that of late he hath 
granted unto you, hath fixed deeper impressions 
thereof upon your spirit, and that amongst all 
the kings of the earth, religion and reformation 
shall have no greater friend than your majesty ; 
yea, that as you are more excellent than the 
kings of the earth, in regard of purity of profes- 
sion and solemn engagements unto God, and 
long exercisedness with manifold afflictions, and 
in the Lord's setting you over these kingdoms, 
which ^ve^e not only through grace amongst the 
first-fruits of the gentiles, but also, in your 
princely station and dignity, are, amongst all 

CflAP. 1.3 

juncture. We liave seen tlie occasion ot 
the coldness and delays made in this affair, 
by the ministers of Edinburgh, in the intro- 
duction. They were excellent men, but it 
nuist be owned that they trusted too much 
to Mr. Sliarj), and by his suggestions and 
letters every tiling of this nature was 

Two former meetings had been concerted 
at Edinburgh, of ministers from the differ- 
ent corners of the church, but the brethren 
had not come up to them. Matters seemed 
still to grow more and more threatening to 
the church establishment, and no other way 
appeared to be left them but to act in this 
manner. There were no assemblies to be 
expected, there was no commission, and 
synods were not to meet till October; 
therefore the above-named persons, a small 
part of many who were to have met, found 
themselves under a necessity to do some- 
what in such a crisis : so they formed the 
foresaid supplication, which they designed 
to have communicate to a larger meeting 
before it was sent to court. The chancellor 
and others coming to the knowledge of this 

that we know in the world, the most eminent 
for the purity and power of tlie gospel ; so shall 
your majest)' excel them in zeal for God, and 
for the kingdom of Jesus Christ, and that by how 
much your majesty is, by the constitution and 
hand of the Almighty, lifted up above the sphere of 
that of your subjects, by so much shall your mo- 
tions be more vigorous and active unto the carry- 
ing the influence of your royal commands 
and exami)le, all the orbs of inferior powers 
and persons in these kingdoms, in subordination 
to God and your majesty, in the practice of g<idli- 
ness and virtue. It is the desire of our souls, that 
your majesty may be like unto David, a man 
according unto God's own heart ; like unto 
Solomon, of an understanding heart to judge the 
Lord's people, and to discern betwixt good and 
bad ; like unto Jehoshaphat, whose heart was 
lifted up in the ways of the Lord; like unto 
Hezekiah, eminent for goodness and integrity ; 
like unto Josias, who was of a tender heart, 
and did humble himself before God, when he 
heard his words against Jerusalem and Juilah, 
anil the inhabitants thereof; and not only made a 
covenant before the Lord, to walk after the Lord, 
and to keep his commandments w^ith all his 
heart, and with all his soul, to perform the words 
of the covenant ; but also caused all that were 
in Jerusalem and Benjamin to stand to it, and 
took away all the abominations out of all the 
countries that pertained to the children of Israel, 
and made all that were present in Israel to serve, 
even to serve the Lord their God : so shall your 
majesty inherit the honour and blessings of 




meeting, tiie committee of estates 
were acquainted with it ; and some 
persons were immediately sent, who came 
upon the meeting, when the scrolls and other 
papers werebefore them, which are mentioned 
in the Act of Confinement, and seized all. I 
find those papers were the first draughts of 
letters to some brethren, desiring another 
meeting at Glasgow, in September, about 
the supplication, with instructions to some 
of theii' number, when they went west with 
a draught of the supplication, that it might 
be considered by the brethren of the synod 
of (Srlasgow, that if they found cause, they 
might join in it: such as came from the 
committee, asked for the supplication itself, 
which the ministers gave them a copy of, 
without any difficulty. 

When the unfinished scrolls and the 
supplication were read in the committee of 
estates they were sent straight to court; 
and all who had been present at the meet- 
ing, save Craignethan, who happily escaped, 
were committed to close prison, in the 
castle of Edinburgh, by the act of this 
day's date,* without ever calling the minis- 

these kings upon the earth, and their happi- 
ness in heaven ; so shall your m.ajesty's person 
be preserved, and your government established 
over these kingdoms ; which is the unfeigned 
desire, and fervent supplication of 

Your majesty's most humble 
and loyal subjects. 

* Act for securing Mr. James Guthrie and 

At Edinburgh the 23d day of August, 1660. 

The committee of estates, now^ presently con- 
vened by his majesty's special warrant and 
authority, upon information given to them of a 
conventicle and private meeting of some remon- 
strator and protesting ministers and others at 
Edinburgh, tor which they had mother warrant 
from the ordinary, civil, or ecclesiastic courts ; 
and the said committee, being by his majesty's 
special commission and commands, intrusted 
and empowered with the caring, ordering, and 
providing for what may conduce for the peace 
of this his majesty's ancient kingdom, and sup- 
port of his power and authority therein, finding 
such unlawful conventicles, upon what pretence 
soever, without pul)lic lawful authority, ex- 
pressly derogatory to his majesty's royal pre- 
rogative, and tending to the disturbance of the 
present peace of his majesty's dominions; gave 
order and command to some of their number, to 
search and make trial after the occasion and 
reason of their meeting, who in the said inquin-, 
found them with petitions subscribed, and some 
papers and letters scrolled, to be sent for coiivo- 



ters before them, or hearing what they 
had to say in theu* own defence. This 
illegal and unprecedented step, the first act of 
our committee of estates, was a preamble to 
that horrid scene of arbitrary proceeding, 
oppression, and cruelty, which now began 
to open. INIr. James Guthrie was never 
liberate till a glorious martyrdom, and the 
truth made him free, and the rest underwent 
very great hardships. It hath been observed 
that this was done that very day, a hundred 
years after, in which the idolatrous, tyran- 
nical, contradictory, and cruel religion of 
popery was abolished in Scotland, and the 
reformation was established. Indeed from 
this day and forward, for twenty-eight years, 
we were going very fast back to Babylon, 
and wide steps were taken to re-introduce 
popery and slavery. 

A careful comparing of the supplication 
with the committee's act will sufficiently 
expose the last. The ministers were chiefly 
attacked because they were protesters ; and 
yet such as were of that denomination most 
firmly asserted the king's title under his 
exile; and Mr. James Guthrie and others 
of them suffered much from the English 
for their loyalty, when Mr. Sharp, who 
now managed all, took the tender, and fell 
in with the usurper. Ingratitude, however, 
was but a lesser aggravation of this violent 
procedure; it was plainly illegal: besides 
the known privilege of all subjects to ad- 
dress the sovereign, there were then laws 
unrescinded, to which the members of the 
committee themselves had assented, war- 
ranting them to meet and supplicate. The 
usurpers, when Scotland v/as under their 
feet, did not hinder ministers to meet, 
except in their general assembly. Li short, 
this step was very unequal as well as ungrate 


and illegal, since that very same day the 
committee liberate several persons impris- 
oned for murder and other atrocious crimes. 
But those were not the things at present 
they were in quest of. 

Under their confinement in the castle 
the ministers agreed upon a supplication, 
and sent it to the committee of estates, 
whereof I have not seen a copy; but by 
other papers of this time, I find in it, 
" They promised no more to prosecute the 
remonstrance, 1G50, and expressed their 
sorrow for gi\'ing their lordships any offence 
by the unseasonableness of theii- late meet- 
ing, at which they were seized." The 
chancellor insisted they should acknowledge 
their fault in meeting upon such a matter : 
but the ministers, apprehending this would 
be a receding from their designed testimony, 
and such a declaration affecting not only 
the manner and time of their meeting, but 
the business and important matter upon 
which they met, might have very ill con- 
sequences at this juncture, refused to go 
this length, though the advocate, who had 
taken the tender when many of them 
were suffering for their loyalty and firmness 
to the king, threatened to found a process 
of treason upon theii- supplication. 

The people under the pastoral charge of 
the now imprisoned ministers were extremely 
afflicted with their confinement, and ready 
to make all proper applications. I find 
Mr. Stii'ling's session at Edinburgh, and no 
doubt Mr. Trail's also, acquaint him with 
then* design to supplicate in his behalf, 
which is delayed till they know the issue 
of their own supplication. All I have of 
this, is in the following letter from jVIi'. 
Stirling to his session at this time, who 
breathes much of a Christian and ministerial 

eating all of their own judgment, containing 
many particulars reflecting upon his sacred 
majesty, the government of our neighbour 
church and kingdom of England, and constitu- 
tion of this present committee, and many other 
things directly tending to seditions, raising of 
new tumults, and (if possible) rekindling a 
civil war amongst his majesty's good subjects. 
Therefore, the said committee have thought fit, 
and hereby ordains the persons subscribers of 
the said papers, and these in company at the 
updrawing thereof; they are to say, Mr. .Tames 
Guthrie, Mr. Robert Trail, Mr. John Stirling, 

Mr. Alexander Moncrief, Mr. John Seuiplu 
Mr. Thomas Kamsay, Mr. Gilbert Hall, I\Ir. 
John Scot, Mr^ George Nairn, ]\Ir. John I\liu'- 
ray, ministers, and John Kirko ruling elder, 
to be committed prisoners within the castle of 
Edinburgh, therein to remain, until his majes- 
ty's pleasure shall be fm-ther made known ; and 
gives warrant to the present captain of the said 
castle, to receive them prisoners, and to keep 
them in safe custody. 

Extracted forth of the books of the said com- 
mittee by me, Jo. Hay, cler. com. 

CHAI'. I.] 

spirit, and states the cause of their suffer- 
ings ; and therefore I have insert it,* as 
what deserves a room in this collection. 
There was a motion likewise in the synod of 
Glasgow, at their meeting in October, this 
year, for a supplication in favour of the im- 


prisoned ministers; but it was much 

• Letter, I\Ir. John Stirling, minister at 
Kdinburgh, to his session, when imprisoned 
by the committee of estates, 1660. 

Dearly beloved, 

I hear there are some thoughts among you, of 
petitioning the lionourable committee of" estates, 
for my releasement. I confess it is no small 
refreshment to me, to think that I have so much 
room in your atfections, as you are ready to look 
after me, or desire that I might yet continue to 
serve you, in the work of the gospel : and though 
I be your debitor on this account, and do most 
heartily thank you, and all those in whose hearts 
this motion hath been entertained, yet I dare 
not advise you to follow it any further at present. 
I\Iy brethren and I are jointly to petition this 
week, and we shall see what issue that maj' take, 
before we desire our people to be engaged in 
suiting for us. If the Lord have any more 
service for me among you, he can bring me to 
you again (I trust) in the spirit and power of 
the gospel ; and this testimony of your affec- 
tion, shall, I hope, put a new edge upon my 
spirit, to be more willing than ever to spend 
and be spent, for the advantage of your souls : 
but if otherwise, the will of the Lord be done. 
I am hopeful, that he who ministereth seed to 
the sower, shall minister to your necessities ; 
and I shall never forget you, by his grace, but 
ever bear you upon my heart, to hold you up 
before the Lord, so long as I am in this body. 

I know the cause of our sufferings is strangely 
represented to ynu ; and, I confess, we w^ere 
miserable men, and unworthy of the room we 
bear either in the chiu"ch or kingdom, if that 
w^ere true that is said of us. The personal suf- 
ferings I am under, nor the reproaches that are 
upon my name, are not a very great trouble, in 
comparison of the fear I h.ive that Satan may 
thereby take advantage to cause the Lord's 
people stumble at, the gospel 1 have preached 
among them ; yet this is my comfort, that 
whatever the world say or believe, the cause I 
suffer for is the Lord's, and no less than the 
avowing of his rriarriage contract, in a sworn 
covenant, betwixt the three kingdoms: and 
albeit we have not now liberty to vindicate our- 
selves from the aspersions cast upon us, but must 
lie under the reproaches of seditious persons, 
and raisers of a new war, (which, God knowcth, 
our hearts do abhor,) and enemies to our king, 
(whom our souls do honour, and I dare take 
you witnesses of my good wishes towards him,) 
yet this is no new thin^ ; you know who was 
counted an enemy to Cesar, even Christ our 
Lord, and Paul was a seditious fellow, and 
went up and down the world as a deceiver, and 
yet was true. Yet all we were about, was an 
innocent supplication, that his majesty might 
mind the oath of God, and oppose those abjured 
corruptions of prelacy, and ceremonies that are 
coming in, and that he might, for advancing of 
reformation, employ fit instruments in places of 


opposed by some ministers who turn- 
ed bishops, and their undertakings, and some 
worthy members who exercised too nmch 
charity for their false brethren. Thus they 
continued a considerable time in prison, till at 

power and trust, who are friends thereunto; 
and we should desire no other vindication, but 
that our supplication might be printed. 

Always, dearly beloved, till I be able, if the 
Lord will, to speak face to face, I shall desire 
no other favour of you, but that you will endea- 
vour that the people may not stumble, but retain 
somewhat of chai'ity to me, till God shall fulfil 
his promise, in making righteousness appea", 
that the upright in heart may follow after it. 
I beseech you, in the bowels of Jesus Christ, 
take heed to yourselves, and to the flock over 
which the Holy Ghost hath made you overseers : 
much more lieth upon you now, than formerly 
when I was with you. Remember, I beseech 
you, that you watch as those that must give an 
account, and that the adversary is going about 
as a roaring lion, continually seeking whom he 
may devour. Ah! my heart bleedeth to think 
how much he prevaileth with the most part, 
and how few there are who will lay hold on the 
free offers of grace and salvation through a 
redeemer, and come to Jesus that they may have 
life. Edinburgh hath long had the plenty and 
purity of the glorious gospel, but ah ! who hath 
believed our report, and to whom is the arm of 
the Lord revealed ? It is true the Lord hath a 
remnant, yea, a precious remnant, among us, 
else we should have been like to Gomorrah ; 
but yet alas for the blindness and hardness, the 
looseness and profanity of the most part, who 
live, in effect, without God in the world : ah, 
that in their day they might know the things 
that belong to their peace, before they be hid 
from their eyes ! I know there are many such 
under your charge, but let me beseech you to be 
serious with them, while you have occasion, and 
to walk cxemplarily before them. It is not to 
preachers only, but to all Christ's followers, in 
their own place and station, that he saith, Let 
your light so shine before men, that they seeing 
your good works, may glorify your Father which 
is in heaven. As for me, the Lord knoweth, 
that as I have no greater grief by this restraint, 
than my absence from you, (which would be a 
deep sorrow indeed, but that I am persuaded of 
the call of God to this piece of service that is 
now put in my hands) so can I have no greater 
joy and comfort, than to hear of all your happi- 
ness, and of your love to the gospel, and care to 
adorn the same by your holy and blameless 
conversation. I shall add no more, but my 
earnest request for your prayers before the throne 
of grace ; and so recommending you aiui all the 
flock, to him who is the great shepherd and 
bishop of your souls, I rest, 

Your servant for Christ's sake, 
Jo. Stiklino. 
Edinburgh, Sept. 11. 

P. S. If it be possible, that j-our care and 
mine together, could provide preaching in your 
own church, till we know whether the Lord 
will shorten this trial unto me, I wish we could 
do it. 


Tf560 ^^"o*^^ ^ good many of them were 
let out of the castle, but still con- 
fined to their chambers at Edinburgh, till the 
sitting down of the parliament; some of 
them had only their prison charged; and 
several other ministers were seized, as we 
may hear in the further accounts of the 
procedure of the committee, which I come 
now to hint at. 

Mr. Archdeacon Eachard's account of 
the imprisonment of those ministers, vol. iii. 
p. 39, deserves our notice. In the progress 
of this history, we shall find him once and 
again giving very indistinct and unfair re- 
presentations of our Scots affairs during the 
period before me, in the short and lame 
hints he hath. Here he speaks of those 
/ ministers as the prime managers of the 
1 church of Scotland; whereas though they 
"'were excellent persons, yet at this juncture 
they were far from being the prime actors 
in the church. We have seen that they 
could scarce prevail to have any meeting 
among brethren of their own sentiments, 
and how thin the meeting they had was. 
But this innuendo must be made, that they 
were the prime ministers of the kirk party, 
that the odium of the remonstrance, unlaw- 
ful meetings, and seditious papers, and other 
hard names now made use of against the 
remonstrators, might lie upon all presby- 
terian ministers. It would seem to be with 
some such view as this, that he says. They 
met and drew up a remonstrance. I can 
scarce think this author is so absolute a 
stranger to the Scots history, as to blend 
the remonstrance formed ten years before, 
with the petition drawn up by Mr. Guthrie 
and the rest at this time, though we shall 
meet with as gross mistakes in the celebrated 
English writers when they treat of Scots 
affairs. But one must think he would have 
his reader believe, that all those excellent 
ministers were remonstrants. An historian 
ought to give every thing he speaks of its 
own name, and not talk of a supplication 
under that of a remonstrance. It was a 
piece of greater justice in Mr. Eachard, a 
few lines below, to take notice of the king's 
proclamation concerning the carriage of his 
subjects, November 1st, 1660, and candidly 
to insert the clause discharging adchxsscs 


to his majesty, except by the parliament or 
committee of estates, with the promise of 
an indemnity, which for private ends was 
j long delayed. 

Next day after the ministers were seized^ 
the committee of estates go on to some- 
what that was more extensive, and discharge 
all meetings without the king's authority, 
and seditious petitions. The proclamation 
will stand best in its own light. 

Proclamation by the committee of estates, 
against unlawful meetings, and seditious 
papers. At Edinburgh, August 24/A, 
" The committee of estates, in obedience 
to his majesty's proclamation, being met 
and taking to their serious consideration, 
the gooc»!nes3 of God, who in his great 
mercy hath restored the king's majesty to 
the exercise of his royal government ; and 
withal considering his majesty's great care 
of, and affection to his ancient kingdom of 
Scotland, in calling and authorizing the 
said committee of estates to meet; and 
they finding it their duty to prevent all 
unlawful meetings, which may tend to the 
prejudice of his majesty's service, or may 
again involve his majesty's subjects into 
new troubles, have thought fit, in his 
majesty's name and authority, to prohibit, 
and by these presents do prohibit and dis- 
charge all unlawful and unwarrantable 
meetings and conventicles, in any place 
within his majesty's kingdom of Scotland, 
without his majesty's special authority; and 
likewise all seditious petitions and remon- 
strances, under what pretext soever, which 
may tend to the disturbance of the peace of 
this kingdom, or alienating or diminishing 
the affections of his majesty's subjects from 
their due obedience to his majesty's lawful 
authority ; and that under all highest pains. 
And for that effect appoints all sheriffs of 
shires, and magistrates of burghs, to be 
careful within their respective bounds, that 
no such pernicious and dangerous meetings 
be permitted ; but that they may be pre- 
vented, hindered, made known, and dis- 
covered, to the committee of estates : and 
ordains these presents to be printed and 
published. Signed in the name, and 

CHAP. I.] 
by warrant of 



the committee of estates. 

" Glencairn, Chancellor." 

I. P. D. Com." 

I shall not stay to make any observes 
upon this proclamation. We need not be 
critical upon the narrative and style; this 
was a great and sudden change, and that 
by people who had been acquainted with, 
yea, active in a quite other method of 
speaking and doing than this, which puts 
all into the king's hand. Our people seem 
to be cautious at first, nemo rcpentc Jit tur- 
pissbnus ; and they only discharge unlawful 
and unwarranted meetings, which all sides 
raust own should be discharged : but then 
the question is, what are these ? and all 
seditious petitions and remonstrances are 
discharged. Indeed the first seems to be 
understood of all meetings not called and 
authorized by the king; but it is not time 
yet to speak out, till the great work and 
excellent laws made after the year 1040 be 
rescinded; and there is no doubt this pro- 
clamation was very much against the present 
laws, in the sense in which it is designed, 
though the double and extensive phrases, 
unlawful and unwarrantable, &c., screened 
the members from attacks, 

When the king's letter to the presbytery 


From thence he was sent to the 
castle of Stirling, and continued in 
confinement till the parliament sat. Mr. Gil- 
lespie indeed had fallen in very much with the 
usurper, and was in this very much alone, and 
few or none of the ministers followed him. 
That same day, the committee of estates 
confined IVIr. Robert Row, minister at 
Abercom, and Mr, William Wiseheart, 
minister at Kinneil, to their chambers at 
Edinburgh. Both of them were excellent 
persons, but suspected to favour the brethren 
who were for the protestation, and had 
used some freedom in their sermons. Upon 
Thursday, September 20th, Mr. Wiseheart, 
and with him provost JafFray, director of 
chancellary, were imprisoned in Edinburgh 
tolbooth. About the same time Mr. James 
Guthrie was sent from Edinburgh castle to 
StirUng, by order of the committee, where 
he continued till the parliament called for 
him in order to his trial, or near about that 
time, when we shall again meet with him. 

September 19th, a proclamation is pub- 
lished against two known books : the first 
writ, and long before printed, by the rev- 
erend and learned JNIr. Samuel Rutherford, 
entitled Lex Rex. The other supposed to 
be drawn up by IVIr. James Guthrie, — the 
Causes of God's Wrath. I have insert the 

of Edinburgh came down, September 3d, ''tommittee's proclamation about them.* We 
of which more just now, it rather heightened 
than slackened the committee's procedure 
against gentlemen and ministers. The 
brethren for the public resolutions made 
too much of it; and all who favoured the 
protest and remonstrance were looked upon 
almost as rebels and enemies to the king, 
and accordingly dealt with by the committee, 
who went on to censure, harass, and im- 
prison them. Upon the 14th of September, 
by their order, John Graham, provost of 
Glasgow, and John Spreul, town-clerk there, 
were imprisoned in Edinburgh tolbooth. 
Both of them had been reckoned favourers 
of the remonstrance, and yet they were 
pious and excellent persons. The commit- 
tee sent an order to the magistrates of 
Glasgow, to oblige Mr. Patrick Gillespie, 
principal of the college, to compear before 
them; which he did: and September 15th, 
was made prisoner in the castle of Edinburgh. 

* A proclamation against two seditious books 
or pamphlets, the one entitled Lex Rex, the 
other, the Causes of God's Wrath, &c. 

The committee of estates, now presently con- 
vened by his mnjesty's special waiTant and 
authority, taking into their consideration, that 
there are two books, the one entitled Lex Rex, 
and the other, the Causes of God's Wrath, &c. 
printed and dispersed by some rebellious and 
seditious persons within this kingdom, cun- 
ningly, and of purpose to corrupt the minds of 
his majesty's loyal subjects, to alienate and with- 
draw them from that duty of love and obedience, 
that they owe unto his sacred person and 
greatness, stirring them up against his majesty 
and kingly government, and containing many 
things injurious to the king's majesty's person 
and authority, laying the foundation and seeds 
of rebellion, for the present and future genera- 
tions: therefore, in consideration of the prem- 
ises, the said committee of estates do declare the 
said two books to be full of seditious and 
treasonable matter, animating his ni.njesty's good 
subjects to rise up in rebellion against their 
lawful prince and sovereign, and poisoning their 
hearts with many seditious and rebellious prin- 
ciples, prejudicial to the king's majesty's peison, 


1 fifjn ^hall meet with a good many papers 
of this nature afterwards. The com- 
mittee introduce a phraseology, pretty much 
out of doors for some time in Scotland, but 
very much followed in the period I am 
upon, how properly I am not to consider, 
" the king's sacred gi'eatness." Very liberally 
they determine the authors of those books, 
and the printers and dispersers of them, to 
be rebellious and seditious persons, " that 
they contain many things injurious to the 
king, and laying the foundation and seeds 
of rebellion, that they are full of treason- 
able matter," with many other hard words. 
They call in the copies, and order them to 
be delivered to Mi-. Robert Dalgleish, his 
majesty's solicitor, in less than a month's 
time ; and declare, that all and every one 
who, after the 15th of October, shall have 
any copies of them, shall not only be 
esteemed enemies to the king, but punished 
accordingly in their persons and estates. 
Such summar declarations coming so near 
the popish index prohibit orius, and their 
inquisition, especially when pointed at books, 
which will still be valued, where a sense of 
religion and liberty prevails, may surprise 
the reader ; but in a little time he will find 
them turning common. Mr. Sharp, now 
come down, had a particular quarrel with 
Messrs. Rutherford and Guthrie, and pro- 

his royal authority, and to tlie peace of this 
kingdom : and that the foresaid two books ought 
not to be read, perused, nor kept in the hands oi* 
custody of any of his majesty's lieges ; but that 
the same be called in, and delivered up, that his 
majesty's good subjects be not longer infected or 
poisoned thereby. And for this eifect they do 
ordain all and whatsoever persons, havers of the 
said books in their hands or custody, to bring 
and deliver the same to Mr. Robert Dalgleish, 
his majesty's solicitor in Scotland, betwixt and 
the sixteenth day of October next to come : with 
certification to aU and every one of these who 
shall refuse to do the same, and with whom any 
of the said books shall be found after the said 
day, they, and each one of them, shall not only 
be esteemed enemies to the king's majesty, his 
authority, and tlie peace of this kingdom, but 
also they shall be punished accordingly in their 
persons and estates, as the king's majesty and 
estates of parliament, or the said committee, 
shall think fit. And ordain these presents to be 
fortliwith printed and published at the market- 
crosses of Edinburgh and head burghs within 
the shires of this kingdom, that none pretend 
ignorance hereof. Extracted forth of the books 
of the said committee, by me, 

Jo. Hay, Cler. Com. 


secuted it a little further than this public 
mark upon those two books. In short, the 
principles laid down in the first, never yet 
disproven, and the plain facts in the last, 
were diametrically opposite to the course 
now entering on, and therefore they must 
be prohibited. 

The day following a more general thrust 
is given against all whom the committee 
were pleased to name remonstrants and 
their adherents, in their proclamation, 
September 20th, which I have likewise 
added.* The paper speaks for itself with- 

* A proclamation against all seditious I'ailers 
and slanderers, whether civil or ecclesiastic, of 
the king's majesty and his government; and 
against remonstrators and their adherents., and 
against all unlawful convocation of his majesty's 

At Edinburgh, the 20th of September, 1660. 

The committee of estates, presently convened 
by his majesty's specicd warrant and authority, 
laying seriously to heart the great trust commit- 
ted to them, for carrying on, ordering and using 
of all means which may tend to the securing of 
the peace of this kingdom, and maintaining and 
furthering his majestj^'s power and authority 
therein ; considering, that by many acts of par- 
liament, all leasiug-makers, and tellers thereof, 
makers of evil information, or engendering 
discord betwixt tlie king and his people, all 
reproachers or slanderers of his majesty, govern- 
ment, or realms, depravers of his laws, miscon- 
struers of his proceedings, meddlers in the affairs 
of his estate ; as also, all hearers of any such 
leasings, calumnies, or slanders, by word or 
writ, and concealers thereof, should be punished 
as seditious persons, enemies to his majesty, and 
the pain of death to be executed upon them, as 
at length is contained in the 43d act of king 
James I. his Sd pari, the 83d act of king James 
V. his 6th pari, the IS-lth act, pari. 8th, the 
10th act, pari. 10th, the 205th act, pari. 14th, of 
king James VI. and the 27th act of the 2d pari, 
of his sacred majesty's umquhile dearest father, 
of blessed memory ; which, more particularly in 
relation to any such reproaches, lies, or calum- 
nies, ccnceruing the kingdom of England, and 
his majesty's worthy subjects therein, is expressly 
prohibited by the 9th act of king James VI. his 
20th pari, holden in anno 1609, under the pain 
specified in the said act : likeas, all convocation 
of his majesty's lieges, without his majesty's 
special command, or express license, w^hatever 
quality, estate, or function the persons be of, 
spiritual or temporal, is expressly prohibited by 
the 131st act, pari. 8th, king James VI. under 
the pains therein contained. As also, the remon- 
strance presented to the committee of estates, in 
anno 1650, declared by his majesty and par- 
liament, in July 1651, seditious and treasonable : 
nevertheless, and albeit it hath pleased the 
Almighty God, of his w^onderful goodness and 
providence, happily to restore his sacred majesty 
to the peaceable government of his ancient 
kingdoms, and all his majesty's subjects to their 
wonted peace, freedom, and privilege, which is 

CHAP. I.] 

out any commentary. A large enumeration 
is made of the laws and acts against leasing- 
making, and particulai-ly calumnies against 
his majesty's kingdom of England, and his 
worthy subjects there. This pointed at 
such, who in preaching or conversation 
regretted the establishment of the hierarchy 
and ceremonies there, contrary to the cove- 
nants. The laws against all convocations 
and meetings without the king's command, 
which, if I mistake not, were rescinded 
expressly by the parliaments, approven by 
king Charles I., and all ratified by the 
present king, are next set down, with the 
declaration of the parliament, July, 1651, 
that the remonstrance presented to the 

(as it ou£;ht to be) a matter of ijreat rejoicing to 
all good Christians, and loyalsubjects whatsoever, 
both at homo and abroad : yet the said commit- 
tee of estates, certainly knowing, and receiving 
daily information, that several of his majesty's 
lieges, and subjects within this kingdom, do, 
contrary to the said acts of parliament, convo- 
cate, convene, and assemble themselves, without 
his majesty's special command and license ; and 
that there are several scandalous seditious 
speeches uttered and preached in sermons, decla- 
mations, and otherwise, and several calumnious 
pasquils, libels, rhymes, and other wrrits, devised, 
vented, and published, to the reproach or slander 
of his majesty's person, estate, or government : 
as also, that several his majesty's subjects do 
own, adhere to, avow, abet, or assist the foresaid 
remonsti-ance, whereby his majesty's loyal, well 
meaning subjects, may be drawn from their due 
allegiance, and ensnared in such seditious com- 
binations and meetings, and involved in their 
said treasonable plots and practices, unless 
timous remedy be provided : therefore, the 
committee of estates, in his majesty's name 
and authority, command and charge, that no 
subject, or subjects within this kingdom, of 
■whatsoever qualitj', estate, or function they be 
of, spiritual or temporal, presume, or take upon 
hand, to convocate, convene, or assemble tliein- 
selves together, for holding of councils, conven- 
tions, or assemblies, to treat, consult, or deter- 
minate in any matter of estate, civil or ecclesias- 
tic (except in the ordinary judicatories), without 
his majesty's command and express 
license, had and obtained to that effect : as also, 
that none of them, of whatsoever function, 
degree, or quality, presume, nor take upon 
hand, privately or publicly, in sermons, preach- 
ings, declamations, speeches, or otherwise, by 
word or writ, to utter, devise, or vent any pur- 
pose of reproach, or slander, against his majesty's 
person, estate, or government, his parents, or 
progenitors, or to deprave his laws and acts of 
parliament, or misconstrue his proceedings, 
v^hereby any misliking may be moved betwixt 
his majesty, and his nobility, and loving subjects, 
or to meddle in the affairs of his majesty and 
his estate, present, bygone, and in time coming ; 
or to own, abet, or assist tl)e foresaid remon- 
strance : with certification, they shall be pro- 


committee of estates, 1650, against 



malignants being employed in ofRccs, 
was seditious and treasonable. Then the 
committee having information, " that those 
laws are contravened, by slanders on his 
majesty and government, unlawful conven- 
tions of the lieges, owning the remonstrance, 
meddling in the affairs of his majesty, and 
his estate, present and bygone, they dis- 
charge the same under the pains contained 
in the said laws, and declare that all who 
hear any such leasings, calumnies, or sland- 
ers, and reveal them not, shall incur tiie 
same punishment with the principal offender. 
And that the lieges being most easily en- 
snared by seditious and treasonable courses 

ceeded against, conform to the tenors of the said 
respective acts of parliament. I-.ike<is, the said 
committee of estates declare, that any person or 
persons, who hear any su(;h leasing, calumny, 
or slanderous speech, or shall see or have any 
such pasquils, or writs, as aforesaid, and reveal 
not the same to his majesty, or one of the said 
committee, or to the sheriff, steward, or bailie of 
the shire, stewards in regality or royalty, or to 
the provost or one of the bailies within bui'gh, 
as with best conveniency he may, by whom the 
same may come to the knowledge of his majesty, 
his p;u-lii)inent, the said committee of estates, or 
his majesty's privy council, by whom the said 
leasing- makers, and authors of such slanderous 
speeches, may be called, tried, and piuiished, 
according to the said acts ; in that case they 
shall incur the like censure or punishment, as 
the principal party oH'ender. And the said 
committee of estates considering, that his ma- 
jesty's lieges are subject more easily to be en~ 
snared and enticed to any sucli seditious or trea- 
sonable courses and practices, bj' ministers in 
their sermons, prayers, declamations, and private 
discourses ; the said committee do declare, that 
upon information given to them of any thing 
uttered or spoken, contrary to the tenor of the 
j»receding act, the same being lawfully proven in 
presence of the said committee, or parliament, 
or his majesty's privy council, they summarily 
will sequestrate their whole stipend, and im- 
prison their person, until his majesty, parlia- 
ment, or committee of estates, or any other 
judge competent, shall proceed to the tinal cog- 
nition and sentencing of their said crime or 
crimes. And to the effect that this act and 
ordinance may come to the knowledge of all his 
majesty's lieges, ordain publication to be made 
thereof, at the market-cross of Edinburgh, and 
at the market-crosses of the head-burghs of the 
shires ; and ordain the magistrates of the several 
head burghs to send so many of the said procla- 
mations to each collector of the assessment of 
everj' shire, requiring the said collector to send 
the same to the several parishes, that the fore- 
said proclamation may be read after sermon, 
and fixed upon the kirk-doors of each parish, 
and upon the market-cross of each head burgh. 
Extracted forth of the book of tlie said commit- 
tee, by me, Jo. Hay, Cler. Com, 



and practices by ministers in their 
sermons, prayers, declarations, and 
private discourses, they declare, that upon 
information given, their stipends shall be se- 
questrate, and their persons imprisoned;" 
as the proclamation more fully bears. 

This procedure opened a door to make 
many offenders for a word, and nobody 
against whom the present managers had a 
design could escape. Ministers were attack- 
ed for their sermons and other discourses ; 
and many gentlemen, especially such who 
favoured the remonstrance, were brought to 
trouble. No small advantage was brought 
about to the com*ses now entering upon, by 
this proclamation. Two things wUl offer to 
the reader, almost without my help ; the 
most zealous of the ministers were laid open 
to a prosecution, and others they hoped to 
overawe into a sinful silence, in not giving 
feithful warning to their flocks of the en- 
croachments making upon our civil and sa- 
cred rights. And though the protesters, as 
they were termed, had the storm first falling 
on them, yet good numbers of the resolu- 
tioners, though silent for a little, under 
hopes given them of a general assembly to 
set matters right, and being deceived by the 
letter to the presbytery of Edinburgh, very 
soon fell under the pains in this proclama- 
tion : and all, save the compUers with pre- 
lacy, were sent to the furnace together. 
Another view was, to influence and model 
to the mind of the comt, the elections for 
the ensuing parliament. 

A great body of gentlemen of the best 
estates and greatest interest in the nation, 
who had appeared with the greatest vigour 
for the work of reformation since the (year) 
1637, and had likewise given the greatest 
evidences of concern for the royal family, 
under the usurpation, several of whom were 
concerned in the remonstrance, behoved 
now to be struck at. Their interest in shires 
was great, they might be troublesome in 
parliament, being heartily against arbitrary 
power, and from principle attached to the 
constitution of this church; and now the 
managers behoved to be rid of them. Some 
were cited before the committee, others 
were confined; and thus their influence 
upon elections was prevented. And no 


doubt, threatenings, and fear of danger, in 
this unsettled time, prevailed with several to 
lie by, so that the elections went pretty 
smoothly on, according to the desire of the 

Not having seen any full account of the 
procedure of the committee, with relation to 
gentlemen, and in prosecution of this severe 
proclamation, I can give but some hints of 
what they did, and no doubt much of their 
work was under ground. At Edinburgh, as 
we have heard, orders came down to seize 
some of the most active gentlemen, before 
the committee sat down. When the com- 
mission came to secure Sir Archibald John- 
ston of Warriston, major-general Morgan 
was empowered to seize Sir James Stuart, 
provost of Edinbiu-gh, and Sir John Chiesly 
of Carswell, two gentlemen of very strict 
morals, shining piety, considerable influence, 
and singular for their loyalty to the king 
under Oliver's government. By a trick. Sir 
James was trepanned to convoy Sir John to 
the castle of Edinburgh, and there the 
major-general left them both the king's pris- 
oners ; and for many yeai-s they continued 
either under bond and baU, or confinement, 
as a reward for their concern and sufferings 
for the king's interest when at its lowest.* 

Mr. John Harper, afterwards Sir John, m 
Lanarkshire, was in September obliged to 
sign the bond we shall just now hear of, and 
to give baU that he should appear before 
the committee or parliament to answer what 
should be charged upon him, under the 
highest pains. And September 26th, I find 
Ker of Greenhead, and Pringle of Green- 
know, are committed by the committee of 
estates to the castle of Edinburgh, for al- 
leged aiding, assisting, and partaking with 
the remonstrators and seditious persons. 
About this time Mr. Pringle of Torwoodlee, 
as we may afterwai'ds hear, and several 
others, were brought to no small trouble. 

Upon the 10th of October, the committee 
fugitate Su" Archibald Johnston of Warris- 
ton, colonel Gilbert Ker, colonel David 

* Mr. Kirkpatrick Sharpe states Sir John 
Chiesly to have been originally the servant of 
Mr. Alexander Henderson, and to have been 
knighted by king Charles I. in the Isle of 
Wight See Kirkton's History, p. 71.— -Erf. 

CHAP. I.] 

Barclay, John Ilamc, Robert Andrew of 
Little Tarbet, and William Dundas, late su- 
pervisor. Their case was indeed peculiar : 
they had been named trustees in Scotland 
to Oliver Cronnvell ; and being at London 
with William Purves and IVIr. Robert 
Hodge, and pretty much involved in Crom- 
well's affairs, were all discharged court, save 
Warriston, who was before this come to 
Scotland, and ordered to appear before the 
parliament when it sat. Multitudes of other 
gentlemen, in many shires upon the south 
of Tay, were brought before the committee 
of estates. If they had any tolerable in- 
formations against them, as to their com- 
pliances under the English, or their warm 
side to the remonstrance and protestation, 
then the following bond was offered them, 
and to several ministers also, to sign ; bear- 
ing the name and designation of the prin- 
cipal person bound, and a cautioner for each, 
wherein they were obliged, — " That the 
principal party shall not in any manner of 
way, directly or indu'ectly, plot, contrive, 
speak, or do any thing tending, or what may 
tend to the hurt, prejudice, or derogation of 
his majesty's royal person, or any of that 
royal family, or of his highness' power 
and authority ; or shall act or do any thing, 
directly or indirectly, tending, or that may 
tend to the breach or disturbance of the 
public peace of his majesty's dominions; 
nor shall connive, or concur with what- 
somever person or persons who shall con- 
trive or do any such thing, as is before 
mentioned : but shall, to the uttermost of 
their power, stop and let any such plot or 
doing; and compear personally before the 
committee, sub-committee, or parliament, 
upon a lawful citation. All which he prom- 
ises to fulfil truly and really. And in case 
of failie (failure), he and his cautioner, con- 
junctly and severally, oblige themselves to 
pay a high fine, by and attour what other 
censure, personal or pecunial, by law may 
be imposed upon the principal party his 
transgression. And considering there was 
a remonstrance presented to the committee 
of estates, October 2-2d, 1650, and there- 
after atlhered unto by many gentlemen and 
others, by a bill given in to the said com- 
mittee in November thereafter; which 




remonstrances being by his majesty 
and estates of parliament convened 
at Stirling, June 1651, taken into considera- 
tion, his majesty and estates by their act, 
June 4th, 1651, declare the said remon- 
strance to be scandalous and injurious to 
his majesty's person, prejudicial to his 
authority, dishonourable to the kingdom, 
and a sowing division among his majesty's 
subjects : therefore the said principal does 
acknowledge the justice of the said act, and 
obliges himself, that he shall not in any 
time coming, dii'ectly or indirectly, own, 
promote, or abet the said remonstrance, 
under the highest pains that may follow 
upon his person and estate." With a clause 
of registration and execution, in common 

By threatenings, imprisonments, and other 
harsh methods, not a few were brought to 
subscribe this bond, and renounce the remon- 
strance, in which the most part now har- 
assed had no hand. But this was a good 
handle to bear down and bring to trouble a 
great many gentlemen and others who had 
been most zealous and forward in the 
work of reformation, and were looked on 
as most opposite to the projects now on 
foot, and thus the parliament was also 
the better modelled for the work they had 
to do. 

A good many worthy ministers were at 
this tune brought before the committee of 
estates. October 13th, Mr, John Dickson, 
minister of the gospel at Rutherglen, 
appeared before them, and was imprisoned in 
Edinburgh tolbooth. Information had been 
given by Sir James Hamilton of Elistoun, 
and some of his parishioners, of some expres- 
sions he had used in a sermon, alleged to re- 
flect upon the government and committee, and 
tending to sedition and division. This good 
man was kept in prison till the parliament 
sat, his chiu-ch vacated, and he was brought 
to much trouble. We shall afterwards find 
him prisoner in the Bass, for near seven 
years ; and yet he got tlirough his troubles, 
returned to his charge at Rutherglen, and 
for several years after the revolution served 
his Master there, till his death in a good old 
age ; while that family who pursued him is 
a good while ago extinct, and their house. 


i„„, as Mr. Dickson very publicly fore- 
told in the hearing of some yet 
alive, after it had been a habitation for 
owls, the foundation-stones of it are digged 
up. The inhabitants there cannot but 
observe that the informers, accusers, and 
witnesses against Mi'. Dickson, some of 
them then magistrates of the town, are 
brought so low that they are sustained by 
the charity of the parish. 

Mr. James Nasmyth, minister of the 
gospel at Hamilton, was likewise sisted 
before the committee, for words alleged to 
have been spoken by him many years 
ago. About the year 1650, when Lambert 
was in the church, it was alleged, he pressed 
his heai-ers " to employ their power for 
God, and not in opposition to the gospel, 
otherwise they might expect to be brought 
down by the judgment of God, as those 
who went before were." Mr. Nasmyth 
this year was imprisoned for some time, 
and for several months kept from his 
charge. Very soon after his liberation, he 
was, with many others, turned from their 
flocks. We shall meet with him after- 

Mr. James Simpson, minister at Airth, 
in Stirlingshire, when by an invitation from 
Ireland he was going thither, to settle in a 
congregation there, was seized at Port 
Patrick, without any cause shown him. 
Mr. Sharp, I know, had a particular pique 
at him; they had been at London upon 
different views some years ago ; but when 
once in their hands, he was sisted before 
the committee, and by them cast in prison, 
where he continued till the parliament con- 
vened, and they saw good, without any 
trial, to banish this good man out of the 
king's dominions. 

The reader cannot but remark that all 
those instances of severity, as well as many 
that follow in this book, before Pentland, 
yea even to Bothwell Bridge, can never be 
palliate with the groundless pretences, that 
those excellent persons were punished for 
rebellion and treason. All of them owned 
the king's authority; they had standing 
law upon their side for much of what they 
were quarrelled about, yea, laws made by 
their very persecutors : a good many of 


them had suffered much for liis majesty 

when in exile; and this harsh treatment 
was all they and hundreds more had in 
return for their stedfast loyalty from a set 
of people now in power, many of whom 
had been deeply involved in compliance 
with the usurper, and in most of those 
very things for which those good persons 
were now harassed. Having thus run 
through the procedure of the committee 
of estates to the middle of October, when 
they adjourned for some days, it is high 
time to look back a little to the letter fi-ora 
the king, which Mr. Sharp brought with 
him to the presbytery of Edinburgh ; which 
was produced and timed to soften people's 
spirits, under the attacks making by the 
committee upon some of the most zealous 
promoters of religion and reformation. 

In the introduction we have had a pretty 
large view of Mr. Sharp's procedure at 
London, where matters were laid so in 
secret as the constitution of this church 
was to be overturned, and INIr. Sharp to be 
at the head of the new frame to be erected. 
That cunning apostate hastes down to 
Scotland, and arrived at Edinburgh the 
last day of August, and brought with him 
the king's letter, directed to INIr. Robert 
Douglas, to be communicated to the pres- 
bytery of Edinburgh. Upon Saturday, 
September 1st, some of the brethren of 
Edinburgh being convened, Mr. Sharp de- 
livered the letter to Mr. Robert Douglas, 
and made report of his negotiation ; for 
which the brethren gave him thanks, and 
resolved to convene the presbytery of 
Edinbm-gh, upon Monday, September 3d, 
that from them copies might be transmitted 
to other presbyteries, and a himible return 
made to his majesty. Accordingly they 
met, and the letter was ordered to be com- 
municate to all other presbyteries, as being 
of public concern; and a committee was 
ordered to draw up a retui'n to the king 
and a letter to the secretary, both of which 
I find approven, September 20th, The 
king's letter to 'Mr. Douglas hath been 
more than once printed, and the reader 
will no doubt expect it here. 

" Charles R. Trusty and well beloved, 
we greet you well. By the letter you sent 

CHAP. 1.] 

to us with this bearer, Mr. James Sharp, 
and by the account he gave of the state of 
our church there, we have received full 
infonnation of your sense of our sufferings, 
and of your constant affection and loyalty 
to our person and authority ; and therefore 
we will detain him here no longer (of 
whose good services we are very sensible), 
nor will we delay to let you know by him, 
our gracious acceptance of yoiu* address, 
and how well we are satisfied with your 
carriages, and with the generality of the 
ministers of Scotland in this time of 
trial, whilst some under specious pretences 
swerved from that duty and allegiance they 
owed to us. And because such, who by 
the countenance of usurpers, have disturbed 
the peace of that our church, may also 
labour to create jealousies in the minds of 
well-meaning people, we have thought fit 
by this to assure you, that, by the grace of 
God, we resolve to discountenance pro- 
fanity, and all contemners and opposers of 
the ordinances of the gospel. We do also 
resolve to protect and preserve the govern- 
ment of the church of Scotland, as it is 
settled by law, without violation; and to 
countenance, in the due exercise of theii* 
functions, all such ministers who shall be- 
have themselves dutifully and peaceably as 
becomes men of their calling. We will 
also take care that the authority and acts 
of the general assembly at St. Andrews 
and Dundee, 1651, be owned and stand in 
force untU we shall call another general 
assembly (which we purpose to do as soon 
as our affairs will permit), and we do intend 
to send for Mr. Robert Douglas, and some 
other miiusters, that we may speak with 
them in what may further concern the 
affaii's of that church. And as we are 
very well satisfied with your resolution not 
to meddle without your sphere, so we do 
expect that church judicatories in Scotland, 
and ministers there, will keep within the 
compass of their station, meddling only 
with matters ecclesiastic, and promoting our 
authority and interest with ouj subjects 
against all opposers; and that they will 
take special notice of such, who, by preach- 
ing, or private conventicles, or any other 
way, transgress the limits of their calling. 




by endeavouring to corrupt the 
people, or sow seeds of disaffection 
to us or our government. This you shall 
make known to the several presbyteries 
witliin that our kingdom : and as we do give 
assurance of our favour and encouragement 
to you, aod to all honest deserving ministers 
there, so we earnestly recommend it to you, 
that you be earnest in your prayers, public 
and private, to Almighty God, who is our 
Rock and our Deliverer, both for us, and for 
our government, that we may have fresh and 
constant supplies of his grace, and the right 
improvement of all his mercies and deliver- 
ances, to the honour of his great name, and 
the peace, safety, and benefit of all our king- 
doms. And so we bid you heartily fare- 
well. Given at our court at Whitehall, 
the 10th of August 1660, and of our reign 
the 12th year. 

" By his majesty's special command, 
" Lauderdale." 

Directed, " To our truly and well 
beloved, Mr. Robert Douglas, min- 
ister of the gospel in our city of 
Edinburgh; to be communicated 
to the presbytery of Edinburgh." 

Reflections upon this letter are in some 
measure needless, the after management 
makes the design of it obvious ; and the 
letter discovers itself to be of Mr. Sharp's 
penning : its expressions are extremely 
well calculate to lull all asleep till matters 
were ripe for a thorough change; a very 
full testimony is given to the loyalty and 
affection of the presbyterian ministers of 
this church to the king under his sufferings, 
which was so glaring that it could not be 
hid, and yet the declaring of it was as 
severe a reproach as could be upon the 
authors of their maltreatment. The in- 
nuendo that follows upon those who swerved 
from their duty and allegiance to the king, 
is a sensible proof of the confidence and 
disingenuity of Mi". Sharp, who, though he 
designed this against the protesters, knew 
well enough, that not a minister of the 
church of Scotland, as far as I know, no 
not Mr. Gillespie, had swerved so far from 
their allegiance, as to take the tender, or 
offered to come in to any measm'es Crom- 
well would lay down j and yet his own 



ippn conscience could not but reproach 
him as guilty of this. We shall have 
occasion afterwards to notice the double- 
faced expression, of protecting and pre- 
serving the government of the church, " as it 
is settled by law." The promise of calling a 
general assembly was what Mr. Sharp never 
designed to be performed; Mr. Douglas 
was never sent for, nor any other ministers : 
in short, Mr. Sharp took care that none of 
those things set down here as blinds should 
ever be done ; so that the earl of jVIiddle- 
ton's reflection upon it seemeth to have 
been very just and natural. This nobleman 
had not seen the draught till the king had 
agreed to it, and the matter was over. 
When he read it, he appeared in some con- 
cern at its contents, and the promises in it, 
as thwarting with what he and Mr. Sharp 
had concerted. And when he was told, 
that notwithstanding of any thing in the 
letter, when his lordship went down to 
Scotland, he might rescind the laws now in 
force, and then episcopacy remained the 
church government settled by law : the earl 
replied, " That might be done, but for his 
share he did not love that way, which 
made his majesty's first appearance in Scot- 
land to be in a cheat." 

Such was the charity of INIr. Douglas 
and many other worthy ministers, that they 
did not suspect a trick here ; and really it 
was so harsh a construction to suppose a 
man of Mr. Sharp's profession to venture 
upon so public and gross an imposition 
upon the king, as to make his majesty 
superscribe such a letter, and send it down 
full of such promises and expressions, and 
meanwhile to be projecting the contrary, 
that we need scarce wonder the snare was 
not observed ; and therefore the letter was 
extremely hugged, and a return made to it, 
agreeable to what might be expected from 
«uch who believed Mr. Sharp and the king 
to have been in earnest. The presbytery 
of Edinburgh caused print and spread the 
king's letter through the nation, and found 
it convenient it should be kept among 
the public records of the chiu-ch ; and 
therefore it was delivered by Mr. Douglas 
to Mr. Andrew Ker, clerk to the general 
assembly, to be kept by him, as said is ; and 


the presbytery agreed to, and signed the 
following return to it : 

" Most gracious Sovereign, 
" We your majesty's faithful subjects and 
humble servants, the ministers and elders of 
the presbytery of Edinburgh, did receive your 
majesty's gracious letter, upon the 3d ct 
this instant (a day which we were formerly 
made to remember with sorrow), and in 
obedience to your royal command therein 
contained, have transmitted copies thereof 
to all the presbyteries in this your majesty's 
ancient kingdom, which we hope shall very 
speedily come to all their hands. And as 
we are assured it will be most refreshful to 
them, so we hold it our duty, by this our 
humble address, to signify to your majesty, 
how much it hath revived our spirits, and 
excited us to bless the Lord our God, who 
hath put and continued such a purpose in 
your royal heart, to preserve and protect 
the government of this church without 
violation. We have been made to groan 
under the tjTanny of usurpers, who did let 
loose swarms of errors and confusions to 
invade the comely order of this poor 
chm'ch, (though, we bless God, without 
that success that was expected and desired 
by them :) now we are made to say, ' This 
is our God, we have waited for him j' when 
we see your sacred majesty, by a supreme 
and stupendous hand of Providence settled 
upon your throne, and do find the warm 
beams of royal authority reaching even to 
us, in countenancing church order, whereby 
any disturbances that are among us, may, by 
the blessing of the Almighty, come to a 
good issue. We are unwilling to interrupt 
yom- majesty in yoiu- weighty affliirs, seeing 
by your majesty's secretary, we may repre- 
sent our humble desires in reference to this 
church, (and we bless the Lord, who hath 
directed yom* majesty to make choice of 
such a faithful and able person for that 
weighty employment, and one who is so 
well acquainted with the affairs of this 
church:) but we trust that your majesty 
will pardon, that at this time we could not 
forbear this immediate address, whereby we 
might express otir loyalty and fidelity to 
your majesty, our joy in the Lord for your 
happy restitution, and how much we, and 

CHAP. 1.] 

all good people here, arc comforted m the 
expressions of your majesty's moderation, 
your abhorrence of profanity, and your 
tender favour to faithful ministers, and the 
ordinances of the gospel administrate by 
them, and particularly to the church govern- 
ment settled among us, in the enjoyment 
whereof this church hath been so happy. 
And though some rony be ready to traduce 
tliis government, because in the late times 
of confusion and usurpation (wherein men 
made it their interest to break us) the 
church judicatories have not been able to 
prevent all disorders, (as no church govern- 
ment, when so discountenanced and borne 
down, can effectually and universally reach 
its end in a national church ;) yet now your 
majesty proving so tender a nursing father, 
we trust it shall appear, that those judi- 
catories are ordinances of Jesus Christ, 
which will most effectually bear down error, 
profanity, and schisms, as formerly they have 
been blessed for that effect. And as here- 
tofore they have given proof of their loyalty 
and fidelity to your majesty, in a great trial 
of afflictions, it may certainly be expected 




John Miln, George Laiity, 
A(l;im Cuiiinghum, James Wiii- 
drum, James Scot, George Fowlis, Robert 
Dalgleish, Alexander Elies." 

Jointly with this, another letter was sent 
to the earl of Lauderdale, then secretary 1/ 
of state, which desei-ves its own room in this 
history, and so it follows : 
" Right honourable, 

" Among other the Lord's great favours to 
this long distracted church and kingdom, 
we cannot forbear thankfully to acknowledge 
his providence, who hath put it in his 
majesty's heart to make choice of your 
lordship for that weighty employment, 
wherein you may have opportunity to em- 
ploy those talents, wherewith the Supreme 
Dispenser of all gifts hath endued you, in 
his majesty's and your country's service; 
and may also be in a condition to see to 
the safety and welfare of our mother-churcli, 
in the interests whereof you have been 
pleased so much to concern yourself, as 
hath been made known to us by your letters to 
some of our number, to our exceeding satis- 
faction and refreshment. This doth encour- 

that they \vill stiJJ acquit themselves so in age us to put your lordship to the trouble 

their stations, as may witness that the 
ministers of Christ are taught of him to pay 
all duty to authority; and that the principles 
of our church government lead them to be 
loyal. And for our parts it is our constant 
resolution, by the grace of God, to behave 
ourselves as becometh messengers and ser- 
vants of the Prince of Peace, and to pray that 
the Lord may preserve and bless your ma- 
jesty, and lead you forth in his right hand 
in the exercise of your royal government, 
for the good and comfort of all your do- 
minions and the lovers of truth and peace 
therein, as is the duty of 

" Your sacred majesty's loyal subjects 
and humble servants, 

"Messrs. J. Reid moderator, Robert Doug- 
las, David Dickson, James Hamilton, 
John Smith, Robert La\vrie, George 
Hutcheson, Thomas Garven, Alexander 
Dickson, James Nairn, Alexander Hut- 
cheson, John Hog, George Kiiitore, John 
Knox, Andrew Cant, Robert Rennet, 
John Charters, John Colvil, David Reedy, 
Robert Hunter, William Dalgleish, Peter 
Blair, Charles Lumsden, John Lawder, 

of presenting the enclosed addi-ess to his 
majesty, wherein we do humbly express our 
sense of his majesty's gracious letter direct 
to us, which we had purposed only to 
signify to your lordship, that you might have 
acquainted his majesty therewith, but that 
it lay so much upon our hearts for this once 
to witness by our immediate address how 
much we are refreshed by that mercy. We 
will not doubt of your lordship's pardon for 
this trouble, and do presume to beg for the 
continuance of your favour to this poor 
church, that, as occasion shall offer, you 
will be pleased to represent to his majesty, 
what may be found necessary for the pro- 
moving of the kingdom of Jesus Christ 
among us. And since your lordship's good- 
ness hath prompted you to offer your assist- 
ance in what may concern the church and 
the honest ministers thereof, we know you 
will not take it ill, if from time to time we 
presume to acquaint you with our desires, 
in reference to those concernments, as 
knowing that the service is the Lord's, and 
that your reward is in heaven, through Jesus 



Christ, to whose rich grace we do 
heartily recommend your lordship, 
and ai'e in him, 

" My lord, 
" Your lordship's very humble servants, 
the presbytei-y of Edinburgh, and in 
their name, and at their command, 
<' Mb. James Reid, Moderator. 

" Edinburgh, September 20th, 1660." 
Du-ected, " To the right honour- 
able the earl of Lauderdale, 

secretary of estate tohis majesty, 

for the kingdom of Scotland." 

We shall find afterwards the synod of 
Lothian made a return to the king's letter 
in November; but before I come to that, 
let me take in the rest of the procedure of 
the committee of estates. 

Upon the IGth of October the com- 
mittee of estates published a proclamation, 
laying on a month's cess for the paying of the 
commissioner's charges, who was to repre- 
sent his majesty in parliament; another for 
raising three months' cess, to pay and disband 
the soldiers yet in Scotland ; and a third, 
for searching for, and apprehending the lord 
Warriston, with a reward of five thousand 
merks to any who should bring hun in. 
Whatever the necessity might be to have 
money at this time, not a few questioned 
the power of this committee to impose 
taxes upon the subjects, and to act contrary 
to several standing laws unrepealed, and 
they alleged several clauses of theii- procla- 
mations were direct infringements of the 
laws made since the reformation. 

After they had published those proclama- 
tions they adjourned till the 1st of Novem- 
ber. During this recess, October 17th, the 
books formerly mentioned. Lex Rex, and 
the Causes of God's Wrath, were burnt at 
Edinburgh by the hand of the hangman ; no 
doubt, by order of the committee, though I 
do not observe any clause for this in the 
proclamation. It was much easier to burn 
those books, than to answer the reasonings 
and facts in them. 

November 1st, a proclamation was pub- 
lished with much solemnity, for holding a 
parliament at Edinburgh, upon the 12th of 
December : the tenor whereof was, 

" Charles, by the grace of God, &c. greet- 
ing. The confusions and troubles, by which 


our good subjects of this our ancient king- 
dom of Scotland have those many years 
been deprived of that peace and happiness 
they might justly have expected in the 
administration of our royal government 
among them, being now by the special 
blessing of Almighty God happily removed, 
we have thought fit to let you know that 
we still retain the same tenderness and 
good affection towards you ; and as we will 
cheerfully interpose our authority in what 
may be for your good and welfare, and for 
securing the just privileges and liberties of 
our people, so we do expect from them 
those dutiful returns of obedience, and sub- 
jection to our person and authority, which 
are suitable to their obligations, and the 
duty of loyal subjects. And conceiving 
that a parliament, in its right constitution, 
will at this time be a ready mean for estab- 
lishing a finn peace to our people, and for 
settling all religious and civil, public and 
private interests ; we have therefore thought 
fit to call a meeting of our estates of par- 
liament, to be kept at Edinburgh, December 
1 2th, next to come. Our will is herefore, &c. 
In common form usual in those cases, that 
shires and burghs choose their members 
according to law. 

" Lauderdale. 
" Whitehall, October JO. 

" A. Primrose, clerk-raster." 

The same day another proclamation was 
published, which deserves a room here. 
The title of it is : 

The king's majestj/'s procla7naiion, con- 
cerning the carriage of his subjects during 
the late troubles. 

" Charles, &c. We being now, by the 
special blessing of God Almighty, returned 
to the exercise of our royal power, and 
government of our kingdoms; and being 
desirous to improve this mercy to the best 
advantage of our people, have thought fit to 
call a meeting of our estates of parliament 
of this our ancient kingdom of Scotland, as 
a ready mean, after so long troubles, for 
settling a firm and lasting peace, in confirm- 
ing the just liberties of our subjects, for 
vindicating our honour, and asserting our 
ancient royal prerogative, by which alone 



the liberties of our people can be preserved. 
And as we do therein rely upon the loyalty, 
prudence, and care of our parliament, so we 
do absolutely leave and commit to them, the 
tr}'ing and judging of the carriage of our 
subjects, during those troubles : concerning 
which, we will from henceforth receive 
information and address only from our par- 
liament, or committee of estates, to whom 
in the meantime we have recommended 
the preparing and ordering of that affair, 
and to whom alone, any of our people that 
are interested, may freely, and can only 
make their applications ; and which we have 
hereby thought fit to make known to all our 
public ministers and subjects, whom it doth 
concern, and who may thereby find, that 
we have given an undoubted evidence of 
our affection to, and confidence in our 


with the prerogative; and indeed 
it is the first time I have observed 
such an expression, " the king's prerogative, 
by which alone, the liberties of the people 
can be preserved." The king's prerogative 
under the ancient restrictions of it in Scot- 
land, was helpful to preserve liberty ; but that 
ever, especially in the illimited sense here, 
it was the alone way to preserve liberty, 
is what I cannot persuade myself of. In 
a word, we may perceive, that the managers 
were willing to have all absolutely in their 
hand, and preclude all access to the king, 
that they might have the entire disposal of 
persons and their estates : in order to 
which, every body is prohibited to leave the 
kingdom without permission; and the king's 
indemnity was suspended for a long time, 
till they had made their market, by the act 

people, by making themselves judges of of fines, which, we shall hear, brought little 

what may concern both our and their own 
interests. And hereby we do further assure 
them, that our own honoiu", and the honour 
of that our ancient kingdom, being vindicate, 
and the ancient prerogative of the crown 
being asserted, we will grant such a full 
and free pardon, and act of indemnity, as 
shall witness there is nothing we are more 
desirous of, than that our people may be 
blessed with abundance of happiness, peace, 
and plenty under our government. And we 
do hereby command you, our heralds, pur- 
suivants, and messengers at arms, to pass and 
make publication thereof at the market-cross 
of Edinburgh, and other places needfiil, and 
in our name and authority, to command, 
charge, and inhibit all and sundry our sub- 
jects in Scotland, that none of them pre- 
sume to go out of the country, without 
license of the committee of estates, under 
pain of being esteemed and pursued as con- 
temners of our authority. Given at our 
court at Whitehall, the 12th day of October, 
in the 12th year of our reign, 1660. By 
his majesty's command, 

" Lauderdale." 
This proclamation is most plausibly 
drawn ; and the greatest concern seems to 
appear for the good of the people, and the 
maintaining their privileges and liberty. But 
then, by the paper itself, we are put in mind 
that it is only such liberty as is consistent 

to the pockets of the first projectors of it, 
though afterwards the fines were severely 
exacted, to the oppression of the country, 
and the raising the first open disturbance of 
the peace. 

Little more remarkable offers this year. 
September I3th, the king's brother, the 
duke of Gloucester, died ; and the English 
parliament, after they had done every thing 
the court desired, were adjomnied ; and 
December 29th, they were dissolved. In 
September, the English forces left Scotland, 
having been here since September 1650, 
and kept this kingdom under subjection for 
ten years. At this time came on the elec- 
tion of magistrates for the royal burghs; 
and such were generally chosen, who fell in 
with the measures of the court. Robert 
Murray, merchant in Edinburgh, knighted 
November 1st, follo\ving, was provost of 
Edinburgh; John Campbell, elder, was chosen 
provost of Glasgow; John Walkinshaw, 
James Bai-ns, and John Ker, bailies; and 
generally speaking, all who had been active 
in the work of reformation, during the for- 
mer period, were now turned out of all trust. 

The 5th day of November was kept this 
year with great solemnity; and we shall 
afterward find laws made for the perpetual 
observation of it. In the beginning of No- 
vember, the synod of Lothian met at Edin- 
burgh, and sent up an address to the king. 




by way of return to his letter above 
inserted, a copy of which I have not 
seen : but by an original letter from Mr. Dick- 
son and Mr. Hutcheson to the earl of Lauder- 
dale, writ November 10th, I find them ac- 
quainting his lordship, " that their synod had 
convened that week, and he was shortly to re- 
ceive their humble return to his majesty from 
the moderator, wherein they have given a 
fiill return to every part of his majesty's graci- 
ous letter." They send him a copy of the 
act of the synod, concerning those in their 
bounds who have been engaged in schisma- 
tical courses, a copy of which I have not 
seen. They add, " We indeed believe, that 
the way of clemency and moderation towards 
the crowd of those who have been misled, 
and who shall renounce their course (as 
some in our synod are already doing), will 
in the issue prove most for the good of his 
majesty's aftau's ; and, we doubt not, will be 
most acceptable to him." They close their 
letter with some remarks upon a draught of 
a proclamation, for calling a general assem- 
bly, communicate to them privately by Mr. 
William Sharp, and offer " some alterations 
fit to be made, to discover his majesty's mod- 
eration to such as have made wrong steps." 
Whether the king, and the nobility now at 
the helm, really designed to call a general 
assembly, or if this was another blind of Mr. 
James Sharp, to keep off applications for an 
assembly, which would have ruined his am- 
bitious designs, I know not; but nothing 
was done effectually in it, and the alterations 
craved, are mostly softenings in relation to 
the anti-resolutioners, upon whom, it would 
seem, the plan of the proclamation was very 
hard. They would have the expression, 
" turbulent and fanatic spirits," changed, 
and the phrase, " employing of power for re- 
moving rotten members," run thus, " but 
likewise the power wherewith God hath 
trusted him, to prevent the further endan- 
gering the safety, peace, union, and order of 
the church." Instead of the restrictions 
mentioned in the draught, to prevent the 
election of some pointed at, they propose 
this general clause, " requiring those, who 
by the acts and constitutions of this church 
are allowed to sit in assemblies, to convene 
in an assembly at the time appointed." And 


they very earnestly desire the prohibitory 
clause, of persons so and so qualified in the 
draught, " their not sitting in any judicatory, 
till they have renounced," &c. may be re- 
considered : and they observe, " That what- 
ever may be the case as to general assem- 
blies, where members are elected out of in- 
ferior judicatories, yet in this church, so long 
as ministers are not deposed or suspended, 
they are certainly members of sessions, pres- 
byteries, and synods, as being a privdlege 
flowing immediately from the office of the 
ministry, without any super\'enient commis- 
sion." Another letter I have before me, 
written by the same persons, November 13th, 
to the earl of Middleton, which is merely 
taken up in expressions of their concern for 
his lordship, and their expectations of kind- 
ness from him to the church, and the inter- 
ests of the gospel, and judicatories of Christ, 
which his majesty hath resolved to coun- 
tenance, protect, and preserve without \iola- 
tion ; and containing nothing of public con- 
cern, I say no more of it. 

This month, George Campbell, sheriff- 
depute of Argyie, was imprisoned, as hav- 
ing been concerned with the marquis of Ar- 
gyie in several matters, for which he was 
now called in question. But, upon what 
\iews I shall not say, the sheriff was par- 
doned, and got a remission. Toward the 
beginning of December the marquis of Ar- 
gyie was brought down to Edinburgh, the 
account of which will fall in afterwai'ds. 
December 10th, our Scots parliament is ad- 
journed till January 1st, because matters 
were not fully concerted at London, as to 
church government and other heads. The 
funerals of king Charles L, January 29th, 
and the coronation of the king, designed to 
be February 12th, and some other important 
matters at London, took the king so up, 
that our Scots affairs behoved to be delayed. 
Upon the 18th of December, the ship 
which had on board the registers and re- 
cords of the kingdom of Scotland, which 
had been taken up to London by Cromwell, 
as a badge of our subjection, and were 
now sent down in a ship of Kirkaldy, un- 
happily perished at sea, to the great loss of 
the nation: there eighty-five hogsheads of 
papers, and many original records were lost ; 


and it was unaccountable such a ti'easure 
should have been sent down by sea, and an 
unlucky thing, not to say omen, to Scotland. 
The earl of Middleton came down to 
Hol}Tood-house upon the last day of this 
year, commissioner to this new parliament, 
and was met upon his way with great solem- 
nity. The king allowed him nine hundred 
merks per day for his table. From a vol- 
unteer he was raised to a major, and for his 
close adherence to the king in his troubles, 
he made him first lord Fettercairn, and then 
earl of Middleton, and now high commis- 
sioner to the parliament. He continued in 
favour, till he began to engross the fines and 
places of trust and power to himself and 
his friends, and then the earl of Lauderdale 
got him turned out, and managed all for 
many years in Scotland. Before this, mat- 
ters had been prepared, and all was in readi- 
ness. The two eastmost kirks of St. Giles 
were turned into one, and the king's seat 
put up, and lofts made for the conveniency 
of the commissioner and members. The 
crown and sceptre, preserved by the earl 
marshal in the late troubles, were brought 
to Edinburgh, and it was resolved to ride 
the parli'\ment upon the first day of the new 



^CC^ I HAVE not seen any distinct account 
of the overturning of our refonna- 
tion estabUshment by presbyterian govern- 
ment in this church of Scotland, and the 
vast changes made at this time in religious 
and civil affairs : therefore I have ventured 
to give the larger account of this great turn, 
and drawn it from a good many original 
papers and authentic accounts, which will 
let us into the springs of it. The parlia- 
ment convened the first day of this j^ear, 
and laid the foundations for all that after- 
ward follows upon presbyterians, till the 
Lord " turned back their captivity as streams 
in the south," at the happy and glorious re- 
volution, 1688, and so I have given the ful- 
ler accounts of what they did. Besides the 


general attacks made by them ,„„. 
upon our laws and constitution, 
a good many worthy ministers were brought 
to very much trouble and hazard, as well 
as some gentlemen and others. This re- 
markable year will likewise bring me to 
the martyrdom of our three first worthies 
in this church ; the truly great and noble 
marquis of Argyle, the reverend and 
leai'ned Mr. James Guthrie, and the excel- 
lent lord Warriston : the last, though for- 
feited this year, yet his warfare not being 
accomplished till some time after, I shall 
delay the accounts of him to their own place, 
1663. There were some efforts made by 
the ministers of the church of Scotland for 
the preserving of oiu* valuable constitution ; 
and though one would have wished they 
had made a greater stand than they could 
now in their unhappy circumstances, yet 
really more was done by them than is gen- 
erally known, though without any success. 
When the parliament was up, the privy 
council is erected, and they had the execu- 
tion of the laws made put in their hands ; 
and we shall find them beginning the work 
of persecution upon noblemen, ministers, 
and others this year, and going on with it 
for about twenty-fom* years, with less or 
more severity, as answered the managers' 
aims ; of which I shall essay as distinct an 
account from their registers and records, as 
I can gather up. By order from the king, 
towards the end of the year, prelacy is 
erected, and the judicatories of the church, 
which had met under fonner prelacy, are 
upon the matter stopped in their meetings, 
and our bishops consecrate in England. 
These, with some other ii^.cidental things, 
will furnish matter for seven or eight sec- 
tions upon this chapter. 


Of the laws and actings of the first session of 
jmrliament, in as far as they concern the 
church, with some obvious reviarks. 

This first parliament after the restoration, 
beginning with this year, and by their act- 
ings paving the way for all the sufferings I 
am to give the relation of, it will be projter 


l«ci I begin tliis chapter with some 
account of their procedure, from 
the printed acts of parliament, the regis- 
ters of that high court, and other nar- 
ratives come to my hand. We shall find 
this parliament making a general attack upon 
the constitution of this national church; 
and that deserves our consideration be- 
fore the sufferings of particular persons, 
noblemen, ministers, and others. Our 
first martyrs and sufferers were attacked 
for things done agreeable to standing law ; 
and therefore the first step of our managers 
was to open a door for a more justifiable, at 
least legal prosecution of honest people, 
who stood up for religion, liberty, and pro- 
perty : so they resolved piece by piece to 
remove the hedges which were about all 
those, and bring in a new set of laws, which 
deserve the most serious reflection of the 
reader, who would understand the true state 
of the sufferings of the church of Scotland, 
during this whole period I am describing. 

The author pretends to no further know- 
ledge of our laws, than what the bare read- 
ing of the acts of parliament, with a little 
reflection upon them, affords him. He 
wishes that some person versed in our Scots 
statutes, and the laws of other kingdoms, 
would bestow some thoughts upon the laws 
of this black period : however, the reader is 
like to have this benefit, that all the obser- 
vations and remarks offered, will be plain 
and easy, and the native product of a gene- 
ral view of our records. When once I have 
made some general remarks upon the dis- 
position and circumstances of this first par- 
liament, I shall go on to offer a few obvious 
observations upon the acts and procedure 
of this first session, in as far as they relate 
to religion, and the sufferings of this church. 

That the reader may have some idea of 
the temper and genius of this parliament, I 
shall take the liberty, with all truth and 
freedom, to give a short account of a few 
matters of fact, abundantly notour in the 
time I am writing of, but now perhaps not 
so much known. And there is the greater 
room for plainness and freedom here, since 
I abstract from names and persons, that, as 
soon as the yoke of oppression was off the 
Scots nation, and they restored to a liberty 


of thinking and acting, the whole acts I 
shall have occasion to mention, in as far as 
they struck at the constitution of this pres- 
byterian church, were most seasonably and 
unanimously rescinded and annulled, pari. 
William and Mary, 1690; the very first act 
of which parliament, than which Scotland 
never had a more just representation, April 
25th, abrogates the act of supremacy in the 
most extensive manner ; and the supremacy 
was one of the great springs of the iniqui- 
tous procedure of this period. Again, the 
5th act, June 7th, 1690, ratifying the Con- 
fession of Faith, a step of reformation 
never before attained to in Scotland, where- 
by the scriptural and pure doctrine of this 
church, is imbodied with our civil liberties, 
and settling presbyterian government, does 
rescind and cass a great number of other 
iniquitous acts in this interval. I might 
add act 17th, of the same session, rescind- 
ing fines and forfeitures, an J act 27th, re- 
scinding the laws for conformity, with many 
others. Wherefore, since our representa- 
tives judged those acts unworthy of any 
further respect, I hope I may be allowed to 
say, they were iniquity established by a 
law ; and, in the entry of this work, regret 
that ever such laws had a being, especially 
when they were so rigorously execute, and 
a door opened by other methods, for 
stretches far beyond the letter of those 
very laws. And here indeed, as I take it, 
lies the main spring and stress of that 
absurd and groundless clamour raised by 
the episcopal party, of their beuig per- 
secuted since the revolution, in that those 
unchristian and wicked laws, upon vhich 
their establisliment stood, were then re- 
scinded; for a restraint put upon them 
from persecuting others, is to those com- 
plainers a persecution. 

The greatest part of the makers of the 
laws I am entering on, were of such a per- 
sonal character, as did no way recommend 
their acts ; it was blacker than I am willing 
to transmit to posterity. If there were 
any stretches made in the former period, 
to hold out malignants and anticovenanters, 
by the act of classes and levies, they are in 
part vindicated by the door now opened to 
the greatest wickednesses and grossest im« 


uuji-alitit'3 in too many of the courtiers. 
Indeed at this time, a dreadful deluge of 
iniquity and sins before unknown in Scot- 
land since popery was turned out, brake 



which when they were doing, his 
men fell upon the people, and with 
some slaughter scattered them, and kept 
the muir. When he came to Mauchlin, 

forth ; and atheism and profanencss now j the ministers quarrelled his breach of pro 

growing common, paved the way for slavish 
principles in civil things, and persecution 
in matters of conscience. The commis- 
sioner, the eai'l of Middleton, his fierce and 
violent temper, agreeable enough to a camp, 
and his education, made him no improper 
instrument to overawe Scotland, and bring 
us down from any sense of liberty and 
privilege, unto a pliant submission to ar- 
bitrary designs, absolute supremacy and 
prerogative. And this was the more easily 
accomphshed, that this nation, now for ten 
years, had been under the feet of the 
EngUsh army, and very much inured to 

A short account and character of this 
nobleman, to whom the king intrusted the 
chief management of affairs at this juncture, 
may not perhaps be unacceptable to the 
reader. He was a gentleman in the north 
of Scotland, who made his first appearance 
under the earl of Montrose, against the 
Gordons, who set up against the covenant- 
ers, and he had a considerable share in 
defeating them at the Bridge of Dee. In 
the years 1644 and 1645, he took service in 
the army of the parliament of England, 
against the king, when Montrose changed 
hands and his men ravaged the country, 
and among other cruelties killed Middle- 
ton's father in cold blood, sitting in his 
own house. He was called home from 
England, and was with general Lesly when 
Montrose was defeat at Philiphaugh. He 
was major-general under duke Hamilton, 
and engaged with a handful of countrymen 
at Mauchlin Muir, in the shire of Ayr, 
where he was in some hazard. He and 
his party came upon a company of country 
jjcople, on a Monday after a communion, 
who had not the least thought of fighting, 
and were unprovided for it. Mr. Thomas 
Wylie, minister of Mauchlin, under whose 
hand I have an account of that action, and 
some other ministers travelled betwixt the 
people and Middleton, and got his promise 
to permit the people to dismiss peaceably : 

mise and capitulation ; and he put it off, 
with alleging, that some of the people had 
provoked his men with harsh speeches. 
We shall afterward hear of his plot to 
draw the king from the committee of 
estates to the north ; for which he was ex- 
communicate, and Mr. James Guthrie pro- 
nounced the sentence. In a little time he 
professed his repentance with many tears, 
and was relaxed. With the king he went 
into Worcester, where he was talven, and 
imprisoned in the Tower. When he got 
out, after many difficulties in England, he 
went over to the king, and was by him sent 
to Scotland to head the Highlanders, who 
were on the king's side. This misgiving, 
he went back to his master, and at the 
restoration was honoured with the highest 
post in Scotland. 

Our nobility and gentry were remarkably 
changed to the worse : it was but few of 
such, who had been active in the former 
years, were now alive, and those few were 
marked out for ruin. A young generation 
had sprung up under the English govern- 
ment, educate under penury and oppres- 
sion ; their estates were under burden, and 
many of them had little other prospect of 
mending their fortunes, but by the king's 
favour, and so were ready to act that part 
he was best pleased with. Several of the 
most leading managers, and members of 
parliament, had taken up a dislike at the 
strictness of presbyterian discipline. Mid- 
dleton had not forgot his excommunication, 
or the pronouncer of it; and others had 
been disgusted at their being obliged to 
satisfy for their lewdness and scandals, and 
upon this turn, they were willing to enjoy a 
little more latitude. Add to this, that 
when the king was pleased to grant a most 
ample indemnity to his subjects in England 
and Ireland, for their failures in the late 
times, his grace did not come so low as his 
ancient Idngdom. Most pai't of Scotsmen, 
save the ministers, who received a very 
ungenerous reward, had been some way or 


,„„, other involved with the EnsHish 
IGGl. , , . , " 

under the usurpation ; and now 

were chargeable with treason, and their 
lives and estates at the mercy, I say not 
of the king, but of his hungry courtiers, 
who laid their measures, so as an indemnity 
for Scotland was put off, till they got their 
schemes of oppression and revenge formed. 
Thus the hopes of timeservers, who had 
their fortunes to mend, and the fears of 
many, who perhaps, if left to their own 
choice, would have inclined to presei-ve 
our reformation and liberty, were improven 
to carry on the designs now on foot. 

When the proclamation, October 12th, 
formerly noticed, was published, calling the 
parliament, and devolving upon their judg- 
ment the behaviour of all under the late 
troubles, and discharging all petitions and 
applications to his majesty, this was soon 
understood to be no act of indemnity ; but 
the plain language was, that every one who 
would not follow court measures, quit their 
principles, calmly subject to arbitrary go- 
vernment in church and state, and vote and 
act as the managers would have them, 
might expect to be treated as rebels. In- 
deed it required a greater measure of the 
old Scots spirit, and more fixedness in 
principles than many had, to stand out 
against so heavy an argument. Moreover, 
great pains was taken upon the elections to 
this parliament; matters every where in 
shires and burghs were so carefully man- 
aged, that for the most part, persons en- 
tirely at the devotion of the court, were 
chosen : in some places where others were 
chosen, letters were writ by the courtiers, 
under some pretext or other, for a second 
choice. Thus in the shire of Ayr, where a 
gentleman of one of the first families of the 
shire, but a firm presbyterian by principle, 
was elected, a near relation of his own, a 
courtier, prevailed to get him altered. And 
some of the most zealous gentlemen in the 
former times, were viis et modis brought 
under process, and some of them cited 
before the parliament, that there might be 
no trouble from them as members. The 
act of the committee of estates above,* 

* See page 20. 


pointed this way ; ami the double-faced ex- 

pressions in the letter to Mr. Douglas, were 
designed to make all go on as smooth as 
might be. 

After all those previous steps, to dispose 
for the great things in hand, the parliament 
convened January 1st, l(i(jl,just that day 
twelve months, upon which Monk marched 
up to London, and that day ten years 
whereupon the king was crowned at Scone. 
The members rode from the Abbey to the 
house in great state; the earl of Crawford bore 
the crown, the earl of Sutherland the scep- 
tre, and the earl of Mar the sword. Duke 
Hamilton and the marquis of Montrose 
rode behind the commissioner, covered. 

When they had taken their seats in the 
parliament house, a very good sermon was 
preached to them by Mr. Robert Douglas, 
from 2 Chron. xix. 6. " Take heed what 
you do, for you judge not for man, but for 
the Lord, who is with you in the judgment." 
After calling of the rolls, the earl of Glen- 
caii'n was chosen preses, and the conunis- 
sioner had a speech, recommending peace 
and unity. When those forms were over, 
the commissioner had most of the nobility 
at dinner with him, where he was served in 
great state: he sat at a table by himself, 
and the earl of Athol gave him the cup 
upon his knee, after he had tasted it, in a 
cover, before he delivered it. 

Januai-y 4th, they entered upon business. 
I have in mine eye a very distinct account 
of their procedure every day, in manuscript, 
unto the middle of April, from which I 
may afterwards give some hints of their 
actings ; but here 1 shall confine myself very 
much to the known public acts made in 
opposition to that work, which had been 
cai'ried on from the year 1638 to the usur- 
pation, and give the reader as short a view, 
as the variety of matter will permit, of their 
procedm-e, in the vast change made by 
them in this church and kingdom. 
'^ It is very evident, the design on foot, in 
this parliament, was to make the king 
absolute, and the laws henceforth only a 
public signification of the sovereign's pleas- 
ure, who after this, is to be above law, and 
uncontrollable lord of his subjects' property, 
purse and conscience; and to overturn 


what had been formerly established in acts I am now to give a i-artLcular j^^j^ 
favours of relipon and liberty. This unhap- | detail of, if once I had further ob- 
py project was lielped forward, at least not : served, that this parliament when they sat 
alittle encouraged, by the fulsome sermons j down,so constituted themselves, and acted in 

[)reached by too many before them. The 
preachers were not now appointed by the 
assembly or commission, who used formerly 
to sit in time of parliament ; the managers 
must be their own carvers ; the king's advo- 
cate's letter was the appointment ministers 
had to preach, and he was not wanting in 

such a manner, as made their acts and laws, in 
the opinion of severals, questionable as to 
their validity and legality. It is plain theyrnn 
cross to standing law, before they gave them- 
selves the trouble of any repeal. The reader 
will find, that by act 5th, pari. 2. Charles I. 
where his majesty was present, "every 

pitching on very fit tools for their purpose, member, of succeeding parliaments is to 
who preached smooth things. Some of ' take, and subscribe the national covenant, 

their sermons yet remain in print, as blots 
upon their reputation : and though Mr. 
Douglas, and some few other worthy men 
were employed now and then, for form's 
sake, and they preached Christ, and plain 
duty ; yet it was not so with many of their 
I)rcachers. Their ordinaiy themes were, the 
wickedness of rebellion ; and in their appli- 
cation, they explained this to be the late 
work of reformation, and the covenants, 
even before the parliament had declared 
against those; the sinfulness of defensive 
arms, whereby they libelled most part of 
their hearers, and cast a slur upon the con- 
stant practice of this nation ; the extensive- 
ncss of the king's power, passive obedience, 
and such like. Those flaming sermons of 
theirs, bring upon the preachers of them a 
great share of all the after-guilt of this 
period, and paved their own way to prefer- 

Those corrupt ministers, who had sided 
themselves with the public resolutioners, and 
now were carefully serving the courtiers, very 
much heightened the lamentable breaches 
betwixt the resolutioners and protesters, 
who were both against the defection now 
entering upon : this miserable rent, artfully 
managed by designing men, so weakeneil 
the honest ministry of the church and split 
the people, who were for our former excel- 
lent constitution, that no such seasonable 
and regular application was made for pre- 
venting the change, as was wished for ; 
though somewhat was done, as we shall hear. 
Thus every thing concurred in the Lord's 
holy and righteous providence, for helping 
forward a dark and black cloud upon this 
church and kingdom, which began with the 

and give an oath of parliament relative 
thereunto." This was not now done, as 
every body knows. Yea, it was expressly 
provided by our last Scots parliament, 
where his majesty was present, 163 1, 
" That in all succeeding parliaments, every 
member, before they entered upon business, 
should sign and subscribe the covenant; 
and without this, the constitution of the 
parliament, and all they do, is declared void 
and null." The acts of this parliament 
were not printed, and I have not seen a 
copy of the act ; but from persons yet alive, 
and papers written at this time, I am 
assured such an act was made. 

Not to say any thing of the reasonableness 
or necessity of making such restrictions, it 
is certain, those were now unrepealed laws, 
and the last, relative to the very constitu- 
tion of parliament, made by the king, and 
many of themselves ; and consequently they 
sat down, and went on in a method directly 
contrary to the uncontroverted statute law. 
And though those, with many other excel- 
lent laws, made in the former period, were 
rescinded; it remained doubtful with the 
persons who objected against the validity of 
this parliament, how far they could do so, 
unless, by express instructions from their 
constituents, they had begun with altering 
the constitution. But this point 1 must 
leave to the gentlemen of the long robe 
skUlcd in our laws and the nature of i)ar- 
liamentary power. 

Having laid down those general observa- 
tions, I come to take a more p;irticular view 
of the acts of this session of pariiament ; 
and by a narrow consideration of them, and 
the order in which they are made, a great 


.-_, deal of art and cunning will appe<ir, 
in gradually bringing upon members 
of parliament, and subjects, the heavy 
burdens they were under before the (year) 
1638, and not a little of the serpentine sub- 
tilty of Mr. Sharp, who came lately from 
England with ample directions concerted 
with the highfliers there, to bring this church 
back to its deformed state, about twenty- 
three years ago. 

The first printed act is concerning the 
president, and oath of parliament,* The 
civil part of it, then* making the chancellor, or 
any for the time, nominate by the king, pre- 
sident, I do not meddle with ; every thing 
now must be done antipodes to the practice 
of the covenanters, be it ever so reasonable 
in itself: and it does not appeal' unreason- 
able, that a judicatory, such as this, choose 
their own mouth. But waving this, let me 
consider a little the oath inserted in this 
act ; the form of which is, 

« I, , for testification of 

my faithful obedience to my most 
gracious and redoubted sovereign 
Charles, king of Great Britain, France, 
and Ireland, defender of the faith, do 
affirm, testify, and declai-e, by this my 
solemn oath, that I acknowledge my 
said sovereign, only supreme governor 
of this kingdom, over all persons, and 
in all causes ; and that no foreign 
prince, power, or state, nor person civil 
or ecclesiastic, hath any jurisdiction^ 


power, or superiority over the same: 
and therefore I utterly renounce and 
forsake all foreign jurisdictions, powers, 
and authorities; and shall at my ut- 
most power defend, assist, and main- 
tain his majesty's jurisdiction foresaid, 
against all deadly, and never decline his 
majesty's power or jurisdiction, as I 
shall answer to God." 
Members of pai'liament were to add, 
" And I shall faithfully give my advice 
and vote in every thing that shall be 
propounded in parliament, as I shall 
answer to God." 
Many particulars may be noticed as to 
this oath. In the title of the act, it is 
termed " an oath of parliament ;" in the 
body of the act, it is called " an oath of al- 
legiance." There are here two very differ- 
ent oaths ; and it was not without a cause 
why it was huddled over in parliament, un- 
der the notion of an oath of parliament, that 
persons upon whom the first part was to be 
imposed, might not too soon spy out the 
design upon them. Yet they must have 
been very heedless who did not observe, 
that this oath, in both its views, was calcu- 
late to shuffle out our former establishment, 
and the covenants, and in its nature eversive 
of them. This new-coined oath might be 
compared with the English oath of supre- 
macy, which no doubt was its model ; every 
thing now being to be brought as near the 
English pattern as possible. It appeared to 

* Act concerniDg the president, and oath of 

rorasmuch as it hath pleased Almighty God 
to compassionate the troubles and confusions of 
this kingdom, by returning the king's most 
excellent majesty to the exercise of that royal 
government, under which, and its excellent con- 
stitution, this kingdom hath for many ages 
enjoyed so much happiness, peace, and plenty ; 
and it being, upon good and important consider- 
ations, an inviolable practice in this government 
before these troubles, that the person nominate 
by his majesty to be his chancellor within this 
kingdom, did of right, and as due to his place, 
preside in all meetings of parliament, and other 
public judicatories of the kingdom, where he 
was present for the time: and his majesty now 
considering the great advantages do accresce to 
the public good of his sul)jects, by the due ob- 
servance of such ancient and well grounded 
customs and constitutions, and the prejudices 
that do ac<!ompany a change thereof: therefore 

his mnjesty, with advice <and consent of his 
estates of i)ai'liament, doth declare, that the pre- 
sent loi'd chancellor, and such as hereafter shall 
be nominate by his majesty, or his royal suc- 
cessors, to succeed in that place, and, in case of 
their absence, such as shall be nominate by his 
majesty, are, by virtue and right of the said 
office, and such nomination respective, to preside 
in all meetings of his majesty's parliaments, or 
other public judicatories of the kingdom, where 
they shall happen to be present, and that they 
are now and in all time coming to enjoy this 
privilege. And in discharge of this trust, they 
are, at the first down-sitting of every ]>arlia- 
ment, to administer to all the members thereof, 
the oath of alegiance. (See the oath above.) 

Likeas, his majesty, with advice foresaid, doth 
hereby rescind and annul all acts, statutes, or 
practices, as to the president or oath of parlia- 
ment, which arc prejudicial unto, or inconsistent 
with this present act, and declare the same to be 
void and null in all time coming. 


iiuiiiy to have in it the most choking clause 
of the supremacy ; indeed, in so many words, 
it does not formally assert the king's power 
in ecclesiastical matters as the other does ; 
but its general and extensive clause, " in all 
causes and over all persons," takes it in, 
and appears even somewhat wider than the 
English phrases themselves. 

It seems evident, that tliis Scots oath of 
allegiance and parliiunent, and really of su- 
premacy, is ambiguous in its expressions. 
The terms of it are artfully enough formed, 
so as to bear a double face. Presbyterians 
cheerfully allow the sovereign a civil and 
sanctional power in ecclesiastical matters 
and causes, as well as a supreme power over 
all persons. And there was some shadow 
of ground for understanding the oath in this 
safe and favourable sense at this tune, when 
the commissioner and chancellor declared 
again and again in face of parhament, that 
they intended not to give his majesty any 
" ecclesiastical," but only " a civil supreme 
power." Yet in a httle, when ministers 
offered to take the oath in this sense, they 
were not allowed. And it would seem those 
declarations were made from the throne, 
upon other views than appeared ; for when 
the earl of Cassils and laird of Kilburny de- 
manded those declarations might be insert 
in the registers, it was peremptorily refused. 
This demonstrates the ambiguity of the 
phrases. In themselves, and by reason of 
this ambiguity, several phrases in the oath 
were at best dark. To say nothing of the 
others, that expression, " I renounce all 
foreign jurisdictions, and shall maintain his 
majesty's authority foresaid," without ex- 
plication, may reach further than " foreign 
prince, power, or person," since " foreign," 
as it stands here, seems to include " all ju- 
risdiction and power," except the king's, as 
supreme : and thus it would be an absolute 
renunciation of all ecclesiastic judicatories. 
So it proved in the issue, and the whole 
church power came to be lodged in the 
bishop, as deriving it from the king. I know 
this clause relates, in its ordinary sense, to 
popery, and in so far was safe ; but it might, 
yea actually was further extended, and con- 
Bcquently was dark. 

In short, a good many reckoned the last 




clause of this oath simply unlawful. 
" Supreme governor," intliefirstpart 
here, seems explained by " the king's power 
and jurisdiction," and the swearer obliged 
" never to decline it." This they thought a 
step beyond the EngUsh supremacy itself; 
by that, the king is allowed a " limited 
power" in ecclesiastical matters, but by our 
Scots oath, the swe;u-er seems bound down 
to submission to all the instances of the exer- 
cise of that power ; so that in no case the 
king must be declined, even though he 
should take upon him the power of excom- 
munication, for instance. How far this last 
clause was cast in to prelunit members in 
the processes to be before them, I do not 
say ; but " the declining the king's jurisdic- 
tion" was no small article against Mr. James 
Guthrie. Several other remarks might be 
made upon this oath, if I had not already 
said so much on it. By the act 114 
James VI. pari. 12, 1592, now in force, and 
unrepealed, the jurisdiction of the church is 
ratified and confirmed, and the allegiance 
sworn in this oath hath no respect, yea is 
contrary to the due limitation there con- 
tained. Again, every body knew the design 
of the court at present, to establish a royal 
supremacy, and put the king in the place of 
the pope, which, by the way, increased the 
darkness and ambiguity of the phrases for- 
merly noticed. To be short, this oath 
came to be the Shibboleth of the state, and 
in a little it was extended to all subjects of 
any influence. And after the members ot 
parliament were involved in it, and by credit 
bound to defend and promote it, it became 
at first matter of much dispute and strife, 
and afterwards an occasion of suffering. In 
the year 1669, when matters were ripe, it 
came to be explained, cleared, and imposed 
in its true and extensive meaning; and its 
sense was made plain, large, and terrible, 
and an end put to the debates about its 

This oath, though thus involved, as we 
have heard, was stuck at by very few in the 
parliament. The earls of Cassils and Mel- 
vil, and the laird of Kilburny, refused it ; 
whether there were any more, I have not 
heard : so well disposed were the members 
to go in with every thing that came about, 



„ „ . Having thus inaugurate the king a su- 
preme civil pope, if not some more> 
by steps they proceed, in the following acts, 
to assert, explain, and extend the royal 
prerogative. At this time the parliament's 
darling design and beloved work seems to 
have been, the enlargement of his majesty's 
power, without any great regard to religion, 
liberty, or property ; and they begin with 
civil offices: and by their 2d act declare 
it to be " his majesty's prerogative, to choose 
ofRcers of state, counsellors, and lords of 
session, as may be seen in the printed acts ; 
and they screw up this branch of the prero- 
gative to a jus divinu7n : perhaps this is the 
first time that ever the nomination of ser- 
vants and counsellors is derived from hea- 
ven. In the rescissory part of this act, they 
run pretty high, and pronounce " the con- 
trary laws and practices, and acts since the 
(year) 1637, to have been undutiful and dis- 
loyal," though the king himself was present 
at some of them. 

In their 3d act, as may be seen in the 
printed acts, they assert the king's preroga- 
tive to be, " the calling, holding, prorogu- 
ing, or dissolving all parliaments, conven- 
tions, or meetings of estates ; and that all 
meetings, without his special warrant, are 
void and null." In the preamble, out of 
their great loyalty, they declare the " hap- 
piness of the people depends upon the main- 
tenance of the prerogative." The presby- 
terians for many years felt how much their 
happiness depended upon this, in the parlia- 
ment's sense, by bonds, imprisonments, 
hanging, heading, and murders in the field 
and highways, without any sentence. It is 
added, they make this law " out of con- 
science, and from its obligations." Upon 
how good grounds they assert this, most 
of them have answered ere this time at a 
higher tribunal. An odd enough sanction is 
annexed to this, " that no subject question or 
impugn any thing in this act, or do any thing 
contrary thereto, under the pains of treason :" 
which seems to involve all the members of 
parliament in a wretched necessity, to vote 
many of the following acts when proposed, 
as they would not be guilty of treason ; and 
it is abundantly plaui, that piece by piece 
they preliraited themselves, and gave up the 

freetloin of their acting in a parliamentary 

By their 4th act, they go on, and statute, 
" that no convocations, leagues, or bonds 
be made without the sovereign," and declare 
against all such, made without his consent ; 
and tacitly insinuate, that the work of re- 
formation since the (year) 1G38, confirmed 
by the king and his father, " had well nigh 
ruined both king and subjects ;" and cast a 
new tash (stain) upon all that was done in 
that period by his majesty and many of 
themselves, " as being done on pretext of 
preserving the king's person, religion, and 
liberty." They declare " this gloss was false 
and disloyal," and rescind all done, or to be 
done, without the king's consent ; by which 
undoubtedly our glorious revolution must 
come in as black treason. 

Further, by their 3th act, they clothe 
their king with the " sole power of making 
peace and war." Without any great neces- 
sity from the matter they are upon, or con- 
nexion with the subject, in the preamble 
they assert, that " the king holds his crown 
from God alone ;" and statute and declare, 
" that the raising of subjects in arms, is and 
was the sovereign's undoubted right; and 
that it shall be high treason for any subjects, 
upon any pretext whatsomever, to rise in 
arms without the king's allowance." It was 
well they made not this law to look back, 
as several of their acts did, else the com- 
missioner, and the greatest part of them, 
had been pronounced traitors. 

One would think, by this time, the par- 
liament were near to the plucking up the 
covenant by the root, and so they were ; 
but an unnecessary step must be taken for 
the better securing their project, and that is, 
by act 6th, to declare the convention of 
estates 1643, who entered into the solemn 
league and covenant with the parliament of 
England, void and null. That convention 
was not called by a king, and therefore all 
they did must be a nullity ; and all acts ap- 
proving that meeting are rescinded, even 
the ratification by the parliament, where the 
king was present. This seems to be a very 
needless act, since the convention was on 
the matter rescinded in their 3d and 4th 
acts ; but they must make their game sure. 


though it be by doing the same things twice ' covenant, but tlie law is founded 


or thrice over. Probably the managers were ! upon tiieir own new made statutes ; 
afraid to attack the covenant directly, till all which are sufficiently cassed and overturn- 
once they tried the pulse of the members, ed, by the king's own consent to the cove- 

who generally had sworn it, and secured 
themselves by this essay ; and if this had 
misgiven, they would have fallen upon it 
another way : but all runs smooth, and the 
courtiers were in no hazard. 

Having thus made their approaches %vith 
all caution and safety to the fortress of the 
covenants, it is sapped and overturned by 
their 7th aet ; which, because it was occa- 
sion of great suffering afterward, and every 
body who reads this history, may not have 
our acts of parliament by him, I have insert, * 
and take the liberty to make some observes 
upon it. That even after all this previous 
caution, they do not declare directly that 
the covenant was treason, for the nation was 
not yet ripe for this ; nor totally rescind the 
obligation of it; but only, as the title of the 
act bears, make a declaration concerning it, 
and discharge the renewing of it, ^vithout the 
king's consent, which was not to be looked 
for. So sacred and beloved were the cove- 
nants in Scotland, that it was not fit as yet 
to venture further. And even in this de- 
claration, the narrative of the act, and ratio 
legis, is not drawn from any ill thing in the 

• Act concerning the league and covenant, and 
d:schar};ing the renewing thereof, ■without his 
majesty's wan-ant and approbation. 

Porasintich as the power ot" arms, and entering 
into, and making oi" leagues and bonds, is an 
undoubted privilege of the crown, and a proper 
part of the royal prerogative of the kings of this 
kingdom, and that in recognisance ot his ma- 
jesty's just right, the estates of parliament of 
this his most ancient kingdom of Scotland, have 
declared it high treason to the subj(M:ts thereof, 
of whatsoever number, less or more, upon any 
pretext whatsoever, to rise, or continue in arms, 
or to enter into leagues and bonds, with foreign- 
ers, or among themselves, without his majesty's 
special ■warrant and approbation had and ob- 
tained thereto ; and have rescinded and annulled 
all acts of parliament, conventions of estates, or 
other deeds whatsoever, contrary to, or inconsis- 
tent with the same. And whereas, during these 
troubles, there have occurred divers things, in 
the making and pursuance of leagues and bonds, 
w^hich may be occasion of jealousy in and be- 
twixt his majesty's dominions of Scotland, Eng- 
land, and Ireland; therefore, and for pre\entii.g 
of all scruples, mistakes, or jealousies, that may 
hereafter arise upon these grounds, the king's 
majesty, with advice and consent of his estates 
of parliament, doth hereby declare, that there 

nant, and his swearing of it. Tliey themselves 
coin the premises, and then form the conclu- 
sion, as best serves their purposes. Indeed, 
in a very general and dubious manner, they 
make an innuendo, " that divers things occur- 
red in the late troubles, in making and pursu- 
ing of leagues and bonds, that may be occa- 
sion of jealousies between his majesty's do- 
minions." How tender do they ajjpear of 
naming the covenant ! Those occasions of 
jealousy might arise from many other bonds, 
and the pursuance of them, besides the cove- 
nants ; and I could instance some of them. 
However, upon this supposition, they declare, 
" that there is no obligation, by covenant or 
other treaties, upon Scotland, to endeavour 
by arms a reformation in England." It is 
not asserted in the covenant, that in all cases 
Scotland was obliged by arms to reform 
England ; to be sure, at this juncture, there 
was no hazard this way. There follows a very 
unjust reflection upon the covenanters, " or 
to meddle v/ith the public government, or ad- 
ministration of that kingdom." This the cove- 
nanters never took upon them to do, save when 
pressed thereto by the English themselves. 

is no obligation upon this kingdom, by covenant, 
treaties, or otherwise, to endeavour by arms 
a reformation of religion in the king"d<im of 
England, or to meddle with the public govern- 
ment and administration of that kingdom. And 
the king's majesty, with advice and consent fore- 
said, doth declare, that the league and covenant, 
and all treaties following thereupon, and acts 
or deeds that do or may relate thereto, are not 
obligatory, nor do infer any obligation upon this 
kingdom, or the subjects thereof, to meddle or 
interpose by arms, or any seditious way, in anv 
thing concerning the religion and government 
of the churches of England and Ireland, or in 
what may concern the administration of his 
majesty's government there. And further, his 
majesty, with advice and consent of his estates, 
doth hereby discharge and inhibit all his ma- 
jesty's subjects within this kingdom, that nojie 
of them presume, upon any pretext of any au- 
thority whatsoever, to require the renewing or 
swearing of the said league and covenant, or of 
any other covenants, or public oaths, concerning 
the government of the church or kingdom, with- 
out his majesty's speciid warrant and approba- 
tion ; and that none of his majesty's subjects 
offer to renew and swear the same, without his 
majesty's warrant, as said is, as they will be 
answerable at their highest peril. 


, „-, , The declaration is a^ain repeated, 

that there is no obligation upon 
Scotsmen to meddle with the religion of 
England by arms, which is now termed a 
seditious way. It must be owned, that arms 
in many cases are none of the best ways to 
propagate a reformation in religion and 
church government : but it is certain the Scots 
were invited to England to assist that na^- 
tion in their own self-defence against popery, 
and prelates hasting fast back to it ; wliich 
quite alters the case, and yet is by many 
overlooked in this matter. In a word, by 
this act, all the subjects are " discharged to 
require the renewing of the covenant, or any 
other oath, or to swear it, without the king's 
consent." Wliether this clause precludes 
appUcation to the government in a regular 
way, for renewing those solemn vows against 
popery and prelacy, I do not know ; neither 
what is included in the other public oaths 
here spoken of; they may relate to the oath 
of canonical obedience, for any thing I know, 
since the prohibition is abundantly wide. 
Thus far is plain, that the renewing of the 
covenant itself is not simply discharged, 
though I must own there was little prospect 
of getting the condition here required to 
this, his majesty's consent. 

Thus, more softly than one would have 
expected, the attempt is made upon the so- 
lemn league and covenant. Their prepara- 
tory acts made it the deed of an unlawful 
convocation j and they would have it be- 
lieved, that whatever excellency might be in 
the matter of it, yet it was no binding law 
obliging Scotland, being made a non habente 
potestatem. By those blinds, they huddled 
over the matter, so as some were cheated 
into the thoughts they might safely renounce 
the covenant as a law, and stand by it as a 
private oath. With those colours and distinc- 
tions, this act was voted pretty smoothly 
to the courtiers' wish : yet some of all the 
states dissented; but the most part, who 
were against this act, withdi'ew, and went 
out of the house, fearing a public judicial 
vote might render their compliances under 
the usurpation unpardonable. I find there 
was one plain honest man, George Gordon, 
bailiff of Burntisland, whose vote in all the 
preparatory steps, and this act, was, " he 


could do nothing against his lawful oath and 

covenant." Him the managers were pleased 
to overlook. 

In the 8th act, the parliament give in to 
the old, and yet continued method, of cover- 
ing their designs against presbyterians with 
a pretended zeal against popery ; and under 
this view, frame a very good act against 
priests and Jesuits : but the narrative of it 
was complained of, as injurious to truth, 
and every body's experience ; that " disobe- 
dience to lawful authority, covered with spe- 
cious pretences," i. e. in theii- meaning, " the 
work of reformation, and the covenants, had 
been the occasion of the increase of priests 
and Jesuits," needs no refutation. The next 
clause, that " priests and Jesuits abounded 
more at present, than in the time of the 
king's father or grandfather," is what I very 
much doubt of. They were indeed too nu- 
merous at present, but they behoved to be 
many more in king James's time ; and what 
shoals of them were in king Charles I. his 
reign, the reader will see from the account 
of the popish government in Scotland at that 
time, writ by Mr. John Abernethy, a popish 
priest ; wliich, because it is in the hands of 
very few, was never printed, and deserves 
the consideration of all true protestants, I 
have added. * 

• Abernethy's (Jesuitj account of the popish 
government in Scotland. 

All governments are either spiritual or tem 
poral, and both require three things. 1. Rec- 
tores, these tliat rule and govern. 2. Rectos, 
these that are ruled and governed. 3. Modum re- 
gendi, the form of their government. All these 
three things are found in the popish government 
inScotland. And 1st, Theirgovcrnors and rulers 
are threefold, that is, remoti, propinqui, tt proxi- 
mi. Those I call remote, are the poi)e, and that 
congregation de propaganda (or rather, as I have 
heard themselves call it, for the politic knavei-y 
of it, de extirpanda) fide. The nearer, or pro- 
phiqui, are .Monsieur Francisco Barberino, a 
cardinal, protector of oiu- nation, Mr. George 
Cone, secretary for the Latin tongue to the 
pope, the generals of the several orders, but 
especially the Jesuits (they being in great number 
in the country), and fathers, George Elphiji- 
stone in Home, William Lesley in Douay, John 
Robe younger in London, and William Hen- 
derson in Burghton, beside Edinburgh. Most 
nnSiV, OT proximi, are some sixteen or eighteen, 
more or less, as they can find houses in Scot- 
land to place them in. They have all their 
several places of residence in gentlemen or noble- 
men's houses, according to William Headerion, 


Their 9th act, " approving the engagement 
16-i8," and rescinding the actings of" parlia- 
ments and committees which ensued there- 
upon, contauis many perversions of matters 


of fact, and reflections upon tlic j^^j 
marquis of Argylc, and the minis- 
ters who were opposite to the engagement. 
Those last are represented as " a few se- 

superior of the mission, liis direction and plea- 
sure : for he lias notice of them all before they 
come into the country, yea, of all their dispositions 
and qualities, by their superiors or confessors' 
letters ; yet there is no less budding, bribing, 
envies, malice, and hatred, for obtaining the 
choice of these houses, than for catching at 
court a good fat bishopric. And this short re- 
lation shall suffice for the notice and knowledge 
of the rulers and governors of this papistical 
mission. Conrerniug the second point, that is, 
the persons that are ruled and governed by their 
politic brains, here is little or nothing to be 
said ; although this mass of policy, according to 
the priests' report, is nothing else but a zealous 
and pious i>ifce of pains, for the well of the 
country, and the salvation of poor souls, kept 
under heretical persecution and bondage. But 
God knows what Spain means in giving pen- 
sions to these zealous men. But this I omit to 
another place. The number and quality of their 
poor blindly led f<dks, is (or should at least be 
better known to the ordinaries of diocesses) if 
they be not accessory, and pastors of the parti- 
cular places of the kingdom, than by nie, who 
lived not two years in the country with them. 
Yet, if I were stressed, I could set them as well 
in order as the litanies of the saints are; for I 
know them both perquire. Therefore, ere I 
conclude this point, 1 will only notice, that 
these priests and Jesuits take care, power, and 
authority over the papists of this kingdom, as 
over their own parishioners in other countries, 
and hear their confessions, say their masses, 
preach, baptize, marry, give extreme unction to 
them, as if they were their own subjects and 
parishioners ; whereof they send their relations 
to the congregation de propaganda fide, to the 
pope and several generals, once in the year at 
least, and oftener if they please, making men- 
tion of all that has been done by them or their 
followers, good or evil, of the government, both 
spiritual and temporal, of this kingdom : for 
this end, one of themselves, the best rhetorician 
of the younger sort, is chosen secretary thereto. 
They are called Uteroi annua, whereof are 
drawn out their annals, and of these composed 
their history. 1 might likewise speak of their 
divijiion or distinction they give themselves to 
their penitents (as they call them), dividing 
them into church-papists and mass-papists. 
The first are these who hear the word in pro- 
testant churches, subscribe and communicate, or 
in a word, they are inward papists, and out- 
ward protestants. The second are these who 
do not liear the word. The first were main- 
tained by some of the fathers who gave these 
persons absolution of their sins, as well as 
others : the second were governed by the Je- 
suits, -who in end have procured at the pope's 
hands, that these who participate of the pro- 
testant sacraments, shall be excommunicated 
and del)arred from their sacraments; yet, for 
old acquaintance, they will get leave to be pre- 
sent at their masses and preachings, whereof I 
know sundry other their benefactors or power- 
ful men. \et, after all this, in articuhi mortis. 

or upon resolution not to return to that sm 
again, they will obtain remission or absolution. 
But all this 1 ].:iss, minding, God willing, to 
make it more public to the world at another oc- 
casion ; concluding and ending this point, that 
this papistry in Scotland may be joined to these 
old proverbs, and say, ex ilia minore, Sol. 1. de 
Europa, pons Polonicus, monachus liohemus, 
miles uustralis, Suerica monialis, Italica dinotio, 
Rutlicnurum reliijio, Teutonumjejunia, Ctdlortan 
constantia, castitas Anglicana, papismata Scoti- 
cana, nihil valere omnia. 

The third thing I propounded of their gov- 
ernment contains three points, Imo. The foun- 
tain of this government. 2do. Their proceed- 
ing in it. 3tio. The sinews of their govern- 
ment, that is, their entertainment and mainte- 
nance. For the first, it is to be remembered, 
that pope Gregorv the XIII. (called father ot 
the Jesuits, for his liberality to them,) Paul 
the v., and Gregory the XV., have built a 
kinglike house in Rome, called Congregatio de 
propaganda fide. The members of this congre- 
gation, is the pope as supreme head of the kirk, 
and judge of all controversies. His nephew 
cardinal Francis Barberino is his lieutenant, 
and immediate governor of the whole church; 
divers cardinals and generals of all the orders 
that teach or preach, the great master of the in- 
quisition, and some few doctors, all as judges of 
equal authority, their officers to have care and 
charge of the missionaries in foreign kingdoms 
and countries, where their religion is not pro- 
fessed, or has suffered detriment, through all the 
world: so that there can be no time assigned, 
day or night, but it is lawful to say, now a 
Jesuit is saying mass ; and yet a mass cannot be 
said after twelve o'clock, without a dispensa- 
tion : so great are the limits and extent of their 
bounds. For this end, they have many col- 
leges or seminaries of divers nations and sundry 
countries, as in Rome, of Germans, Hunga- 
rians, English, Scots, Irish, Greeks, Maronites 
or Armenians, Nephittes, Coptics, &c. Of our 
nation, out of the country, there be five colleges 
or seminaries, Rome in Ital)', Paris in France, 
Douay in Flanders, Madrid in Spain, Bruns- 
berg in Prussia. In their colleges, youth are 
brought up in their discipline, througlioiit all 
their humanity, philosophy, and divinity. Their 
colleges are furnished with scholars by the Je- 
suits residing in their several countries, some by 
their popish parents, some under promises of 
great learning, some seduced by Jesuits and 
priests in the countries and abroad, some foi' 
poverty ; all of the quickest and best wits that 
the Jesuits can find out amongst many that are 
propounded to them for that use. The Jesuits 
have the care and guiding of their colleges, al- 
though ruled by the jiopes, cardinals, and 
bishops, or other benefactors. Their ycuths, 
after they have remained tluee months in any 
college, they make a vow to take on priesthood, 
and retiuti'for the conversion of their country, 
after they be found fit, which is always 
after their studies. The Jesuits having charge 
of these seminary-youths, put out the best wits 


,-«, ditious ministers," when it is no- heartily against the engagement, as it w?s 
torn- that the far greatest num- 

ber of the ministers of this church were 

and rarest judgments for their own order. 
Others become monks and friars, and the shal- 
lowest remain secular or seuiirary priests. Yet, 
whatsoever order they be of, thej' are tied to 
their first oath, by virtue of a bull of this pope's, 
in favour of the foresaid congregation. So let 
this suffice as a short relation of their source and 

2dly, Their form of proceeding is, that when 
they are found fit, after their priesthood re- 
ceived, and studies ended, to be sent to their 
mission. First, they have approbation of their 
sound doctrine and godly life, from the Jesuits, 
under whom they have been brought up. There- 
after, they get their patent letters from their 
congregation or their general, if they be of any 
order, to go to their country, furnished with 
two suits of apparel, all their church apparel, 
and necessaries thereto, and two, three, four, or 
five hundred crowns, as they have favour, and 
are thought worthy for their vocation. Next, to 
come to Douay, where Mr. William Lesley 
superior there, gives them some books out of the 
mission's bibliotheck there, and marks to know 
and be known of their fellows and country : 
whence they depart, changing their name 
always, and sometimes their nations, and come to 
William Henderson in Burghton, in the Canon- 
gate, Paisley, or where he is ; for he must visit 
them all once in the year, in their several resi- 
dences. By him they are visited, if they have 
all things lit for their calling ; if they have not, 
he furnishes them ; if they have, he gives them 
a letter to some nobleman or gentleman, where 
they are received, and kept till they have learned 
the fashion of the country. Thereafter they go 
abroad as gentlemen or merchants, thereafter 
any other dexterity they please to use, or func- 
tions for their own ends : and so I was cham- 
berlain and bailie in Caithness, for my lord 
Berrydale. The reason of this is, because, 
among the rest of the privileges they receive at 
their departure from Rome, and kissing the 
Pope's feet, with his blessing, they get power to 
dispense with themselves and others in all 
things, yea, in articulo mortis et casu 7iecessitatis, 
in things reserved to the pope himself, and 
absolve from all sins, how many soever. Of 
these fathers, as they call them, there be four 
already governing in colleges, some agents in 
great cities for correspondence, %vhose names 
are needless, and tedious to rehearse ; some who 
are requisite to be named in Scotland, when I 
was in it with them, to wit, in Berwick, with 
Sir James Douglas, and tliereabout, one Mr. 
Brown a Jesuit ; in Setton, one Mr. Christison 
or Campbell, who uses likewise in sundry other 
places, (excuse me if I know not their names, 
for we came from several parts at several times) 
as he is desired, for he is thought of, and sent 
for in Edinburgh ; Williani Robertson, some- 
times in colonel Bruce's, lady Margaret Hamil- 
ton's, Riddoch's, John Guthry the tayloi"'s, who 
for some years bygone brought me to the said 
William his mass, in the said Margaret's house, 
with a little Frenchman, where there w^ere 
some twenty persons, unknown truly to me. 
The Jesuits frequent lady Margaret Hamilton's, 

then stated by the party who set up for it. 
I shall not here enter upon an}' detail of this 

Robert Scot's in the Canongate, Burghton, 
and with my lord Semple, often. For others I 
know none in Edinburgh, but by report, not 
having much frequented the town. In Paisley 
and thereabout, a very subtile Jesuit, and crafty 
companion, and yet a scholar, one Mr. Smith 
with the marquis of Douglas, and Mr. David 
Tyrie a gray friar in Nithsdale, and thereabout : 
and Mr. Lindsay a gray friar in the west : one 
Mr. Lesley a capuchin, called by himself the 
captain, fled out of the north for having a child 
in Angus. One Mr. Ogilvie a gray friar, and 
kinsman to my lord Ogilvie; in Ardestie, Pital- 
pie, Drumkilbo, and thereabout, one IVIr. 
Drummond ; but truly all Jesuits. When I 
came to the country, with my lady Aboyn, and 
thereabout, were Mr. John Lesley now dead, 
and his brother Mr. Andrew Lesley, both 
Jesuits. In Achigore, Lessindrum, Carneo, 
Arran, and thereabout, one Mr. William Gibson 
an Augustin friar. In Aberdeen, one Mr. 
Mortimer ; in the earl of Errol's and the laird 
of Dalgetie's houses, was one Mr. William 
Lesley, now superior in Douay. In Buchan 
was Mr. John Seton and Mr. Tobie ; now the 
one is at Madrid, and the other at London, 
agents for the two missions. In the Bog imd 
Elgin, and thereabout, Mr. Southwel, and 
Christie, a very timorous but subtile fellow ; 
the first is in Douay, the last in the Bog. In 
Caithness, and beyond Ardestie in Angus, my- 
self was a certain time, beside one Mr. Cushet a 
minim, a pensioner of her majesty's, one ready 
to all travels, and directions of her majesty's 
command, and two others, one Mr. Duncan a 
parson, alias INIacpliei'son in Scotland, but 
unknown to me where they reside. 

My third point was concerning their enter- 
tainment, which is threefold. One from the 
congregation de propaganda fide ; above a hun- 
dred crowns, or more, as they have his holiness 
and the cardinals' favour. Another is their 
own purchase, their confessions, preachings, 
masses, pardons, &c. and lately from the king of 
Spain, of whom every one of them that is out 
of their college, has eighteen shillings Scots a 
day. Robert Irvine, called Cossopie, brings it 
in William Hay laird of Fetter-letter, is the 
treasurer ; both receive their pensions therefore. 
What others receive, the superior with his 
counsellors, and the ti'easurer only know, where- 
by it may be easily seen they lack nothing in 

Now my counsel for extirpation of them, is 
only in two ways. 1st. To hold out all 
appearances, although of indifferent things to 
come near to them, because they think j'e will 
not come at once, but gradatini to them, and 
this holdeth them fast. 2do. Let them not fail 
to hear, subscribe, and communicate ; for by 
these means ye shall make the priests idle, hav- 
ing an order to deal, that none be suffered to 
participate of their and your sacraments. This 
I have written in sincerity, for the salvation of 
your souls, and the advancement of the gospel, 
and not of any malice I have to them, as God 
shall save my soul at the great day. 



affiiir ; any body who writes the history of 
that period will find matter enough from the 
very public papers and records, the acts of 
general assemblies, committees of estates, 
commissions of assemblies, and not a little 
in the defences of the marquis of Argyle, to 
set the matters of fact here, and in other 
acts of this parliament so much misrepre- 
sented, in a just and quite other light. The 
rescissory part of this act was already made 
upon the matter, in the preceding acts, and 
the ratification of what they now make void 
by the king himself in full parliament, is no 
hinderance to our levellers in this razing work. 
I shall likewise leave their 10th act, " against 
the declaration of the kingdom of Scotland," 
January 16th, 164:7, to the remarks of such 
who shall give the history of the former pe- 
riod ; and I am persuaded they will be easily 
able to take off the aspersions cast upon 
such, whom the managers are pleased to 
term a " few seditious persons, who had 
then screwed themselves into the govern- 

When by the preceding steps they have 
paved their road, they come by the 11th 
act to require what turned about to be mat- 
ter of sore suffering afterwards, " the oath 
of allegiance," and the subscribing " an in- 
strument assertory of the royal prerogative." 
Such was their spite at the covenant, that 
though more than once they had already de- 
clared it had no authority as a law ; yet by 
this act they must cut off the dead man's 
head, and, in as far as lay in their power, 
enervate the obligation of the matter of it. 
By another act, in a following session of this 
parliament, the matter of it is declared unlaw- 
ful, and they order it to be renounced ; at 
length, in Queensberry's parliament, twenty- 
four years after this, it is declared to be high 
treason for any to adhere to it. This 11th 
act being remarkable, and a sort of abbrevi- 
ate of all they had done, I have insert it. * 



The oath of allegiance, or rather su- 
premacy I have considered, upon the 
first act, and only now add, that when this 
present act was a framing, some ministers in 
Edinburgh offered to some of the managers, 
an amendment only of one word, instead of 
supreme governor, that it should run supreme 
civil governor, which would have gone far to 
have removed the scruples of many : but no 
alteration would be heard ; the members of 
parliament had taken the oath, and every 
body who would not follow their example, 
was reckoned disaffected. 

The oath was now imposed upon all in 
civil offices; they knew what they had in 
view shortly to do as to ministers : but lest 
they should presume upon an exemption, 
a general clause is added, requiiing this oath 
from " all upon whom the privy council, or 
any having orders from them, should impose 
it;" and so it reached most part of the sub- 
jects in a little time. The acknowledgment 
of the king's prerogative, required as a test • 
of loyalty, and condition of enjoying of any 
public trust, is so remarkable, as it deserves 
a room in the body of this history, and fol- 
lows : 

" Forasmuch as the estates of parliament 
of this kingdom, by their several acts of the 
11th and 21st of January last, have, from 
the sense of their humble duty, and in recog- 
nisance of his majesty's just right, declared, 
that it is an inherent privilege of the crown, 
and an undoubted part of the royal preroga- 
tive of the kings of this kingdom, to have 
the sole choice and appointment of the of- 
ficers of estate, privy counsellors, and lords 
of session ; that the power of calling, hold- 
ing, and dissolving of parliaments, and all 
conventions and meetings of the estates, 
doth solely reside in the king's majesty, his 
heirs and successors ; and that, as no parlia- 
ment can be lawfully kept, without the spe- 
cial warrant or presence of the king's majes- 

• Act for taking the oath of allegiance, and 
asserting the royal prerogative. 

Our sovereijjii Lord, being truly sensible of 
the many sufferings and sad confusions that his 
dutiful and loyal subji'cts have been brought 
under, during these troubles, and desirous, that 
his royal government, in its due administration, 
may be refreshing and comftirtable unto them, 
and conceiving it necessary fcir that end, and j 

for the honour and advancement of his own 
service, the welfare and happiness of his subjects, 
and the peace and quiet of this kingdom, that 
the places of public trust (^ which be the channels 
and conduits by which his majesty's government 
is conveyed unto his people) be supplied and 
exerced by persons of known integrity, abilities 
and loyalty, doth therefore declare, "that it is 
and will be his majesty's royal cai-e, that those 


1 ra 1 *y> '^^ ''^^ commissioner, so no acts nor 
statutes to be passed in any parliament, 
can be binding on the people, or have the au- 
thority and force of laws, without the special 
approbation of his majesty, or his commis- 
sioner, interponed thereto, at the making 
thereof: that the power of arms, making of 
peace and war, and making of treaties with 
foreign princes and states, or at home by sub- 
jects among themselves, doth properly reside 
in the king's majesty, his heirs and succes- 
sors, and is their undoubted right, and theirs 
alone ; and that it is high treason ui the sub- 
jects of this kingdom, or any number of 
them, upon whatsomever ground, to rise or 
continue in arms, to maintain any forts, gar- 
risons, or strengths, to make peace or war, 
or to make any treaties or leagues with 
foreigners, or among themselves, without his 
majesty's authority first interponed thereto : 
that it is unlawful for subjects of whatsom- 
ever quality or function, to convocate, con- 
vene, or assemble themselves, to treat, con- 
sult, or determine in any matters of state, 
civil or ecclesiastic, (except in the ordinary 
Judgments) or to make leagues or bonds 
upon whatsoever colour or pretence, without 
his majesty's special consent and approbation 
had thereto : that the league and covenant, 
and all treaties following thereupon, and acts 

whom (according to the undoubted right of the 
crown) he hath, or shall tliink fit to call to his 
councils, or any public employments, shall be 
BO qualified ; and that for the full satisfaction of 
aU his good subjects, and for removing any 
scruples or jealousies can arise upon this account, 
they shall, before their admittance to, or exercise 
of any such trust, give such public testimony 
of their duty and loyalty, as may evidence to 
the world, they are such as the kingdom, and 
all honest men and good subjects may justly 
confide in. And therefore the king's majesty, 
with advice and consent of his estates of par- 
liament, doth statute and ordain, that all and 
whatsoever person or persons, who are or shall 
be nominate by his majesty, to be his ofiicers of 
state, of his privy council, session, or exche- 
quer, justice general, admiral, sheriffs, com- 
missar, and their deputes, and clerks, and all 
jnagistra.tes and council of royal burghs, at their 
■.idmission to their several offices, and before 
they offer to exerce the same, shall take and 
swear the oath of allegiance, hereunto subjoined. 
And also, tliat all other persons, who shall be 
required by his majesty's privy council, or any 
having authority from them, shall be obliged to 
take and swear the same. 

And since all the troubles and miseries that 
have overspread this kingdom, and almost de- 


or deeds that do or may relate thereunto, arc' 

not obligatory, nor do infer any obligation 
upon this kingdom, or the subjects thereof, 
to meddle or interpose by arms, or any sedi- 
tious way, in any thing, concerning the reli- 
gion and government of the churches in 
England and Ireland, or in what may con- 
cern his majesty's government there : and 
that none of his majesty's subjects should 
presume upon any pretext of any authority 
whatsomever, to require the renewing or 
swearing of the said league and covenant, or 
of any other covenants, or public oaths con- 
cerning the government of the church or king- 
dom ; and that none offer to renew or swear 
the same, without his majesty's special war- 
rant and approbation, &c. 

" I do, conform to the acts of parliament 
aforesaid, declare, that I do with all humble 
duty, acknowledge his majesty's roj^al prero- 
gative, right and power, in all the particulars, 
and in the manner aforesaid; and that I do 
heartily give my consent thereto, by those 
presents, subscribed by me at ." 

This instrument, assertory of the king's 
prerogative, which all persons, as above, were 
to subscribe, comprehends all they had de- 
clared in their foregoing acts ; and by it, the 
signers consented to the king's absolute 
power, owned the unlawfulness of resisting 

stroyed all religious and civil, all public and 
private interests, these twenty years bygone, 
and upwards, have arisen and sprung from 
these invasions that have been macle upon, and 
contempts done to the royal authority and pre- 
rogative of the crown, his majesty conceives 
himself obliged, both for his own royal interest, 
and for the public interest and peace of his peo- 
ple, to be careful to prevent the like for the 
future. And therefore his majesty, withadvico 
foresaid, statutes and ordains, that all persons 
w^ho are, or shall be called to any public trust, 
as said is, shall, beside the taking of the oath of 
allegiance, be obliged, before they enter to their 
offices and trusts, to assert under their lumd- 
■nriting, his majesty's royal prerogative, as is 
expressed in the acts passed in this present parlia- 
ment, and in the manner hereunto subjoined : 
certifying all such as, being required, shall 
refuse or delay to take the oath of allegiance, 
they shall not only thereby render themselves 
incapable of any public trust, but be looked 
upon as persons disaffected to his majesty's 
authority and government; and such as shall 
refuse or delay to assert his msjesfy's preroga- 
tive, in manner underwritten, shall from thenct:- 
forth be incapable of any public trust within 
this kingdom. 


the vilest tyrant, and materially renounced ' the year 1633. At first they talked 

that work of reformation in Scotland, begun 
at our secession from popery, and revived 
and carried on in the year 1638, approven 
once and again by the king and parliament ; 
and, which is more, signally owned of God. 
This declaration with the oath of allegiance, 
became the trying badges of loyalty; and 
whenever any suspected person was sisted 
before the council, or other courts, or magis- 
trates, those two were offered him : if he 
swallowed them, he was dismissed ; if he re- 
fused, this was turned to a libel, and no 
mercy for him. In considering the former 
acts, remarks have been made upon most 
part of the clauses of this declaration, and I 
shall not repeat them. In short, by the 
general imposing of it, the courtiers endea- 
voured to make the prince absolute, cramp 
religion, and alter both the frame and prin- 
ciples of the civil and ecclesiastic government 
here. This declaration must be subscribed, 
which, as to truth and persuasion, is much 
the same with its being sworn, under the 
penalty of being reputed disloyal and disaf- 
fected ; and the refusal of it made a person 
incapable of all public trust. And yet not a 
few assertions are in it, far above the capa- 
cities of many upon whom it was imposed ; 
so that they could not make this declaration 
with knowledge and in truth : thus it be- 
came a plain stumblingblock, an occasion of 
smning, and a snare to the consciences of 
many ; and the sufferings to be narrated, 
which followed upon the refusal of this de- 
claration, and the former oath, are purely 
upon conscience and principle, and can never 
be alleged to be for rebellion ; unless every 
thing that runs cross to the methods of a 
corrupt and imposing time, must be so named. 
I hope the reader will remark it, that till the 
rising at Pentland, which was the native con- 
sequent of this and other impositions, little 
other reason was pretended or given for the 
cruelties exercised upon multitudes, save 
their refusing this involved, ambiguous, com- 
plex, and unreasonable oath and subscrip- 

The three following acts are purely civil, 
and about the granting of money to the king. 
But in the 15th act, they come at one dash, 
to rid themselves of all the parliaments since 


only of rescindingtheparliament le-ia, 

because the engtigement had then been dis- 
approven : but quickly their design took air, 
to raze all ; and after by their former acts, 
the king had got in his hands all that was 
lately called the liberties of the kingdom, and 
privileges of parliament, it is now boldly 
enough resolved upon, to rescind all done in 
parliament since the year 1633, and to re- 
move the civil sanction given to the general 
assembly at Glasgow, and those which fol- 
lowed ; and to abolish all laws made in fa- 
vour of our church government and cove- 
nants. — When this motion was first made, 
it appeared so choking, that it was laid aside, 
or rather delayed for some months; but when 
all the former acts had gone glibly through, 
the managers, hoping nothing would be stuck 
at, come briskly to overturn all that had been 
a building since the year 1638, and they cass 
and rescind all that was done in former times 
by king and parliament, with the greatest 
solemnity and unaniinity ; and at one stroke, 
to take away the greatest human secm-ities 
which could be given to a church or nation. 
From their former success, the compilers 
of those acts grow in boldness. In the nar- 
rative of the (present) act, they call all done 
these twenty-three years, " troubles upon 
the specious, but common pretext of Refor- 
mation, the common cloak of all rebellions," 
and declare his majesty holds the crown 
" immediately from God Almighty alone ;" a 
proposition which will not hold of any mon- 
arch ever upon the earth, unless it be Moses, 
king in Jeshurun, and a few more under the 
Old Testament. (And) though in this act 
they grant, the acts now rescinding were 
agreed to by king and parliament, yet, in 
order to bury the covenants under reproach, 
they add, that the covenanters did most un- 
worthily engage "to subvert his majesty's 
government, and the public peace of the 
kingdom of England;" which is notoriously 
contrary to the very letter of the covenants. 
Many other things are asserted here as mat- 
ters of fact, which might easily be disproved ; 
but this would lead me too far into the his- 
tory of former times. 

Upon those pcr^'ersions of matter of fact, 
and wrong reasonings, they rescind all the 


Ififil parliaments from the (year) IG^O to 
1648, inclusive. A friend may go 
with a foe, and therefore in this good com- 
pany, they rescind the act 1648, approving 
the engagement, which by their own 9th act 
they had just now ratified ; at least that fa- 
vourite act is not excepted, and therefore, it 
would seem, is included in the strong and 
general rescissory terms. To smooth a little 
so harsh a treatment of our constitution, at- 
tained with so great pains, and so much 
valued lately, an indemnity is promised ; and 
yet much more was to be done, before that 
favour was granted to Scotland, and it was 
a long time before it was published. It had 
not been unusual to rescind particular acts of 
former parliaments ; but I find few instances 
before this, of voiding and cassing parliaments 
by the lump and wholesale : none must now 
be spared, (not even) the parliament 1641, 
wherein king Charles I. was personally pre- 
sent, nor that 1641, where their beloved en- 
gagement was approven; neither does that 
at Perth, 1651, where his majesty himself 
was present, escape by this procedure. 

When thus the guards, outworks and bul- 
warks of the church are demolished, they 
come next to blow up her government itself 
by their 16th act, " concerning religion and 
church government." This being one chief 
foundation of twenty-seven years' melancholy 
work in Scotland, I have added it. * In it 
as in the whole of the present procedure, the 
reader cannot but observe their singular in- 
gratitude, and ungenerous treatment of min- 


isters, and other presbyterians, to whom the 

* Act concerning religion and church gov- 

Our sovereign lord, being truly sensible of 
the mercies ot" Almighty God towards him in 
his preservation, in the times of greatest trouble 
and danger, and in his miraculous restitution to 
his just right and government of his kingdoms, 
and being desirous to improve these mercies, to 
the glory of God, and honour of his great name, 
doth, with advice and consent of his estates of 
parliament, declare, that it is his full and firm 
resolution to maintain the true reformed pro- 
testant religion, in its purity of doctrine and 
worship, as it was established within this king- 
dom, during the reigns of his royal father and 
grandfather of blessed memory : and that his 
majesty will be careful to promote the power of 
godliness, to encourage the exercises of religion, 
both public and private, and to suppress all 
profaneness and disorderly walking; and for 
that end, will give all due countenance and 

king owed his restoration so much, and who 
had so firmly stood by his interests under 
the usurpation. What the miracles in this, 
and other acts, so much talked of in the 
king's restoration, were, I am yet to learn. A 
gracious promise follows, " to maintain the 
doctrine and worship established in the king's 
father and grandfather's time;" which is a 
glorious commentary upon the king's letter 
to the presbytery of Edinburgh. By this a 
door is opened to bring in books and bishops, 
at least the articles of Perth, How well the 
exercises of religion, public and private, were 
encouraged, will appear by the subsequent 
acts of parliament and council, and their 
rigorous execution. 

The government of the church is promised 
to be " secured, as the king finds most con- 
sistent with scripture, monarchy, and peace ;" 
and in the mean time, synods, presbyteries 
and sessions are allowed for a few weeks ; 
and yet, as we shall find, synods are violently 
abridged in their liberty, and interrupted. 
Thus in as dark and insensible a mamier as 
might be, presbytery is abolished, prelacy 
brought in, and the government of the church 
is left ambulatory, and to be settled, as the 
king sees good, without an act of parliament ; 
and dying presbyterian government was 
scarce permitted to live out this year. 

I have it from one who lived at this time, 
and was no stranger to court measiu-es, that 
before the passing of this act, the commis- 
sioner advised the matter with a few of his 

protection to the ministers of the gospel, they 
containing themselves -within the bounds and 
limits of their ministerial calling, and behaving 
themselves with that submission and obedience 
to his majesty's authority and commands, that 
is suitable to the allegiance and duty of good 
subjects. And as to the government of the 
church, his majesty will make it his care, to 
settle and secure the same, in such a frame as 
shall be most agreeable to the word of God, 
most suitable to monarchical government, and 
most complying with the public peace and quiet 
of the kingdom. And in the mean time, his 
majesty, with advice and consent foresaid, doth 
allovy the present administration by sessions, 
presbyteries and synods, (they keeping within 
bounds, and behaving themselves as said is) 
and that notwithstanding of the preceding act, 
rescissory of all pretended parliaments, since the 
yp^r one thousand six hundred and thirty-eight. 





close friends, the register. Sir Jolin Fletcher, 
Sir George Mackenzie of Tarbet, and Ur- 
qiihart of Cromarty, a cousin of Sir George's, 
who had lately counterfeit the protester, 
and some time after this ended miserably ; 
whether he should pass this act, which he 
knew to be the king's darling design, or delay 
it a while, and go to London first to acquaint 
tiic king, how much he had done for his ser- 
vice, and receive the beginnings of his re- 
ward. Sir Ai'chibald Primrose advised him 
to bring in bishops surely, but slowly ; for if 
he were soon through his work, he might 
come the sooner to lose his power. The com- 
missioner answered, " The parliament was 
now at his beck, and he loved to serve his 
master genteelly, and do his business at one 
stroke." This resolution was applauded, as 
noble and generous, by the rest of his confi- 
dants : so the matter was agreed on in pri- 
vate, and carried stitch-through in public, as 
it stands in the act. However, afterwards, 
the first appeared to be the best advice ; for 
in a little time Middleton and his confidants 
were out of all office in Scotland, the plant- 
ing of bishops here, being like the building 
Jericho of old. 

Since by the former act prelates are ma- 
terially brought in, and bishops could never 
stand alone in Scotland; the parliament's 
next work is to support them, when the king 
shall please to name them, with holidays and 
patrons. Accordingly their 17th act is for 
keeping the 29th day of May, as a religious 
anniversary ; * it is annexed. It was evi- 


* Act for a solemn onniversary thanksgiving 
for his maji'sty's restoration to the royal govern- 
ment of his kingdoms. 

The estates of parliament of the king(l<im 
of Scotland, taking to their consideration tlie 
sad condition, slavery, and bondage, this ancient 
kingdom hath groaned under, during these 
twenty-three years' troubles ; in which, under 
the specious pretences of reformation, a public 
rebellion hath been, by the treachery of some, 
and mispersuas'on of others, violently carried 
on against sacred authority, to the ruin and 
destruction, so far as was possible, of religion, 
the king's majesty, and his royal government, 
the laws, liberties, and property of the people, 
and all the public and private interests of the 
kingdom ; so that religion itself, which holds 
the right of kings to be sacred, hath been pros- 
titute for the warrant of all these treasonable 
Invasions made upon the royal authoritj', and 
disloyal limitations put upon the allegiance of 
the subiects ; and hath it not also been pretended 
unto, for the warrant of all those vile and 

dently framed to be a snare unto 
ministers; and their refiising obe- 
dience to it, was one of the first grounds of 
their sufferings, in a little time. 

Upon reading the narrative (of this act), 
one will be ready to think the parliament 
have forgot their design, and are framing the 
causes of a fast, instead of an act for a thanks- 
giving ; and it was much that any, who re- 
tained any respect for the former work of' 
reformation, had freedom to keep the day 
upon such an introduction. The statutory 
part will be yet more surprising : they ordain 
" the 29th day of May to be for ever set apart 
as an holy day unto the Lord, and to be em- 
ployed in prayer, preaching, thanksgiving, and 
praises to God. All servile work is dis- 
charged, and the remaining part of the day 
is to be spent in lawful divertisements suit- 
able to so solemn an occasion." What a pity 
was it that a book of sports was not framed 
for Scotland upon this occasion, as was in 
England in the king's father and grand- 
father's time, a period set up now so much 
for a rule ? It was certainly unreasonable 
to set this, or any other day apart "for ever 
as a holy day to the Lord," according to 
their own principles ; and even the favourers 
of holidays must own it. One may suppose 
it possible, that upon a 29th day of May, a 
prince, fully as good and pious as king 
Charles I. might come to be beheaded by 
another Cromwell, and a sectarian faction ; 
and then ask those gentlemen, whether it 
could he for ever /ccpt as a holy day of praise 

bloody murders, which, in high contempt of Al- 
mighty God, and of his majesty's authority and 
laws, were, under colour of justice, committed 
upon his m.ijesty's good subjects, merely for the 
discharge of their duty to God, and loyalty to 
the king? Hath not that royal government, 
under whose protection this nation hath, to the 
envy of the world, been so famous for many 
ages, been of late trodden under foot, and new 
governments and governors established, and 
kept up without his majesty's authority, and 
against his express commands? Hath not hnv, 
which is the birthright and inheritance of the 
subject, and the security of their lives and for- 
tunes, been laid in the dust, and new and 
unjust edicts and orders past and publislied, lor 
sul)jecting both life and fortune, ivnd what else 
wa-s dear unto any of his majesty's good sub- 
jects, to the cruel and ambitious lusts of some 
usurjjing rulers? Hath not religion and loy- 
alty been the only objects of their rapine and 
cruelty ? And hath not their new and 
arbitrary exactions and burdens upon the 


,„^, and thanksirivins to the Lord? and 
as the institution of this, or any 
other day, to be a " holy day for ever" is 
what is really beyond the power of crea- 
tui'es, who know not what may fall out, so 
the following clause is a banter upon what is 
sacred with themselves. First, the day is 
set apart " for ever to be kept ho/j/ in the 
Lord," and then " divertisemenis" are ap- 
pointed for the spending the day, after public 
worship is over : and if their own practices, 
who were managers, may be allowed to be a 
just commentary upon their " lawful diver- 
tisements," we shall soon see what they 
were, horrid impieties, revelling, drinking, 
and excess of riot ; and I doubt not but this 
prostituting of what they professed to believe 
as sacred, and holy time, was an inlet to that 
fearful wickedness, debauching of consciences, 
and corruption in morals, which became so 
common at this time. 

The reader must guess, whether there 
were any fears in the house, that by those 
preceding acts, a door might be opened to 


profaneness. JJut as if there had been a 

people, exceeded in one month whatever had 
been formerly in many years paid to any of the 
kings of this kingdom ? And when the best of 
men, and the most excellent of the kings of the 
earth, had, in an unusual way of confidence, 
rendered his person to the trust and loyalty of 
his native subjects, was not the security of reli- 
gion pretended unto by some, who then gov- 
erned in church and state, for the ground of that 
base (^and never enougli to be abhorred) transac- 
tion, in leaving such a prince, their native and 
dread sovereign, to the will of these who were 
in open rebellion, and for the time had their 
swords in their hands against him? And that 
when by these and many such like undutiful 
carriages, the king's majesty vi^as removed from 
his kingdoms, the foundations of this ancient 
and well constitute government was overturned, 
the liberties and property of the people inverted, 
and this kingdom exposed to be captives and 
slaves to strangers, and nothing left unto thein 
but the sad meditation of their increasing miser- 
ies, and the bitter remembrance of their bypast 
disloyalties : yet even then it pleased Almighty 
God to compassionate their low condition, and, 
by the power of his own right band, most 
miraculously to restore the king's most sacred 
majesty, to the royal government of his king- 
doms ; and thereby to redeem this kingdom 
from its former slavery and bondage, .ind to 
restore it to its ancient and just priviipges and 
freedom. And the king's majesty acknowled;;- 
ing, with all humiliiy and thankfulness, the 
goodness, wisdom, and power of God, in this 
signal act of his mercy to him and his people, 
doth, with advice and consent of his estates of 
pai'liament, statute and orduiri, that in all time 
coming there be a solemn yearly commemora- 
tion of the same : and for that end, the twentv- 

connexion betwixt keeping the 29th of May, 
and prostituting the- sabbath of the Lord, 
their 18th act is " for the due observation of 
the sabbath," and the 1 9th " against swear- 
ing, and excessive drinking ;" both of them 
very good acts, and not unnecessary after 
the 17th, and those which went before: but 
the practice of many of the lawgivers, in 
cursing, swearing, and sabbath-breaking, was 
a lamentable directory to the lieges, how to 
keep their laws, and the grossest and most 
shameless contempt that ever lawmaliers put 
on their own infant laws. 

Further, to secure their designed model of 
church government now coming in, they re- 
introduced the unreasonable and antichris- 
tian burden of " patrons and presentations," 
upon this church. That heavy grievance 
had been happily removed by an act of par- 
liament, March 9th, 1649. This reasonable 
statute not being in every body's hands, I 
have added it (as under). * It did not 
satisfy our managers to have this act re- 

ninth day of May, (which day God Almighty 
hath specially honoured, and rendered auspicious 
to this kingdom, both by his majesty's royal birth, 
and by his blessed restoration to his govern- 
ment) be for ever set apart as an holy day unto 
the Lord, and that in all the churches of the 
kingdom it be employed in public prayers, 
preaching, thanksgiving, and praises to God, 
for so transcendent mercies : and that all trade, 
merchandise, work, handy-labour, and other 
ordinary employments be forborne, and the 
remaining part of the day spent in sucli lawful 
divertisements as are suitable to so solemn an 
occasion. And it is hereby recommended to .ill 
ministers of the gospel, and to aU sheriffs, jus- 
tices of peace, and other public ministers in the 
several counties, and to all magistrates within 
burghs, to be careful, that for this present year, 
and in all time coming, the twenty-ninth day of 
May be accordingly kept and observed within 
their several jurisdictions. And for the speed- 
ier and more full intimation hereof to all his 
majesty's subjects, it is appointed these presents 
be printed, and published at all the market- 
crosses of the royal burghs. 

* Act abolishing Patronages, March 9th, 16t9. 

The estates of parliament, being sensible of 
the great obligation that lies upon them by the 
national covenant, and by the solemn league and 
covenant, and by many deliverances and mercies 
from God, and by the late solemn engagement 
unto duties, to preserve t)ie doctrine, and main- 
tain and vindicate the liberties of the kirk of 
Scotland, and to advance the woi'k of reforma- 
tion therein, to the utmost of their power ; and 
considering, that patronages and presentations 
of kirks is an evil and bondage, under which 
the lyord's people, and ministers of this land. 


scinded in the general, witli many other ! take it away, and directly csiablish 
excellent statutes made in that period ; and j patrons, and presentation of minis- 
therefore, by their 3Gth act,* they particularly j ters by them, as what they knew had been 

have long groaned, and that it hath no warrant 
in God's word, but is founded only on the com- 
mon law, and is a custom popish, and brought 
into the kirk in time of ignorance and supersti- 
tion, and that the same is contrary to the second 
book of discipline, in which, upon solid and good 
ground, it is reckoned among abuses that .'u'e de- 
sired to be reformed, and unto several acts of 
general assembly, and that it is prejudicial to 
the liberty of the ])e()ple, and planting of kirks, 
and unto the free calling and entry of ministers 
unto their charge : aiul the said estates being 
willing and desirous to promove and advance 
the reformation foresaid, that every thing in the 
house of God may be ordered according to his 
word and commandment ; do therefore, from 
the sense of the former obligations, and upon 
the former grounds and reasons, discharge for 
ever hereafter, ;ill jiatrouages and presentations 
of kirks, whether belonging to the king or to 
any laick patron, presbyteries, or either, within 
this kingdom, as being unlawful and unwar- 
rantable by God's word, and contrary to the 
doctrine and liberties of this kirk; and do re- 
peal, rescind, make void, and annul all gifts and 
riijnts granted thereanent, and all former acts 
made in parliament, or in any inferior judica- 
tory, in favours of any patron or patrons what- 
soever, so far as the same doth, or may relate 
unto the presentation of kirks : and do statute 
and ordain, that no person or persons what- 
somever, shall at any time hereafter, take upon 
them, inider pretext of any title, infeftment, 
act of pai'l lament, possession, or warrant what- 
soever, which ai'e hereby repealed, to give, sub- 
scribe, or seal any presentation to any kirk 
within this kingdom ; and discharge the passing 
of any infeftments hereafter, bearing the right 
to patronages to be granted in favours of these 
for whom the infeftments are presented ; and 
that no person or persons shall, either in the 
behalf of themselves or others, procure, receive. 

* Act anent presentation of ministers. 
Forasmuch as the king's most excellent majes- 
ty, considering how necessary it is, for the right 
and orderly administration of God's worship, 
and the exercises of religion, and for keeping of 
his good subjects within their duties they owe 
to God, to his majesty, to their native country, 
and fellow subjects, especially at this time, after 
so many confusions and distractions, both among 
churchmen and others, that more than ordinary 
care be had in presenting of ministers to all 
such kirks as are or shall be vacant within this 
kingdom, hath given particular commission un- 
der his great seal, as to all presentations to all 
parsonages, vicarages, and other benefices and 
kirks at his majesty's presentation. And as to 
all other benefices and kirks, whereof the presen- 
tation beh)ngs to any (tther patron or patrons 
whatsoever, his majesty with advice and consent 
of his estates of parliament, statutes and ordains, 
that all ])atrons or persons whatsoever, who 
hath or pretends any right to the presentations 
to any patronages, vicarages, or other benefices of 
cure, kii'ks, or modified stipends, be careful in all 

or make use of any presentation to any kirk 
within this kingdom. And it is further de- 
clared and ordained, that if any presentation 
shall hereafter be given, procured, or received, 
that the same is null and of no effect, and that 
it is lawful for presbyteries to reject the same, 
and to refuse to admit any to triiils thereupon ; 
and notwithstanding thereof, to proceed to the 
planting of the kirk, upon the suit and calline, 
or with the consent of the congregation, on 
whom none is to be obtruded against their will. 
And it is decerned, statute, and ordained, that 
whosoever hereafter shall, upon the suit and 
calling of the congregation, after due examina- 
tion of their literature and conversation, be ad- 
mitted by the presbytery unto the exercise and 
function of the ministry, in any parish within 
this kingdom ; that the said person or persons, 
w'ithout a presentation, by virtue of their mis- 
sion, hath a sufficient right and title to possess and 
enjoy the manse and glebe, and the whole rents, 
profits, and stipends, which the ministers of that 
church had formerly possessed and enjoyed, or 
that hereafter shall be modified by the commis- 
sion for plantation of kirks; and decern all 
titulars and tacksmen of tithes, heritors, life- 
renters, or others, subject and liable in payment 
of ministers' stipends, to make payment of the 
same, notwithstanding the minister his want of 
a presentation ; and ordain the lords of session, 
and other judges competent, to give out decreets 
and sentences, letters conform, horning, inhibi- 
tion, and all other executorials, upon the said 
admission of ministers by presbyteries, as thev 
were formerly in use to do, upon collation and 
institution following upon presentations from 
patrons : declaring always, that where minis- 
ters are already admitted upon presentation, 
and have obtained decreets conform thereupon, 
that the said decreets and executorials follow- 
ing thereupon, shidl be good and valid rights to 
the ministers, for suiting and obtaining payment 

time coming, that presentations to these benefices, 
kirks, or stipends, be granted by them to such per- 
sons only, ;is shall give sufficient evidence of their 
piety, loyalty, literature, and peaceable disposi- 
tion, and shall in presence of the patron or his 
attorney, and of the sheriff of the shire, steward 
of the stewartry, or heritable bailie, or commis- 
sary of the bounds, if it be in the country, and 
of the magistrates of the burghs within the 
burgh, before the granting and their accepting 
the presentation, take and subscribe the oath of 
allegiance, the said sheriff, steward, bailie, com- 
missary, Jind magistrates, having first taken the 
oath themselves. And it is hereby docl.ired, 
that if any person who hath not so taken the 
oath of allegiance, shall be presented by any 
patron, not only shall the presentation be void 
and null of itself, but the right of the patronage, 
as to that vacancy, shall belong to the king's 
majesty, and the patrons be repute disaffected to 
his majesty's government, and contemners ot 
his royal authority. And ordains these presents 
to be printed, and published at the market- 
crosses, that none pretend ignorance. 


,,.„. still a dead weight upon, and 
■•eally inconsistent with the pres- 
byterian establishment. And that in time 
coming they might have a ministry every 
way obsequious to their impositions, made 
and to be made, the act ordains all 
who shall be presented to " take the oath 
of allegiance," or supremacy, before set 
down, and that under very severe penalties, 
both upon the presenter, and person pre- 
sented, in case this be neglected : so very 
soon they got not only the civil government, 
but the ministry m.odelled to their wish. 

A great many other acts were made by 
this parliament, which I pass, as not imme- 
diately relating to the history I am writing, 
and some of them very good ones, as that 
" against cursing, and beating of parents ;" 
that " against blasphemy ;" and one against 
" clandestine marriages." Their 52d act is 
a pretty singular one, appointing " all vacant 
stipends" at present, and for seven years to 
come, to be given " to ministers and others, 
their wives and bairns, who had been loyal 
in the late tmies," i. e. against presbytery, 

of his stipend, and the presentation and decreet 
conform, obtained before the date hereof, shall 
be a valid ground and right for that effect, not- 
withstanding the annulling presentations by vir- 
tue of this present act. And because it is need- 
ful that the just and proper interest of congre- 
gations and presbyteries, in providing of kirks 
with ministers, ba clearly determined by the 
general assembly, and what is to be accounted 
the congregation having that interest ; therefore, 
it is hereby seriously recommended unto the 
next general assembly, clearly to determine the 
same, and to condescend upon a certain stand- 
ing way, for being a settled rule therein, for all 
time coming. And it is hereby provided, de- 
clared, and ordained, that the taking away of 
patronages and presentations of kirks, shall im- 
port nor inforce no hurt nor prejudice unto the 
title and right that any patron hath unto the 
tithes of the parish, nor weaken his infeftment 
•wherein the same is contained ; but that the said 
title, right, and infeftment, shall in every re- 
spect (so far as doth concern the tithes), be as 
valid and strong, as when presentations were in 
use. It is further statute and ordained, that 
the tithes of these kirks, whereof the presenta- 
tions are hereby abolished, shall belong heritably 
unto the said patrons, and be secured unto them, 
and inserted in their rights and infeftments, in 
place of the patronage. Likeas, the estates of 
parliament declare said patrons their right there- 
unto to be good and valid, hereby granting full 
power to them to possess, sell, annalie, and dis- 
pone the same in manner after specified, as fully 
and freely as the minister and patron might 
have done, before the making these presents ; 


and the work of reformation, " and had suf- 
fered for their adherence to the king's in- 
terests." By this clause, a good many of 
the protesters might have pleaded a share. 
Their last act was by some termed, " an act 
for paying their own debts without monej'," 
and alleged to be neither just nor generous ; 
but by others it was reckoned both equitable 
and good policy, after so general and great 
calamities. Thus the reader hath some view 
of the acts of this parliament, as far as they 
concern the constitution of this church, and 
our civil liberty. Before I leave this parha- 
ment, I shall, from the minutes I spoke of 
before, give some further account of their 
procedure, in a few hints, which could not 
offer themselves from the acts, as they stand 
in print. What concerns the processes 
against the marquis of Argyle, lord Warris- 
ton, Mr. Guthrie, Mr. Gillespie, and some 
others, will come in upon the following sec- 
tions, where I am to give accounts of them 
by themselves. 

January 4th, when they entered upon bu- 
siness, the oath of allegiance was taken by 

excepting always therefrom, these tithes which 
the heritors have had and possessed, by virtue of 
tacks set to them by the ministers, without any 
deed or consent of the patrons; concerning 
which it is provided, that the said tithes, at the 
issue and outrunning of the present tacks, shall 
belong unto the heritors respective ; the said 
heritors and the patrons abovementioned, each 
of them for their interest, being always liable to 
the payment of the present stipends to the min- 
isters, and to such augmentation and provision 
of new stipends to one or more ministers, such 
as the parliament or commission for plantation 
of kirks, shall think fit and appoint : excepting 
also such tithesasare and have been possessed and 
uplifted by the ministers, as their proper sti- 
pends ; concerning which it is hereby declared, 
that the minister shall enjoy the same without 
any impediment, as formerly ; it being hereby 
provided also, that this act shall prejudge no 
person of the right, title, and possession of their 
tithes, by infeftments, tacks, and other lawful 
rights acquired by them, and the predecessors 
and authors, as accords of law. Likeas, the 
estates of parliament renew the former acts, 
granted in favours of heritors, for valuing, lead- 
ing, and buying of their tithes ; hereby ordain- 
ing any patron, having right to these tithes 
made to them by this act, and having no right 
thereunto of before, to accept the value of six 
years' rents, according to the prices of valued 
boUs respective, enjoined and set down in the 
former act thereanent, and that for the heritable 
right of the said tithes, and for all title, interest 
or claim that the said patrons can have or pre- 
tend thereunto by virtue of this act. 

CHAr. II.] 

all members present, save the earl of Cassils, 
who had time given lum to advise. If the 
former account hold, that the earl of Melvil 
and laird of Kilburny did not qualify, as I 
have said, from papers writ at this time, it 
seems they have not been present; and I 
find that the carl of Cassils is overlooked, 
till January llth, where the manuscript, 
from which I am giving those accounts, 
takes notice, " that the earl deserted the 
house, not being satisfied to take the oath 
agreed to by the parliament." And, April 
1 1th, the earl of Cassils being called to the 
*' house this day, was desired to take the 
oath of allegiance. He moved by himself, 
and several of his friends, that he might be 
remitted to the king, to satisfy his majesty 
thereanent. But in regard this desire was 
contrary to an order of parliament, and that 
he had got many delays formerly for advis- 
ing the said oath, his desire was refused, and 
the certification of the parliament passed 
against him, declaring him incapable of the 
public trust intended by the king upon him." 
The earl was a stiff royalist under the 
usurpation, and the king was very sensible 
of his services, and he had considerable 
offers made, and yet quit all, to keep a good 
conscience towards God ; and all the favour 
he sought, in return to the hardships he had 
undergone for his loyalty, was a permission 
to keep a presbyterian minister as his chap- 
lain in his family, after they were turned out 
of their churches. This the bishops grudged 
him, yet he was overlooked in it. 

I find this parliament had different minis- 
ters every day almost, who prayed in the 
house with them ; and unless it be some of 
the ministers of Edinburgh, there is scarce 
another employed to pray, but such who 
conformed to prelacy ; so well did the em- 
ployers know the characters of the corrupt 
part of the ministry. A good many, who 
were afterwards bishops, were employed to 
preach before them, and we heard the nature 
of their sermons. 

By those written minutes of parliament, I 
observe, that most part of their meetings 
were in the afternoon, though the day was 
but short : whether several members were 
better in case for business, by that time of 
the day, I determine not; but I knew 


peer of the first rank, who had been ,,,„, 
r , ,■ Ifaol. 

present m most of the parliaments 

during this period, when commissioner to 

one of the sessions after the revolution, used 

to declare himself with some warmth against 

afternoon sederunts of parliament, from 

what he had observed in this and the next 


All the acts of a public nature were form- 
ed by " the lords of articles," and presented 
from them to the parliament, where many of 
them passed without any great reasoning ; 
sometimes five or six acts of very great con- 
sequence would be voted in an afternoon's 
sederunt. Whether they were debated be- 
fore the lords of the articles, 1 know not : 
but I suppose any little struggle that was 
made was there ; for the parHament met but 
very seldom, once or twice in a week, or so. 
This manner of parliamentary procedure was 
declared against at the revolution, and no 
more used. Upon the 8th of Januarj', the 
commissioner proposed this matter to the 
house, and moved that the parliament might 
fall to their business, in the ancient road, by 
the lords of the articles, without devolving 
their whole power upon them, which he de- 
clared was not his meaning. The matter 
was not a little agitate in the house ; at 
length, " it was resolved, that twelve noble- 
men, twelve barons, and twelve burgesses, 
with the officers of state, shall be in the 
place of the lords of articles ; and that other 
twelve of each of those estates should be a 
committee for trade and heai-ing of bills. 
Those were authorized in their several 
meetings, to hear all matters presented to 
them, to receive probation of what they 
found relevant, and report to the parliament 
twice a week : but the full power is declared 
to be reserved to the parliament, to debate 
and determine all matters, notwithstanding 
of those meetings, which are declared to be 

The several estates having withdrawn 
themselves, brought in the following list 
for the lords of the ai'ticles, which was 
agreed to : 

Nobility — Duke Hamilton, Montrose, Er- 
rol. Marshal, Mar, Rothes, Atliole, Hume, 
Haddington, Dumfries, Callcndar, Hartficld. 
Barons — Sir John Gilmour, Sii" Peter Wed- 



,„„, derburn, Piestoun, Lie, Polmais, 
Carden, Dury, Tarbet, CoUingtoun, 
Garff, Ardross, Balinaiii. Burghs — Provost 
of Edinburgli ; Provost of Perth ; Dundee, 
Alexander Wedderbum ; Aberdeen, William 
Gray ; Stirling, Duncan Nairn ; Linlitligow, 
Andrew Glame ; Glasgow, John Bell ; Air, 
William Cunningham ; Haddington, John 
Beaton ; Dumfries, John Irvine ; Aber- 
brothock, John Auchterbos, Hugh Sinclair. 
To those, with the of&cers of state, the na- 
tion owes the forming and framing of the 
acts formerly mentioned. Tiie committee 
for trade and bills I need not insert, since it 
was mostly private business came before 
them : the processes indeed against the 
marquis of Argyle and others began at 
them ; and the lord Cochran was their pre- 

January 16th, the act discharging all 
meetings, convocations, leagues, and bonds, 
without the concurrence of the king, was, 
after much debate, carried, with a declai'a- 
tion that it looked only forward. 

A proclamation by the commissioner and 
parliament was this day agreed to, " ordain- 
ing all persons, who have not actual resi- 
dence in Edinburgh, and are not obhged to 
attend the parliament, who had any hand in 
the remonstrance, or in contriving of, or 
assenting to the ends thereof, or in that 
wicked book called * the Causes of God's 
Wrath,' to depart the town in forty-eight 
hours, and not to return, or remain ^\^thin 
ten miles thereof, imder pain of treason ; 
except those who are already cited to appear 
for the crimes abovementioned." This was 
proclaimed at the Cross. 

January 22d, the act agreed upon by the 
lords of the articles, disannulling the con- 
vention of estates 1643, was passed, after 
very much debate. The commissioner de- 
clared, " he had no order from his master to 
encroach upon our national covenant, or 
upon the consciences of the people : but as 
to leagues with other nations, he conceived 
they could not now subsist with the laws of 
this kingdom." About ten members dis- 

When the act rescissory was brought in 
by the lords of the articles to the house, 
February 7th, very long reasonings ensued. 


and it could not be got through that night. 
To-morrow, it was again tossed. The earl 
of Loudon had a long and elegant speech, 
indicating himself from the aspersions in 
the narrative of that act, and setting the 
affairs in that period in a just light ; but it 
had no weight : that act behoved to be 
passed, and at length, with a great struggle, 
it was carried. 

L*pon the 22d of February, the parlia- 
ment grant a commission to visit the col- 
leges of Aberdeen, and for removing of such 
of the masters as had intruded themselves 
unwarrantably, and reponing those who, 
without just cause, were put from their 

That same day, an act was agreed upon, 
for discharging the frequent coming of per- 
sons of all sorts from Ireland to this king- 
dom, to the disturbance of the peace of the 
state and church ; and appointing, that none 
be admitted who bring not passes, bearing 
their peaceable deportment to the govern- 
ment there established, from the lord chief 
justices, pri^y council, or mayors of towns 
where they reside, under the pain of im- 
prisonment of their persons : and that until 
they procure such passes, they are to appear 
before the privy council at Edinburgh, and 
give surety for their peaceable deportment. 
This act is ordered to be published at Glas- 
gow, Ayr, Wigton, and Kirkcudbright. I 
know no reason of this extraordinary prohi- 
bition, unless it was to prevent the retiring 
of the Scots presbyterians in the north of 
Ireland, to their native country, now when 
they are beginning to feel the fiiry of the 
prelates there. 

February 27th, the commissioner pre- 
sented a letter directed from his majesty to 
the parliament, appro\ing all their former 
proceedings, and declaring that he is ready 
to give a general remission to all Scotsmen, 
(except such as the parliament shall except) 
for their bygone actings, against his royal 
father, or him. Which was read with great 
joy, and ordered to be recorded as a glorious 
testimony of the king's favour; and the 
commissioner is desired to return the humble 
acknowledgments and thanks of the house. 

The reader may have some view of the 
procedure of this first session of parliament. 


from those hints ; and for as arbitrary as a 
good many of the acts now passed will evi- 
dently appear, yet much heavier are a com- 
in<» in the after parliaments. However, by 
those, one of the best formed ci'i-il establish- 
raepts, and a most glorious ecclesiastical 
settlement, according to the rules of Christ 
in his word, were overturned, and a founda- 
tion laid for the bringing in of prelacy into 
the church, and arbitrary government to the 
state: This vast change in Scotland, was 




Mr. Hugh Blair at Glasgow, Mr. 
Paterson, and others, whose ser- 
mons were carefully printed, and speak for 
them to this day. Up and down the country, 
many ministers warned their people fully and 
faithfully of the evils coming in, and the dan- 
gers the church of Scotland was in hazard 
of, notwithstanding of the severe act, we have 
seen, was published against ministers' free- 
dom in preaching, by the committee of 
estates. Mr. M'Ward at Glasgow used 

not brought about without some testimony ; very much plainness this way, and was staged 
given against it, whicli may be the subject of before the parliament therefore, as we shall 


Mr. William Guthrie, minister at Fen- 
wick, in the shire of Ayr, used the greatest 
of freedom and sincerity in his sermons at 
this time. I am too nearly concerned in this 
great man, to say much about him, and there- 
fore choose to give this in the words of a 
worthy minister, his contemporary, in his 
character of him. " In his doctrine Mr. 
William Guthrie was as fiill and free, as any 
man in Scotland had ever been ; which, to- 
gether with the excellency of his preaching 
gift, did so recommend him to the affections 
of people, that they turned the com field of 
his glebe to a little town, every one build- 
ing a house for his family uf>on it, that they 
might live imder the drop of his ordinances 
and ministry." Indeed the Lord gave him 
aa opportunity to bear a longer testimony 
against the defections of this time, than most 
of his brethren ; till at length the malice of the 
archbishop of Glasgow turned him out in the 
(year) 1664, as we may hear. A good many 
ministers kept congr^ational fests ; and that 
was all almost they could do, since now 
there was scarce any opportunities of pres- 
byterial or s\-nodical appointments of this 
nature : and in some places w here there were 
disaffected persons to delate them, ministers 
suffered not a little for this practice, and the 
plainness of their doctrine. 

Somewhat likewise was endeavoured in 

Of the efforts made by presbyterian minuters, j 
for the preservation of the church during , 
the sitting of the parliament; with some 
account of the violent treatment of synods, 
April and May, this year 166 L 

Although the miserable rents in the church, 
the caution and cunning of the parliament's 
procedure, the fair professions made of a 
deep concern for those they called the honest 
ministers, and at length open force and vio- 
lence upon the judicatories of the church, 
with some other causes, hindered what 
ought to have been done at such a critical 
juncture; yet several essays were made by 
ministers, to give such a testimony as their 
present ill circumstances would permit ; and 
because what was then done is very little 
known, I shall give the larger account oi it 
from well vouched narratives, and some 
original papers in my hands. 

We have already heard that Mr. Robert 
Douglas, in his sermon before the parlia- 
ment, dealt fairly with the members at the 
opening of the session. He was among the 
eldest nunisters of the church, and of the 
greatest gravity and account; and ha\Tng 
plainly warned them to do nothing against 
the work of reformation in this church, his 

freedom was not pleasing to the court, and. judicatories. The ministers in and about 

neither he, nor almost any hearty presby- 
terians, were ever afterwards employed, espe- 
cially after Mr. Wood and Mr. John Smith, 
had, in a little time thereafter, laid their duty 
freely before them. Timesen-ers and syco- 
phants were afterwards employed, such as 

Edinburgh, had the greatest opportunities 
of observing, and the earliest views of what 
was a doing, though the managers in parlia- 
ment did their business as secretiy and 
speedily as might be ; and really much of 
the razing work was over before the minis- 


2^„j tcrs at any distance from the parlia- 
ment had distinct accounts : there- 
fore I choose to insert here the copy of 
an original paper, I have under Mr. Andrew 
Ker, clerk to the church, his attestation, 
formed at this time, as a narrative of the 
essays of the ministers who lay nearest the 
parliament, and might be supposed to have 
the greatest weight with the members at this 
juncture, for the benefit of the church. The 
title is. 

Proceedings of some brethren, 1661. 

" After the parliament was convened, 
January, 1661, some acts having passed, 
which occasioned great fears of some pur- 
poses to overturn, or weaken our discipline, 
and the work of reformation; therefore 
brethren of divers of the next presbyteries, 
finding it inconvenient to appear in any pub- 
lic way, contented themselves to correspond 
by some few, with some of the brethren of 
Edinburgh, who were using all fair means 
for preventing the evils feared, 

" After frequent conference of those 
brethren of Edinburgh, with the earl of 
Middleton, his majesty's commissioner, and 
the earl of Glencairn, chancellor, about mat- 
ters then in agitation, they being surprised 
with the passing of some acts, did present 
the lord commissioner's grace with the fol- 
lowing overtures ; humbly also desiring, that 
for security as to the future, there might 
pass a general ratification of the former acts 
for religion in doctrine and government." 

A few overtures humbly offered for the good 
of his majesty's affairs, and settling the 
minds of good j)eople, whose only aim and 
desire is, that under the skadoiv of his ma- 
jesty's government, they may enjoy the or- 
dinances of Christ, as they are established 
in purity and power. 

" I. As to the oath tendered to all the mem- 
bers of parliament, it is humbly offered, that 
seeing those of the lieges who were in use to 
take that oath before, and may have it again 
tendered to them, will want that opportuni- 
ty of his majesty's high commissioner, and a 
parliament sitting, to give the interpretation 
thereof, as was done to the members of par- 
liament; therefore an interpretation there- 


of may be passed by act of parliament. 

There is no honest man, but will acknow- 
ledge the king's majesty supreme governor, 
not only in matters civil, but even in eccle- 
siastical, as to that power formally civil, 
competent to the christian magistrate about 
ecclesiastical affairs; and if it be declared 
by act of parliament, that the sense thereof 
is none other than what is asserted in the 
parliament 1592, explaining the act 1584, 
or in the late Confession of Faith, chap. 
23. (which is believed to be the parliament's 
sense) it will remove fears and stumblings as 
to that particular. 

" II. Whereas acts have passed relative 
to the constitution and legality of some meet- 
ings in this kingdom, in the time of the late 
troubles, wherein private subjects do not find 
themselves concerned to pry into the grounds 
and reasons of those proceedings ; yet seeing 
the people may readily apprehend, that 
thereb}' " the solemn league and covenant," 
(entered into at that time) is annulled, 
which cannot but be a cause of great per- 
plexity unto them, considering how they 
stand engaged in an oath of God, concern- 
ing a lawful thing, to which they were drawn 
by the representatives of the kingdom : there- 
fore it is humbly offered, whether it will not 
much refresh the minds of people, and re- 
vive their perplexed spirits, if the parliament 
be pleased to declare their mind, that they 
intend not to annul or make void the obli- 
gation of the oath of God, under which the 
people lie ? 

" III. It is humbly conceived, that an act 
of parliament approving and ratifying the 
Confession of Faith, and Catechisms, and 
the Directory for Worship, approven by 
the assemblies of this kirk, and the discipline, 
government, and liberties of this kirk, and 
acts for suppressing popery and profanity, 
would remove the fears of sober and honest 
people, and (it is trusted) will be acceptable 
to his majesty, and exceedingly satisfy all 
his good subjects. 

" Those overtures his grace and the lord 
chancellor promised to communicate to his 
majesty, and thereafter to give an answer to 
them ; and for further security, desired the 
brethren to draw an act of ratification, as 
they would have it ; and should be consid- 


ered : which was accordingly done, and given 
to the lord commissioner, the tenor whereof 
follows : 


Ratification of former acts of parliament, con- 
cerning religion, doctrine, ivorship, discip- 
line, and government. 

" Seeing it is a mercy never to be forgot- 
ten, that the Lord God, in his infinite good- 
ness, hath been pleased wonderfully and un- 
expectedly, to bring about the restitution of 
his majesty to his throne, and the deliver- 
ance of this distressed kingdom from all that 
bondage and misery it was lately under, both 
as to spirituals and temporals, by the vio- 
lence and prevailing of usurpers, and to 
make so universal a restauration, as is to be 
seen this day : and his majesty, in thankful- 
ness to God for so great mercies, being de- 
sirous to employ that royal power and au- 
thority, which by di\ine providence he now 
enjoyeth, for the service and glory of God, 
and for countenancing, maintaining, and pro- 
mo\ing the gospel of his Son Jesus Christ ; 
therefore his majestj', with consent of the 
estates of parliament now convened, doth 
confirm and ratify the true religion professed, 
received, and practised within this kingdom, 
in doctrine, worship, discipline, and govern- 
ment, established by general assemblies, ap- 
proven and ratified by acts of parliaments, 
particularly those following, viz. act 3. pari. 
I. James VI. anno 1567, and act 99. pari. 7. 
James VI. in 1581, and act 114, pari. 12. 
James VI. in 1592, and acts 4, 5, 6. pari. 2. 
of his majesty's royal father of glorious 
memory, 1640, ratified in act 6, of the par- 
liament held by his majesty's said royal 
father, in his own person, 1641, which acts, 
together with all other acts of parliaments 
made for establishing, maintaining, protect- 
ing and preserving the said true religion, in 
doctrine, worship, discipline, and govern- 
ment, professed, received, approven, and 
practised in this church ; and for restraining 
and suppressing in this church and kingdom, 
all impiety, vice, profaneness, and whatso- 
ever is contrary to truth and godliness ; his 
majesty, with consent foresaid, doth approve, 
ratify, and renew, in all the heads and articles 
thereof: ordaining the said acts to be in full 


force, strength, and observance, ac- 
cording to the whole tenor thereof; 
and declares that no acts of this present par- 
liament, are or shall be held prejudicial to 
the liberty, profession, exercise, establish- 
ment, and entire preservation of the said 
true religion, doctrine, worship, discipline, and 
government within this church and kingdom, 
or any ways derogatory to the authority 
and strength of the above said acts of parlia- 
ment, approving and ratifying the same." 

To this was added this brief memorial : 
" If the parliament 1649, be abrogate, and 
the acts thereof made void and null, it is 
humbly desired, that those acts following, 
which were passed in that year, may be re- 
newed in this parliament, and by their autho- 
rity enacted." 

Session 2. 

II th Act, against consulters with devils, 
and familiar spirits and witches, and con- 
sulters with them. 

12th Act, against fornication. 

16th Act, anent the Confession of Faith, 
and Catechisms, and ratification thereof. 

19th Act, anent several degrees of casual 

20th Act, against swearing, drinking, filthy 
speaking, &c. 

22d Act, against clandestine marriages. 

24th Act, against going of mills, kilns, salt- 
pans, and fishing on the Lord's day. 

28th Act, against blasphemy. 

32d Act, against worshippers of false gods. 

33d Act, against beaters and curs<^rs of 
their parents. 

45th Act, concerning manse and glebes. 

Renovation of commission for plan ition 
of kirks. 

Session 3. 
1 9th Act, for punishing incest. 

It hath been remarked, that the parlia- 
ment, after they had overturned our consti- 
tution by their principal acts above nar- 
rated, came in to two or three of these acts 
desired ; but the act of ratification drawn at 
the commissioner's desire, and renovation of 
the rest, were neglected ; and the ministers 
were kept in hopes, and got fair words, till 


jgg, matters were past hope. Indeed i by tery of Edinburgh to the parliament at this 
things were very cunningly managed, time, which I take to be that spoken of 
and the act rescissory was cast into several ! above. This supplication was sent to the 

shapes, and given out to be a quite other 
thing, than afterwards it appeared to be, that 
ministers' appearances against it might be 
prevented: and by those Winds, and pro- 
mises to advise with his majesty about the 
above mentioned reasonable proposals, mat- 
ters were kept very smooth, until the day 
the rescissory act was tabled in parliament. 

By a narrative under a minister's hand, at 
that time in Edinburgh, I find that as soon 
as the nature of the act rescissory came to 
be known, the presbytery of Edinburgh met, 
and framed a supplication to the commis- 
sioner and parliament, " craving that a new 
act might be made, for establishing of reli- 
gion and church government, since they were 
informed the parliament were about to re- 
scind the civil sanction and statutes in force, 
for the exercise thereof." The ministers 
were kept so much in the dark, as to the 
nature of the rescission projected, that they 
were necessitate thus to hold in generals, 
and to desire new laws to be made, when the 
old hedge was to be removed. I have in- 
sert • a copy of a suppHcation from the pres- 

* Petition of the Presb}'tery of Edinburgh. 

Unto the king's commissioner, and the honour- 
able high court of parliament, the humble 
petition of the Presbytery of Edinbui'gh. 

When we reflect upon the sad times that have 
past over this church and kingdom, during the 
time of the late usurpers, what grief and afflic- 
tion of spirit it has been to honest christians, 
and true countrymen, that their country has 
been kept in bondage, his sacred majesty driven 
into a sad disconsolate exile, our nobles and 
rulers scattered into corners, cast into the far 
countries, shut up into prisons at home and 
abroad, and trode upon by base and bloody men, 
and all our civil and religious concernments 
left under the feet of violent usurpers, and with 
what difficulties all honest men have wrestled, 
(whereof we, with others of the ministrj', have 
had not a little share) which then laboured to 
keep their garments clean from the defections of 
the time, and to lament after the Lord, till he 
should in mercy visit us : we cannot, now when 
the Lord has returned our captivity, but be as men 
that dream, and our mouths filled with laughter, 
and our tongues with singing, the Lord having 
done great things for us, whereof we are glad ; 
and as we looked upon it as a mercy never to be 
forgotten, that the Lord in his infinite goodness, 
has been pleased wonderfully to bring about his 
majesty's restoration to his throne, and the 
deliverance of this distressed kingdom, from all 

commissioner, by three of their number they 
reckoned might be most acceptable, Messrs. 
John Smith, Robert Lawrie, and Peter Blair, 
Partly by promises, and by threatenings, the 
commissioner prevailed with them, not to 
give in their supplication that day ; and pre- 
sently the parliament met, and in haste 
enough passed the rescissory act, from which 
a good many members dissented. When the 
ministers found themselves thus circum- 
vented, to-morrow Mr. David Dickson and 
some others were sent by the presbytery to 
the commissioner, to insist in this affair. 
They were received very roughly, and Mid- 
dleton told them, they were mistaken if they 
thought to terrify him with papers, he was 
no coward. iVIr. Dickson replied, he well 
knew his grace was no coward, since the 
Bridge of Dee. This was an engagement, 
June 19th, 1638, when Middleton appeared 
very gallantly against the king's forces, for 
the covenanters. To this no answer was 
given, but frowns. The ministers, knowing 
there had been so many dissenters in parlia- 
ment, from yesterday's vote, insisted much 

that misery and bondage under which it hath 
groaned ; so it is our earnest supplication to God, 
that this so great a mercy may be improven by 
all ranks, to the honour of his great name, 
vrhose work this deliverance is, and to the good 
and comfort of this afilicted church and king- 
dom. We do, with all thankfulness to Almighty 
God, observe and acknowledge his mercy, who 
has restored our judges as at the first, and our 
counsellors as at the beginning, that our nobles 
are of ourselves, and our governors proceed from 
the midst of u-s : and that now your lordships 
are convened in this high court by his majesty's 
authority, and with the presence cf his high 
commissioner, that you may be tlie repairers of the 
breaches, and may seek the wealth of your people, 
and may speak peace to all your seed. ^\'e have 
hitherto forborne to make any applications to 
your lordships, as being unwilling to interrupt 
you in your weighty and great affairs ; yet 
since there is not a general assembly now sitting 
w^hich might more freely represent what is of 
public concernment to the whole kirk, and might 
remove any grounds of jealousy which might 
be occasioned by the late actings during our 
troubles and distractions, being upon the place, 
and being unwilling to lose the opportunity of 
your lordships meeting in this present par- 
liament, we do humbly offer unto yom* lord- 
ships, (when now we hope many of your affairs 
are over) what we conceive may be for the good 
of the church, as his majesty's gracious letter, 




to have their supplication tabled, and read 
in pubhc, and put the commissioner in mind 
of the resohitions he had come under, when 
he was under the prospect of death, and 
some sharp exercise of mind, at St. Andrews, 
1645, to serve the Lord and his interests. 
It seems he was then in danger from an ihac 
passion. At this he turned petted, and said, 
WTiat, do you talk to me of a fit of the 
colic ? and would by no means allow their 
supplication, and draught of an act for rati- 
fication, to come in, and be read in parlia- 
ment. After this, the presbytery sent their 
supplication to the king, but it was not re- 
garded. This account leads me back again, 
to insert what follows in the paper I am in- 
serting; the proceedings of some brethren, 

" After the act rescissory was passed, 
there was given in to the clerk register a list 
of some acts of general and public concern- 

bearing- his resolution to provide and preserve 
the government of the church of Scotland, as it 
is settled by law, without violation, hath exceed- 
ingly gladdened the hearts of good men, as we 
understand by letters from the several presby- 
teries and synods, some directed to his sacred 
majesty or his secretary, or some directed to us 
by way of return thereunto, and did secure 
them aijainst all fears in that particular, or any 
change ; so it was expected that this high court 
of parliament would confirm and ratify the true 
religion, in doctrine, worship, discipline, and 
government, established by general assemblies, 
approven and ratified by acts of parliament. 
Yet notwithstanding thereof, your lordships 
have rescinded the act anno 1640 and 1641, 
whereby our government is to be cast loose, as 
to the civil sanction thereof, and the church in 
danger, to be laid open to these snares which 
formerly were troublesome and grievous to this 
church ; therefore, whatever your lordships have 
done for the settling and securing the royal 
power and authority of our dread sovereign, 
(whose authoi-ity and power we do heartily 
acquiesce, and cordially submit thereto) or for 
securing the peace of the kingdom, in which we 
acknowledge none of them ought to oppose one 
another; yet we are very hopeful, and humbly 
supplicate, this high court of parliament will, 
by their civil sanction, establish, maintain, and 
defend the true religion, in doctrine, worship, 
disci]>lino and government, presently professed, 
received, and practised, and restrain and sup- 
press all impiety, vice, and profaneness, and 
whatsoever is contrary to truth and godliness. 
And whereas, through the iniquity of the times, 
and prevalency of the usurpers, the general 
assembly convened in anno I6b:i, was inteiTupt- 
ed, and all meetings of general assemblies declined 
by us, out of our due respects to his majesty's 
just right and authority, upon which they 
would have been ready to have encroached upon 
such an opportunity, it is humbly desired your 


mcnt to the church, of new to be 
enacted; but few of them were 
taken notice of. Thereafter the brethren 
hearing more of purposes to alter the govern- 
ment estabhshed in this kirk, and that there 
had been some motion among the lords oi 
the articles, for repealing the act of parlia- 
ment 1640, ratifying the same, and for calling 
for the kirk registers ; it was thought con- 
venient, that, if it were possible, the whole 
state of the business were humbly repre- 
sented to his majesty. To which effect, 
there was first sent to his secreteu-y the earl 
of Lauderdale the letter following, and there- 
after by another occasion in March, an in- 
formation," Follows 

Letter to the Earl of Lauderdale. 

" My lord, 
" It hath been the study of honest men 
here, to carry so peaceably and modestly, as 

lordships would be pleased to move to his 
majesty, that, with the first conveniency, a free 
general assembly may be called, which may not 
only take care to compose and settle these sad 
and lamentable divisions which have been in the 
church, but also may recognosce upon these 
actings, which may be apt to give offence, dur- 
ing the time of the sad and luihappy troubles ; 
;ind we may assure your lordships, that it is the 
purpose of honest men, when they shall convene 
in an assembly, to do what shall be found neces- 
sary for rectifying all disorders, and to redress 
whatsomever has been offensive. We shall not 
stand to press these our humble desires, by any 
arguments taken from the lawfulness or war- 
rantubleness, or necessity of the things them- 
selves, or from your lordships' obligation to act 
for him who has so wonderfully restored you 
to sit in judgment, or from the consideration of 
ourselves, who with other honest men, have 
confidence to sympathize with the afflictions of 
oxxr rulers and country, and have not been 
wanting, to our power and station, to act for 
the happy revolution, and are and shall be care- 
ful to promote his majesty's interest and author- 
ity, of which his people and we do assure your 
lordships, that, besides the convictions of the 
things desired, ^ve have not been a little pressed 
to tills humble address, by our tender regard 
and zeal towards his majesty's affairs ; so our 
desire is, that the minds of God's people may be 
settled, whose only aim and desire is, that they, 
under the shadow of his majesty's government, 
may enjoy the ordinances of Christ in power 
and purity, as they are established, which will 
encourage all of us (as in duty we are aln'ays 
bound) to pray for his majesty's long and pros- 
perous I'eign over us, and for the affluence of 
divine grace and blessings to be poured out upon 
his royal person and family, and upon youi 
lordships and your families for ever. 

Rlr. Petkr Bi.aik, Moderator. 

Mr. lloBEKT HuMEK, CI. pro tempore. 



,p«l might avoid all offence, and there- 
fore they have not at all appeared 
publicly in matters of their very near concern- 
ment, but have contented themselves with 
some overtures, given in to some in private, 
which we find have come to your lordship's 
hands ; yet they are not without fears that 
religion may suffer very much prejudice at 
this time, there being already some motions 
for repealing the act 1640, establishing pres- 
byterian government, and abolishing epis- 
copacy. The public registers of the church 
being called for to be perused by the clerk 
of register, or his majesty's advocate, (before 
an assembly be called, to redress by them- 
selves what disorders have been during the 
heat of troubles) of purpose, as would ap- 
pear, to render the government hateful, upon 
the account of some actings in times of dis- 
traction and animosity ; if not also to render 
the body of honest men (who have been in 
those judicatories) obnoxious ; so that there 
will be no difference betwixt those who have 
stood in the gap, for many years of sore 
trouble, and others. 

" Those things l}'ing so sad upon the 
spirits, not of a few only, but of all honest 
men, who have occasion to know of them^ as 
they cannot see how that course contributes 
to the good of his majesty's affairs, more 
than to their particular satisfaction in con- 
science, and in pursuance thereof are using 
all prudent and fit means to prevent those 
feared dangers, by dealing with those who 
have power; so we could not omit to ac- 
quaint your lordship also vnth it, that by 
your prudent and effectual moving, some- 
what may come from thence, to stop that 
coiu-se; lest otherwise it overspread, and 
not only involve them in hazard, who ex- 
pected no such thing, (yea, are persuaded of 
his majesty's royal inclination to the con- 
trary) but will bring prejudice to that which 
is more dear to them than any their particu- 
lar and personal concernments, and provoke 
him to displeasure, who is a dreadful party. 

" As to what concerns his majesty ; honest 
men's sufferings, and their serious endea- 
vours, by all duties proper to them in their 
stations, for his restitution, and their cordial 
rejoicing in the bringing about of so long de- 
sired a mercy, and their care to walk mo- 

[book I. 

destly when they are under so many fear.s, 
may, we hope, speak their loyalty. And as 
your lordship may perceive, by the overture 
given in, they are most clear in asserting his 
majesty's supreme power in all civil causes, 
and that the power formally civil about ec- 
clesiastical affairs, which is competent to any 
christian magistrate, doth duly belong to 
him, and shall be cheerfully submitted unto, 
and acknowledged by every one of them. 
And what hath passed in the times of 
trouble, which hath been offensive, if a gen- 
eral assembly be called, and allowed freedom, 
(which is humbly and earnestly desired that 
it may be done with the first) they will be 
careful so to recognosce those proceedings 
(the religion established being always pre- 
served) as may satisfy his majesty, and take 
away all cause of offence. And we think it 
will be more for his majesty's honour, that 
an assembly do it by themselves, (which is 
the real purpose of all honest men) than 
that others do it for them in a more vio- 
lent way. Though probably the appear- 
ing of some few ministers now, of whom little 
hath been heai-d before, and the silence and 
modesty of others, may give ground to ap- 
prehend, that the change of our established 
government may be brought about, without 
difficulty or stop ; yet your lordship may be 
assured, that honest men, fixed in their prin- 
ciples concerning religion, and sensible of 
the obligations that are upon theu" con- 
sciences, cannot but bear testimony against 
such a current of defection, as would involve 
us in the hazard of the divine displeasure. 
And though they have studied to walk 
modestly (and their resting upon his ma- 
jesty's gracious letter, assuring them of no 
violation of the government, did much satisfy 
and secure them) yet to our knowledge, 
many presbyteries are ready to bear witness 
by supplication against the change of govern- 
ment, if it be attempted. 

" Your lordship's zeal for the good of his 
majesty's affairs, your love to your mother 
church, and the ordinances of Christ in her, 
and your tender respects to many honest 
men who will suffer much, if not prevented, 
do persuade us, that you vdll interpose with 
his majesty for some speedy prevention ot 
feared evils, by preventing any prejudice to 


the established government, and making ef- 
fectual the desires propounded in the over- 
tures, and the draught of an act sent after- 
ward ; by calling a general assembly, accord- 
ing to the animadversions humbly offered to 
your lordship upon the declaration concern- 
ing it ; by causing forbear to meddle with 
the registers of the kirk, till the general as- 
sembly in the first instance take some course 
to set things in order, and by preserving 
honest men from inconveniences, who mind 
no other thing, but to get liberty to serve 
God according to his will, and their engage- 
m.ents, under his majesty's authority. Our 
confidence that your lordship doth seriously 
mind this so needful a work, makes us spare 
to use any motives. The little advantage it 
will afford to any lawful interest, (and we are 
sure the grief it will be to your lordship) to 
see honest and peaceable men, and a work 
of God in their hands, crushed, will be of 
weight to persuade you to endeavour to pre- 
vent it. And we not only hope, but arc 
confident, that when it shall be considered, 
how much it will advance his majesty's 
afiairs, that things be thus settled, to the 
satisfaction and comfort of all good men ; it 
will be accounted special good service to his 
majesty, to promove so good a design. We 
are," &c. 

Information, March 1661. 

" Afler our manifold distractions, and 
grievous afflictions under the heavy yoke of 
usurping oppressors, it pleased the Lord in 
his free and undeserved goodness, to look 
upon our low condition, and to visit us with 
a gracious deliverance, by the wonderful and 
unexampled restitution of our dear and dread 
sovereign, the king's majesty, unto the throne 
of his three kingdoms, which was to us a 
resurrection from the dead, and a command- 
ing of>dry bones to return unto life again. 
This miracle of mercy the Lord accompanied 
with a refreshing shower upon his inherit- 
ance here, by moving the royal heart of his 
gracious majesty to make kno\vn to the pres- 
byteries of this national kirk, his fixed pur- 
pose to preserve inviolable the government 
of the kirk here settled by law, whereby the 
hearts of all honest ministers were exceed- 
ingly encouraged to lay out themselves, unto 



the utmost of their power, m then- ,„„, 
Stations, tor advancing his majesty s 
interest in the affections of his people, which 
they were careful in the darkest times to 
hold up in their people's hearts. 

" This assurance from so royal a hand, 
whose heart was inured to constancy through 
all his unheard of hardships, made all the 
lovers of the established order of this kirk 
rejoice in the Lord, and magnify his name 
for so rich a mercy, and promise unto them- 
selves security from any trouble that might 
flow from the change of our kirk constitu- 
tion, which is dearer to them than all their 
other enjoyments ; and though they be some- 
what startled by the rumoured noise of a 
designed change, and yet more by some hints 
at the removal of the law of the land, that 
establisheth the same, yet they cannot suf- 
fer it to enter into their hearts, that his 
majesty hath any knowledge of, or giveth 
any allowance to any change at all in the 
matters of our doctrine, worship, discipline, 
and government. 

" Our single-hearted confidence upon 
that his majesty's gracious declaration, and 
our tenderness to do any thing that might 
savour of the least degree of distrusting the 
same, hath prevailed with honest ministers 
to keep silence, and not to make a noise by 
public addresses and supplications unto the 
high and honourable court of parliament, 
and to content ourselves with presenting 
private informations to my lord commissioner 
his grace : yet we would not have this to 
be interpreted as any diffidence of the cause, 
or as though we were willing to recede from 
the established government of this kiik, or 
were afraid to own the same in an orderly 

" It is the earnest desire of all honest 
ministers, that after the parliament, there 
may be a general assembly called, according 
to the settled order of this kirk, wherein, 
they are confident, there will be an effectual 
course taken for remedying all the evils, and 
removing all the unsound principles, and 
irregular practices, which they know, and do 
acknowledge to have crept in during the 
late troubles and distractions. They are no 
less confident, that his majesty shall receive 
thereby all satisfaction in their hearty and 



ruptions in worship, whereto it made way. 

jggj clieerful attributing to his majesty 
all that any Christian prince can re- 
quire in reason of dutiful subjects, reserving 
only to them the established doctrine, v/or- 
ship, discipline, and government. 

" If there happen to be a change made in 
the settled government, (which the God of 
heaven forbid, and we are loath to allow 
ourselves the apprehension thereof, upon the 
account before mentioned), there is none 
likelier to taste so soon of trouble and vex- 
ation thereby, as some faitliful ministers, 
who have been sufferers upon the king's in- 
terest, and have been active instnunents in 
keeping it up in the hearts of people, in the 
darkest time of its eclipse, and were the 
main, if not the only men, that most with- 
stood the practices and principles of such as 
opposed the same : therefore it is confidently 
expected, that his majesty will be graciously 
pleased, speedily to interpose himself, and 
forbid any change of kii'k government, since 
he hath been well pleased to give hopes of a 
free general assembly, wherein all disorders 
may be redressed, and his majesty may re- 
ceive all desirable satisfaction of this kirk's 
hearty affection to his royal interest and 

" It hath been the lot of faithful ministers 
in all times, to be misrepresented unto 
authority, and to be wronged by misinfor- 
mation, under which we ourselves have la- 
boured ere now, and therefore may fear that 
we are not now altogether free of the same, 
so long as we abide constant for the govern- 
ment of this kirk, which is our firm resolu- 
tion in the strength of the Lord : but it is 
oiu" comfort against this, that his majesty's 
princely disposition will not permit any 
such informations to take impression upon 
bis royal heart, before he take due trial 
what truth is in them, and acquaint those 
that are concerned, that they may clear 

" It is possible, reports may be going 
there, as if the plurality of ministers here, 
were hankering after episcopacy, and look- 
ing towards it : but we cannot imagine that 
such surmises will be believed by under- 
standing men, who have any acquaintance 
with the state of this kirk, to which that 
corruption of government, and other cor- 

bave been a burden, whereof they were most 
desirous to be freed, and wliich they will 
never willingly take on again, being now 
free from it, and engaged to the contrary, 
by the oath of God: yet lest it should take 
\vith any, we know and hear but of a very 
few, who have appeared to have a look to- 
wards that side, and those such as were not 
of great reputation in this kirk ; and what- 
ever they had, it is much diminished in the 
opinion of all that look indifferently on 
things, upon the verj account of their warp- 
ing off toward that way ; and they are looked 
upon as men ready to shift their sails, that 
they may be before the wind, whatsoever 
way they conceive it is likely to blow. And 
we can further assuredly affirm, that the 
generality of the presbyteries of this land, 
have returned theii* hearty satisfaction with 
his majesty's letter, either to his majesty's 
secretary, or to the presbytery of Edin- 
burgh ; and we doubt not but the rest would 
have done the like, if the distance had not 
denied them the opportunity. 

" It may be supposed by some, that it is 
good service to his majesty to overturn the 
government of this kirk, from the very 
foundations ; but we humbly conceive that 
his majesty will have far other thoughts of 
the matter, not only on the account of his 
gracious declaration to the presbyteries of 
this kirk, but also because he doth undoubt- 
edly esteem that to be the best service can 
be done to him, which doth most engage the 
affections of his subjects unto him, and en- 
dear his government unto them : for which 
there can be no more efficacious mean, than 
that they still enjoy the gospel of the Son 
of God, the purity of worship, and the sim- 
plicity of kirk government, which they do 
enjoy under the refreshing shadow of their 
lawftil sovereign, and secured to them by 
his laws, 

" Tliere want not strenuous endeavours 
of some, to rake into all the proceedings of 
our kirk, in the times of heat and animosi- 
ties, thereby to render the government hate- 
ful, notwithstanding that the judicatories of 
the kirk, have by their practices, those ten 
years bygone, witnessed, that whatever was 
done or declared in times of confiision, yet 



they were so far from judging those to be 
their principles, that upon a riglit under- 
Btanding betwixt his majesty and his people, 
they were careful to rectify those things, 
and so to act for his majesty, and their 
country's service, as might witness their 
honest intentions and desires, even in the 
heat of debates. And when for this their 
fidelity and honesty, they have been all this 
while traduced by some among ourselves, as 
making defection from their principles, and 
they by their apologies and vindications have 
clciired their own integrity, it is hoped his 
majesty will not allow those things to be 
backtraced, at least till he hear them speak 
for themselves and their mother-kirk ; and 
they are hopeful to wipe off all the asper- 
sions and calumnies that are frequently and 
unjustly cast upon the kirk and honest 

I am apt to think this information, and 
the papers I have been inserting, are of the 
reverend INIr. Douglas's drawing; and they 
savour much of his prudence and solidity. 
The reader will perceive those proposals are 
made, and such considerations and argu- 
ments used, as probably would have weight 
at this juncture, and with the persons he is 
dealing with ; and this is all the length they 
could go in their immediate applications to 
the government, considering present cir- 
cimistances. And had not the managers 
been resolved to please the high-fliers in 
England, to follow Mr. Sharp's ambitious 
designs, and carry through their project 
over all reason, gratitude, and justice, they 
could not have stood out against such plain 
and home dealing. Thus the reader hath 
some view of the efforts of the ministers of 
Edinburgh at this juncture, with persons 
mostly engaged. 

By the time the synods met in April and 
May, the parUament were far through their 
work; now the keys were changed, and 
every reflecting person began to suspect the 
house was to be rifled ; and so in all the 
corners of tiie church, ministers endeavoured 
to do somewhat, and great was the opposi- 
tion they met with; which brings me to 
give some account of what was done by 
s}Tiods at this juncture, and their violent 
treatment, as far as narratives have come to 
my hand. 

The synod of Glasgow and Ayr 
convened April 2d, and when they 
came to consider the present state of the 
church, they generally agreed, it was their 
duty, in this time of the church's danger, to 
supplicate the parliament ; and accordingly a 
committee was named to form an address and 
supplication for a new security to religion and 
this church, when the old fences were fast 
removing. And Mr. William Guthrie read 
from the committee, a draft of an address, 
which was generally satisfying to the inem- 
bers, but the generality were overruled : 
some worthy men of the resolutioners, but 
especially such as were gaping after a bish- 
opric, vehemently opposed the supplication, 
and threatened to dissent, such as Mr. 
James Hamilton, minister at Cambusnethan, 
afterward bishop of Galloway, Mr. Robert 
Wallace at Barnwell, afterward bishop of 
the Isles, and the correspondent from the 
synod of Lothian, Mr. James Ramsay, first 
dean of Hamilton, and afterward bishop of 
Dumblane. These gentlemen did not so 
much oppose the draft read, or petitioning 
in the general, as the seasonableness of sup- 
plicating in the present circumstances ; and 
urged the synod's adjourning to a short and 
new diet. They alleged the west of Scot- 
land was jealoused (suspected), and ill 
looked on by many in power; that they did 
not as yet know the practice of other synods, 
and so it would be much better to delay for 
a short time, till they saw what other synods 
did. Such as were for supplicating, could 
have easily outvoted them ; yet considering 
that without harmony and unanimity, their 
address would lose much of its weight, they 
yielded to the adjournment of the synod for 
a month. 

Meanwhile, as a present exoneration of 
their consciences, they agreed unanimously 
upon the following declaration, and none 
were more forward in it, than the members 
just now named, who in a few months be- 
came prelates. 

Declaration of the si/nod of Glasgow concern- 
ing the present government of the chur:h of 
Saolland, April 4:th, 1661. 
" Whereas there is a scandal, as if some 
ministers in this church, had made, or were 
intending to make defection from the govern* 




inhibition, the constituting ourselves into a 

ment of the church of Scotland, to 
prelatical episcopacy ; therefore the 
whole synod, and every member thereof, do 
willingly declare, that they are fixed in the 
doctrine, discipline, worship, and church 
government, by sessions, presbyteries, 
synods, and general assemblies, as it is now 
professed and practised within this church ; 
and that they are resolved, by the grace of 
God, so to remain. And because divers of 
the members are absent, therefore the synod 
recommends it to the several presbyteries to 
require the same of them," 

To this all the members present person- 
ally assented. The distinction of prelatical 
episcopacy, and the omitting of the obliga- 
tion of the covenants, grieved many ; and 
when this last was urged, Mr. James Hamil- 
ton threatened not to concur. Thus the 
desire of unanimity among themselves, made 
it pass jjro tanto, and the synod adjourned 
unto the second Tuesday of May. At 
which time the ministers came to Glasgow. 
But when they were about to convene in 
the synod-house, they were discharged, in a 
proclamation from the cross, by orders from 
his majesty's commissioner, to meet, as be- 
ing an adjourned meeting, and not warranted 
by law. Providence is just and righteous, 
in depriving of opportunities of doing good, 
when duty is not fallen into in its season. 
However, the ministers in town convened in 
Mr. Ralph Roger's house there, to consider 
what was fit now to be done; and after 
some deliberation they drew up, and com- 
missioned three of their number to go to 
Edinburgh, with the following supplication 
and representation, 

' To his grace his Afajcsty's High Commis- 

" Humbly sheweth, 

" That whereas your grace, for reasons 
best known to yourself, hath been pleased 
to interdict this adjourned meeting of our 
synod of Glasgow and Ayr, as illegal and 
unwarrantable by the laws of this kingdom ; 
we judged it oiu- duty, to testify the due re- 
spect we owe to the supreme magistrate, 
■whom the Lord in his good providence hath 
set over us, to forbear, in obedience to your 
grace, his majesty's high commissioner, youi- 

synod ; yet lest we should be found wanting 
in the discharge of the duty we owe to our 
Lord and Master Jesus Christ, who hath 
given power to the ministers of the gospel 
to meet in their respective judicatories, as 
the edification of the congregations com- 
mitted to their oversight doth necessarily 
require and call for ; we also find it incum- 
bent upon us, a considerable number of us, 
the members of this synod of Glasgow and 
Ayr, having come to meet in a synod, and 
being now occasionally in providence cast 
together, to signify to your grace, that as we 
are hopeful, whatever may be your grace's 
apprehensions of the inconvcniency of our 
meeting at this tune, it is not the intent of 
your grace's proclamation to declare that 
our synod can at no time warrantably meet, 
whatever be the necessity of the church 
within our bounds, but twice in the year : 
so we do humbly, and with all due respect 
and reverence to oiu- sovereign, the king's 
majesty, and your grace his high commis- 
sioner, seriously testify, that our forbearing 
to meet in a synod at this time, in obedi- 
ence to your grace's prohibition, doth not 
import our yielding that the provincial as- 
semblies of this church have no provincial 
power to meet, when the edification of the 
church doth call for it, even oftener than 
twice a year. All which we have desired 
our reverend brethren, Mr. Patrick Colvil, 
moderator in our synod at the last meeting 
thereof, Mr. Hugh Blair, minister at Glas- 
gow, and Mr. James Stii'ling, minister at 
Paisley, humbly to represent to your grace; 
which we persuade ourselves will not only 
not be offensive to your grace, but will be 
constructed a piece of necessarily called for 
exoneration of ministers of the gospel, who 
desire to be found faithful." Accordingly 
those three persons went to Edinburgh, and 
presented the minister's petition and repre- 
sentation to the commissioner, but had no 
return. And there were no more synods of 
presbyterian ministers in Glasgow, till Sep- 
tember, 1687. 

The provincial synod of Fife met like- 
wise in the beginning of April, at St. An- 
drews ; and the hazard of the church being 
very evident, they unanimously resolved to 
petition the parliament for a new act, rati- 


fying religion, and tlie privileges of the 
church. The draft agreed upon follows. 

To kis grace his jnajesty''s high commissioner, 
and the high and honourable court of par- 
liament, the humble petition of the synod of 
Ffe, convened at St. Andrews, April, 1661. 

" That whereas the honourable court of 
parliament hath judged the parliaments, 
(thought to have been such) held in the 
years 1639 and 1640, to be null, and of no 
authority in themselves, and by this means, 
all acts ratifying the reformed religion, as it 
is now received, professed, and practised in 
this kirk and kingdom, in all the parts and 
heads thereof, viz. doctrine, worship, church 
government, and discipline, and rescinding 
all acts of preceding parliaments, contrary 
to some parts of the reformed religion, par- 
ticularly some matters of the worship of 
God, and government of the church, as all 
other acts therein made, are become void, 
and of no force ; so those acts of former par- 
liaments, by those acts now made void, are 
ipso facto revived and restored to the autho- 
rity of standing laws. And albeit it be not 
competent to us, and is very far from our 
thoughts to judge of the validity, or invali- 
dity of any parliament, or acts of parliament, 
this being a thing properly belonging to his 
majesty and the high court of parliament; 
yet being, by clear connncing light, per- 
suaded in our consciences, that the reformed 
religion, in all the parts of it, doctrine, wor- 
ship, government, and discipline, received, 
professed, and practised at present within 
this kirk and kingdom, is grounded upon, 
and warranted by the word of God revealed 
in the holy scripture; and knowing how 
great a mercy and blessing it is to the church 
of Christ, that true religion, in the profession 
and practice thereof, be ratified, confirmed 
and established by the authority and laws of 
the magistrate, who is the nursing father of 
the chiu-ch, and protector of religion ; and 
that there be no laws of hii standing against 
the true religion, in any part thereof: where- 
fore we find ourselves bound, as the servants 
of Christ, \vith all loyal and humble submis- 
sion of heart to his sacred majesty's autho- 
rity, and his high and honourable court of 
parliament, to supplicate and beg, for the 


Lord's sake, that your grace his ma- 



jesty's high commissioner, and this 
high court of parliament, may be pleased to 
enact now a law, ratifying, confirming, and 
establishing the reformed religion, at present 
received, professed, and practised in this 
kirk and kingdom, in doctrine, worship, 
government, and discipline, which will not 
be unacceptable to our dread sovereign, the 
king's majesty, as we are hopeful, having 
had by his majesty's letter to the presbytery 
of Edinburgh, a declaration of his gracious 
resolution concerning this matter. It will 
be a refreshing mercy to the people of God 
in this kingdom, and procure from them 
abundant praises unto God, and prayers for 
blessings from heaven upon your lordship, 
and will exceedingly enlarge the hearts of us 
who are ministers of Christ, to teach, in- 
struct, and exhort the people of God within 
our charge, to all loyalty and obedience to 
his majesty, all submissiveness and subjec- 
tion to his government, and obedience to all 
having authority from him ; which also we 
are resolved to exhort them to, and to prac- 
tise ourselves, by the Lord's grace, however 
it shall be with us, and whatsoever exercise 
it shall please the Lord to put us to." 

Jointly with this supplication, the synod 
designed a warning and admonition to the 
people under their charge ; wherein, after a 
full declaration of their loyalty to the king, 
and their abhorrence of the English usurpa- 
tion, they show their resolution of standing 
by the doctrine, worship, government, and 
discipline of the church, declare against pre- 
lacy, and admonish their people to be con- 
stant in God's way, and to be much in re- 
pentance. They were not permitted fully 
to finish this paper ; but the draft of it, as 
it came from the committee, to which, no 
doubt, the synod would have agreed, with 
very little alteration, I have inserted below. ♦ 

* A seasonable word of necessary exhortation 
and admonition, bv the synod of Fife, convened 
at St. Andrews, the 2d of April, 1661, to all 
the people of GckI within their charge. 

Many and divers have been the tempta- 
tions and trials of the church of God, from 
the beginning even unto this day, our holy 
Lord, in his -wisdom, ordering all these things 
for manifesting those that are approved, for 
clearing of his truth, purging of his house from 




Before the synod had formally of Rothes, in the king's name. Him the 

voted the supplication, and finished 
the warning, they were interrupted by the earl 

dross and corruption, exercising his servants 
and people in a holy contending for truth and 
piety, against the speat (Hood) of evils that hath 
been always running in the world, and for the 
greater advancement of the glory of his power 
and goodness, in preserving and giving outgate 
in end to his afflicted people tossed with tempest. 
And now (right worthy, and dearly beloved in 
the Lord) the concernments of religion, and the 
work of God in this land, being under apparent 
hazard, sad trials likely to ensue, unless the 
mercy of God, and piety and justice of our 
dread sc-vei'eign, using his authority for God, 
avert tho same, we were most unfaithful, if we 
should n<vt at such a time (when prelacy, with 
the dangerous attendants thereof, (of which this 
church hath had sad experience) is like to be 
introduced again amongst us) declare our con- 
stant resolutions, according to the tie that lies 
upon us, by the authority of God, and our 
engagements to him, and give timeous warning 
to you the people of God, to keep your gar- 
ments clean, and that ye may not be led away 
to any measure of accession to these evils, where- 
unto many may be turning aside. We know 
perfectly, that in our so doing we shall not 
escape the common lot of faithful humble con- 
tenders for the truth, and be represented as 
intending reflections on the lawful authority 
God hath set over us, or as going about to raise 
jealousies and disaffections in the people towards 
them, or to move sedition and trouble; and it 
may fall out that none be more ready to cast 
black colours upon our actions, than men of our 
own order and rank. In giving this our faith- 
ful admonition and declaration, we have laid 
our account with all that such persons can load 
us with, and much more, being confident, that 
tlie constant tenor of our deeds hath sufficiently 
wiped, and shall wipe off all such unjust asper- 
sions. We have our witness in heaven, and a 
witness every one of us within us, how much 
our souls did long to have our present sovereign 
established upon the throne of his kingdom 
(imong us, (after the horrible barbarous murder 
of his royal father, of blessed memory, by the 
Knglish sectaries) and it is great joy to our 
hearts, that God blessed us with fidelity to the 
king's majesty, in a very dark and dangerous 
time, in the year 1650, when we, with other 
faithfid subjects through the land, followed our 
duty to his majesty, when our land was half 
subdued, and the rest under the saddest pres- 
sures ; and we bless God that at that time, and 
until this day, we have not been following after 
tho unwarrantable principles and practices of 
sundry in this land, not a little injurious to 
his majesty's just right. It is also our joy, that 
under ten years' bondage, neither tlie real cruel- 
ty, nor seeming civilities of usurpers, have pre- 
vailed to debauch our loyalty to our dread sove- 
reign, in whose absence we sat on the ground, 
as a widow mourning for the loss of her hus- 
band. In our dai'kuess we wished for the dawn- 
ing of that day, when the Lord shall bring 
back our captivity, and restore our sovereign, 
that under his shadow we might rest; and how 
greatly we were affected with tliat signal work of 
God, (who is wonderful in counsel, and excel- 

commissioner had appointed inspector, visi- 
tor, or commissioner, I do know what name 

lent in working) in that happy restoration of 
his majesty, what praises were rendered to God 
witli signal cheerfulness, will not soon be for- 
gotten by the Lord's people. liut our hearts 
were more confirmed in loyalty, when, at our last 
meeting, we received his majesty's gracious letter 
to the presbytery of Edinburgh, to be communi- 
cated : a letter worthy to be engraven in marble 
or in gold, wherein his majesty declares himself 
not only well satisfied with the carriage of the 
gener.dity of tlie ministers of Scotland, in the time 
of trial ; but also, to prevent jealousies which any 
mightcreate in the minds of well-meaning people, 
is pleased to give us assurance, that, by the grace 
of God, his majesty resolves to discountenance 
profanity, and all contemners and opposers of the 
ordinances of the gospel, and to protect and pre- 
serve the governnment of the kirk of Scotland, as 
it was then settled by law, without violation. 
Which letter, so graciously sent to us by our 
sovereign, preventing our desires to express his 
royal resolution, as to the maintenance of the 
work of God amongst us, we look upon an<i 
esteem as a kind of magiia charta, given by 
our gracious king for our church-order and 
privileges. And as in our letter, directed 
from us at our last meeting, to his majesty's 
noble secretary for Scotland, to be humbly 
presented in our name to his majesty's own 
hands, we did express our sense of God's mercy 
to us, in putting such a thing into the king's 
heart ; so shall we be most loath to suffer such 
thoughts to take place in our hearts, as if so 
pious and royal a resolution were to be altered 
upon any instance whatsomever ; and we would 
count it a most undutiful part in us, to be ready 
to suggest or express to the people of God, tiie 
subjects of the king, any fears of that sort : but 
as our loyalty in former times hath appeared, 
so we trust that our carriage upon all occasions, 
shall argue in us indelible evidences of unstained 
loyalty and love to our sovereign, whom we 
honour as a man next unto God, inferior to 
none but God, who is his only judge, invested 
by God with a peerless supremacy over all per- 
sons and ranks of persons, within his majesty's 
dominions, the chief nurse-father of the chuj'ch, 
and keeper of both tables of God's law, the sove- 
reign protector and defender of the worship 
and ordinances of God, God's vicegerent, sent by 
him to bear the sword, with imperial power to 
punish all evil deeds, and evil-doers trespassing 
against religion and piety, or moral honesty, 
and duties that man doth owe to man, and to 
put every one in his dominions to the doing of 
their duty to God and man, the supreme civil 
governor of all persons, and in all causes civil 
and ecclesiastic ; though the power of the keys 
of spiritual government belongs to the officers of 
the church, appointed by Christ : in a word, we 
do willingly yield whatsoever that pious and 
learned divine, Dr. Usher, attributes to the 
king, in the exposition of the oath of supremacy, 
for which he was solemnly thanked, in a letter 
yet extant in print, by that learuedest of princes, 
king James of blessed memory, who knew tho 
bounds of royal supremacy, as well as any king 
on earth : no less do we acknowledge to be duo 
to our sovereign lord king Charles, that wo 


to give to tliis new aiiJ erastian usurpation, their business, and commanded si- 



to watch over the actings of that synod; and lence in the king's name, and re- 
he came in, while they were in the noidst of quired them to insist no more upon what 

may for ever stop the moutlis of thcsp who seek 
<)Co;i.Nioii aijaiiist us in this matter, and may 
clear our loyalty as with a sunheam. And we 
appi'al to the great God, in the point of heiirty 
loyalty to our sovereiijn, though wo dare not 
(and we know lie wills us not) in the least 
thini; depart from the known mind ut' our God, 
in the matters concerning his house and wor- 
ship. And having premised this ius a guard 
against mistakes, we aver it to be the true zeal 
»t our hearts, towards the matters tif our (iod, 
his house and worship, that hath laid a necessity 
on us thus to declare ourselves, and to admonish 
the people of God in our charge, without any 
intention of wronging lawful authority, whom, 
if in any thing to ije enjoined, we cannot please 
with active obeiiience, we hope Ihey will be 
pacitied by our j'assive obedience, which we 
resolve to yielil, as our God calleth us, rather 
than to sin M^'Minst him. Therefore, we declare 
to you the Lord's people in our charge, whom he 
hath appointed us as ministers to instruct, that 
we are convinced, that prelacy of any one, with 
majority of power and jurisdiction over presby- 
teries anil churches, hath no warrant from 
Christ in his written word, which we are per- 
suaded is a perfect sufficient rule of religion, 
holding forth all the fundamentals of church 
government, whereunto belong the offices and 
officers, by which the Lord's people are to 
expect his blessing ; it being certain and un- 
doubted, that no spiritual efficacy can be in faith 
expected by any office in the church, or any 
other religious ordinance, but that which is 
appointed by God in his word, but is contrary 
thereto, it being evident that our Lord Jesus 
Christ hath discharged and inhibited all such 
majority jimong the ministers of his church, 
having committed the whole parts of the spirit- 
tial government tliereof, to one united company 
of rulers, and never to one alone ; neither did 
his apostles, when they are purposely mention- 
ing, in their writings, the officers given by 
Christ to his church, ever make mention of any 
su<'h prelates over many pastors and churches, 
nor of his priority and power, or work, as dis- 
tinct from the presbyters ; but do always speak 
of the presbyter and bishop, as of one office 
under divers names. And it being so that this 
office hath no footing in divine scripture, it 
ought to be refused and rejected by those who 
know themselves to be bound to follow tlie rule, 
not of human but of divine wisdom, in the gov- 
ernment of the church of Chi'ist. And although 
those who stand in opposition to us in this point, 
do make a great noise (to amaze the simple) 
about antiquity, and the primitive times of the 
churches and fathers, as if they all stood on 
their side, it ought not to stumble the people of 
God, seeing that (were it so) christian con- 
sciences, w~anting the warrant of the word to 
bottom faith upon, can liave no consistency nor 
establishment upon human constitutions; and 
yet we dare plead with them at the bar of purest 
antiquity, nearest the times of the apostles, 
wrhilst the church remained a chaste virgin, and 
are confident, that for some hundi'eds of years 
after the apostles, there is no evidence of such a 
bishop iis we reject and plead against ; and from 

history we can make apjiear, that there wiis no 
such bishop in our own church, miu'e than 
three hundred years after receiving of the chris- 
tian religion among us; but vi'henev<'r that office 
did creep in, we are bold to affirm, as our Lord 
said in another case, it was not so from the 

a. Next, we declare to you our dear people, 
our own resolutions, by the strength of divine 
grace, to adhere constan-tly, all tin; day:^ of our 
life, to the doctrine, worship, and present gov- 
ernment of the kirk of Scotland, by presbyteries, 
without the foresaid prelacy in any degree, 
under the name of a constant modei'ator, or 
what else soever, which we have renounced 
upon the strongest enforcements of srripture 
authority upon our consciences, and are in that 
matter under an indispensable tie of a solemn 
oath to God ; and although we cannot, for our 
conscientious resolutions, expect trouble, being 
under the protection of so gracious a sovereign, 
(to whom we would not doubt to justify the 
sincerity of our hearts, in cleaving to that which 
is good, had we the opportunity to represent 
our faithfulness to Cod, and loyalty to his 
majesty) yet, however, in this our distance from 
his majesty, we should meet with extremities in 
our duty, we shall with quietness commit our- 
selves and cause to him that judgeth righteously, 
resolving, in so honourable a cause, to endure, 
through God's strength, whatsoever trial and 
hardship it may please the Lord to exercise 
us with. 

3. We do, in the name of the Lord Jesus, 
exhort you the people of God in our charges, 
(which we shall also endeavour, through grace, 
tor our parts) speedily to renew our repentance 
for our unthankfulness under the means of 
grace, neglect and contempt of the gospel, un- 
gospel-like conversation, for the which the Lord 
may justly remove all his gospel ordinances 
from us, and plague us with sundry sorts 
of judgments, pursuing us as dry stubble, 
until we were consumed. As also we enti-eat 
that ye would stand fast to the profession 
of the truth of Christ, and to every pait of 
it, and to love the order of the house of 
Christ, which is so well grounded on his word, 
and tends so much to the advancement of 
godliness, and the glory of God, not making 
light accounts of that which is a part of the 
truth of the gospel and of the kingdom of Christ, 
after the lukewarm indifferency of too many, 
in the holy things of God. We are persuaded 
better things of you, than that ye should be 
removed, from youi' steadfastness, after the 
shining of so much light, after so strong engage- 
ments to the Lord ; what horrilile guiltiness 
should this draw on us? How great should oiu- 
infamy be among all the churches of Christ ? 
Whether should we not caus«! our shame to go 
for our unsteadfastuess in the solemn oath of 
God which is on our spirits, iu a matter imi 
only lawful, but also necessary for us to adhen- 
to, having so mudi light in it? Remember how- 
dangerous backsliding is ; what better fruits 
can be looked for from thht ivay of g<i\HTnnient 
th«n appeared among us ? How loaih i.i e we to 
sutler it to enter in our heai'ts, that thi:> Und 




was before them, and iuimediately 
to depart. Obedience was given, 
and they dismissed themselves presently. 
The case was new, they were perfectly sur- 
prised, and in confusion ; but it was matter 
of regret to many of them afterwards, that 
they had not protested against so plain an 
invasion of the liberties of Christ's house. * 
The synod being thus violently raised, the 
presbyteries at their first meeting did ap- 
prove of what they got not finished in synod ; 
and all of them, in a very solemn manner, 
did record, and declare their adherence to 
the principles of this church, in their several 
presbytery books. I have only seen an ex- 
tract of the declaration to this purpose, by 
the presbjtery of Cupar ; probably they were 
all much of a piece, and so I insert it here. 

Ai Cupar, April 18th, 1661. 

" The brethren of this presbjtery, after 
serious consideration of a grievous scandal, 
raised upon the ministers of Scotland, as if 
they were falling from their steadfastness in 

shall make the fruit of their loosing from ten 
years' boinliige, a shakeloosc of the government 
of Christ ? or, that good patriot or people, will 
embrace that which hath been so bitter to them- 
selves and their antecessors? How sad a thing 
will it be to lie in chains of our own making, 
and in end conclude with the simple repentant, 
non putaram % Be exhorted to avoid that evil of 
prelacy, and all attendants to it, under what- 
soever colours, as ye would have the Lord 
regard you. 

4. Finally, we exhort you to all loyalty and 
obedience in the Lord, to our sovereign the king, 
not only for wrath, but for conscience' sake, and 
to due obedience to all who have authority from 
him, judicatories and persons. We have the 
Lord to be our witness, that neither the matter 
of our present administration, nor our purpose, 
hath any tendency to make trouble; we have 
done this merely for om- own exoneration, and 
with respect to your good and the honour of 
Christ. The Lord establish you with us, by his 
free spirit. 

* This pusillanimous conduct on the part of 
the members of this synod, as well as that of 
many others, forms a melancholy contrast to 
what had been the practice of the ministers 
of the Scotish church, on almoet all former 
occasions of a like kind ; and the apology offered 
for them by our historian, we cannot but 
regard as ill-timed and not at all corresponding 
with the fact of the case. It was unhappily 
no new thing in Scotland, for the government 
to interfere with ministerial freedom, and the 
liberties of the church in almost every possible 
form. James VI. of wisdom-affecting and 
power-loving memory, left nothing in this re- 
spect for any of his successors to aclilL-e, having 


the refomied religion, and inclmable to de- 
sire, endeavour, or embrace the introducing 
again of the renounced, abjured, prelatical 
government, with its unwarrantable attend- 
ants, have thought it our duty to express 
our sense and judgment thereof, in sincerity 
of heart, as becomes the sen^ants of God, 
and in his presence ; and accordingly all and 
every one of the brethren, severally, and 
with one consent, profess, as in the sight of 
God, that we are thoroughly persuaded, and 
fully satisfied in our consciences, by the 
clear light of the scriptures of God, touch- 
ing the divine truth of the reformed religion, 
as it is at present, and hath been for divers 
years, received, professed, and practised in 
the church of Scotland, in doctrine, worship, 
government, and discipline; and that we are 
convinced in our consciences, that prelacy 
of any one, v/ith majority of power and juris- 
diction over presbyteries and churches, under 
the name of constant moderator, or any 
other name or notion whatsomever, hath no 
warrant from Jesus Christ in his written 

through a long life, maintained an unceasing 
struggle with them, from the pulpit up to 
llie council board, and from tlie general assem- 
bly down to the kirk session ; but he was grap- 
pled with, by the Blacks, the Bruces, the 
Calderwoods, the Davidsons, the Melvilles, and 
the Johne Rosses of that day, in a very different 
manner, than his grandson was now by the 
synod of Fife. The truth of the matter "seems 
to be, that the Covenanters generally cherished 
throughout a romantic attachment to Charles 
II., and were exceedingly reluctant to change 
their opinion of him; while the greater part 
of the ministers of the church of Scotland, and 
the synod of Fife in particular, in their zeal 
against Cromwell, and the sectaries as they were 
called [the independents], and theremonstrators, 
had wrought themselves into a state of phrensy, 
under which they had so committed themselves 
that now they dared not utter a word in defence 
of their own principles, lest it might be inter- 
preted as favouring the notions of these now 
totally proscribed classes, the tide of i>rejudice 
against which they had weakly contributed to 
swell, and so intemperately united to condemn. 
This, while it has excited painful regret among 
all who have been friendly to their cause, has often 
drawn forth the bitterest sarcasm from their 
enemies; and it must be confessed gave too good 
ground for the bitter taunt of the gossipping Bur- 
net, when speaking of their submitting to the 
managements of the traitor Sharp, after his char- 
acter was manifested to all the world. " The poor 
men were so struck, with the ill state of their af- 
f^iirs, that they either trusted him, or at least 
seemed to do it, "for, indeed, they had neither sense 
nor courage left them."— Burnet's History ot his 
Own Times, Edin. ed. vol. i. p. \1\.—Ed. 


word, to be received in his church : and we 
do from our htuirt.s the more abhor and de- 
test any motion or purpose of apostatizing 
to that way ; not only because of many sin- 
ful errors in doctrine, and corrupt practices 
in worship, which formerly did, with and by 
the foresaid prelacy, creep into this church ; 
but also because of the sacred and indis- 
pensable ties of the oath of God thereanent, 
under which we are before the Lord. And 
fiu-ther, we all declare, that we are not a little 
encouraged and strengthened in this our 
duty, and comfortably borne up against the 
fear of sinistrous designs, in prejudice of the 
present government of the church, by that 
refreshing declaration of our sovereign, the 
king's majesty, in his letter directed to the 
presbytery of Edinburgh, and by them to be 
communicate to the rest of the presbyteries 
of this church, dateil at Whitehall, August 
10th, 16G0, of his royal resolution, to pro- 
tect and preserve the government of the 
church of Scotland, as it was then estab- 
lished by law, without violation, and to coun- 
tenance, in the due exercise of their func- 
tions, all such ministers who shall behave 
themselves dutifully and peaceably; which 
also we purpose, in the Lord's strength, care- 
fully to endeavour. All which the brethren 
present unanimously consented unto, and 
ordained to be recorded in the presbytery 
register, adfulurmn rei memoriam." 

In other parts of the church ministers 
were not idle, when their all was at the stake; 
but generally they were hiternipted by those 
whom the managers named for commission- 
ers and inspectors ; and it would seem some 
such were directed to every suspected sjoiod; 
an office never before used, and I hope shall 
never more be tried. Upon the north side 
of Tay, they had no great fears of public ap- 
pearances against their procedm-c; but on 
the south of it, they had their spies in most 
.synods, clothed with, I do not know, whose 
or what authority. 1 can find no act of 
parliament constituting them, nor any com- 
mission from the king; yea, from the fore- 
cited account of the proceedings of parlia- 
ment, I find, March 28th, " there was like- 
wise presented and agreed unto, a paper, 
bearing, that ministers shall have power to 
exerce their ministerial functions in pro- 



vincial assemblies, presbyteries and 
sessions, during the king's pleasure." 
And I cannot guess how they came to be 
set up, unless it was by the paramount power 
of the commissioner, exerting his jirivilege in 
his commission, by Mr. Sharp's importunity, 
to do whatever the king might do, if present. 

At Dumfries, the synod was upon the 
same design with that of Fife, and had agreed 
to an act, censuring all ministers who com- 
plied with prelacy, by deposition ; but they 
were interrupted, and summarily dissolved 
by Queensberry and Ilartfield, pretending 
orders from the commissioner. I find it re- 
marked, that they were both miserably drunk, 
when they came in to their work. 

The synod of Galloway met this same 
month, and were drawing up a petition to 
the parliament, iigainst episcopacy, and for 
the preser\'ation of the liberties oi'this church, 
(and under all regular governments, subjects 
are allowed humbly to supplicate) the copy 
of which is added. * But when at this, the 

* Supplication of the Synod of Galloway, 
against the intended change of government, 

May it please your honours, 

We the ministers of Jesus Christ, within the 
synod of Galloway, laying seriously to heart 
the wonderful mercies of God, manifested from 
time to time to this poor nation, first, in the 
days of our forefathers, many hundred years 
ago, in which time, a little after the rising of 
the Sun of righteousness to give light to the 
gentiles, the Lord was graciously ple.'ised to visit 
this land with the light of the glorious gospel, 
and to bless and honour the whole nation, both 
with purity of doctrine and government, for 
sundry generations together : During which 
time, until the incoming of Paladius, ordained 
bishop bv pope Celestine, ths Scots knew not 
such a tiling as a prelate-bishop, but had, for 
the teachers of the faith, administers of the 
sacraments, and exercisers of discipline, presby- 
ters only, (called culdees, or colidei, because of 
their piety) of whom some were appointed over- 
seers or superintendents, but had no pre-emi- 
nence or rank of dignity tibove the rest, neither 
were they of any distinct order from the rest 
of their brethren. Next, in the days of our 
fathers, when the nation was involved in the 
darkness of popish superstition, and idolatry, 
it graciously pleased the Lord to nnisom the 
land from the bondage of popish tyranny and 
superstition, and again to bless it With the light 
and liberty of the gospel, and with discipline 
and government established according to the 
pattern showed in the inoimt : the beautiful 
lustre of wliich glorious reformation, remained 
for many years utistaiiied, uutil si-uie ambitious 
and covetous men-jileasing churchmen, imbold- 
ened with the smiles of authority, not only 
m:uTed and eclipsed the beauty aud glory of 



John Park, author of the excellent essay 

IQQl earl of Galloway came in, and in 
the king's name dissolved their 


The moderator of the synod, Mr. 

Christ's government by j)resbytery, but almost 
overthrew the government itself, in obtruding 
upon it, and setting over it a lordly government 
in tht' persons of prelates. Which course of 
defertion, to the great grief of the godly, and 
not without tlie constant reluctancy, counteract- 
ing, protesting, and witnessing of the most 
learned and fViithful pastors in the land to the 
contrary, was tyrannically carried on for the 
space of thirty-eight years or thereby. Yet, in 
the third place, even in our own day, the out- 
goings of the Lord, in the year S7, and the 
years following, has appeared so glorious and 
conspicuous, to the dashing and execrating of 
that lordly prelacy, and to the replanting and 
re-establishing of Christ's own government by 
presbytery, in its integrity, that it were super- 
fluous for us to make mention of these things, 
which many of your lordships' eyes have seen, 
wherein many of your lordships have been 
honoured to be eminent actors, and whereof all 
our hearts have been joyful and glad. The 
serious consideration of these things, speaking 
the Lord's unwillingness to depart, fixes a strong 
(and we trust) well grounded persu;ision on our 
spirits, that our covenanted Lord has thoughts 
of peace, and not of evil, towards this poor land, 
so often, so deliberately, so seriously, and so 
solemnly, by oath and covenant, engaged to the 
most higii God, and that he will be graciously 
pleased to fix his tabernacle amongst us, and rest 
in his love: and though on the contrary, he 
should, in his righteousness, threaten a depart- 
ure from us, and denounce also wo unto us 
when he departeth from us, (the fears whereof, 
as swelling waves, overwhelm the spirits of the 
Lord's people at this present time, who, for the 
most part, are trembling under the sad appre- 
hensions of a change) yet the thoughts of his 
ancient and late love to this land, should persuade 
all, in their respective stations, to lay hold on 
the skirts of his garments, and not to let him 
go: and therefore, the earnest desire of our 
hearts is, to plead in secret with the Lord, that 
he would mercifully preserve his staves of beauty 
and bands, in their beauty and strength amongst 
us: so (Christ commanding, necessity urging, 
and duty calling for it at our hands, to be faithful 
pfBce-bearers in the house of God) we trust that 
it will not be offensive to your lordships, that 
(keeping within .our own sphere, and holding 
ourselves within the bounds of that christian 
moderation which becomes godliness) we do in 
all humility exhort your honours, that with all 
singleness of heart, with all love and zeal to the 
glory of God, with all tender compassion to this 
yet panting kirk, faintly lifting up the neck 
from beneath the yoke of" this late exotic tyrant 
of perfidious men,' that witli all pious respect to 
your posterity in the generations to come, whose 
sDuls will bless your remembrance, for trans- 
mitting a pure refonnation to tliem, and that 
with all prudent and christian regard to prevent 
the stumbling, and provoke the holy emulation 
of the nations round about, whose eyes are upon 
your lordships, ye wouM see unto tlie exact and 
faithful keeping of the engagements, oaths and 
70VV8 of the Lord, lying on youi- lordships and 

upon patronages, modestly, and yet very 
pointedly, protested against the encroach- 

the whole land, to preserve the reformed religion 
in the church of Scotland, in doctrine, worship, 
discipline, and government, against all the 
enemies thereof: and that the Lord's people, his 
majesty's loyal subjects, may be delivered from 
the present fears of a change, which they are 
groaning under, we humbly supplicate your 
lordships would be pleased to ratify all former 
acts of parliament, in favours of the reformed 
religion in this church, in doctrine, worship, 
discipline, and government : and that, as his 
majesty has been pleased, in his gracious letter 
directed to the presbyterj' of Edinburgh, and 
by tliem to be directed to the rest of the pres- 
byteries in this kirk, to declare his resolution to 
protect and preserve the government of the 
church of Scotla-id, as it is settled by law, with- 
out violation; so your lordships would be pleased 
to declare your fixedness to the present settled 
government, without the least purpose of ever 
altering the same, or overcharging it with lordly 
episcopacy : and that (besides the considerations 
already hinted at) for the reasons following, 
pai'tly relating to the terminus a quo of such a 
change, which we pray the Lord to avert, partly 
relating to the terminus ad quern, and partly 
relating to the change itself. 

First, If your lordships will consider the 
terminus a quo of this change we supplicate 
against, to wit, the government of the chui'ch 
of Scotland by presbytery ; First, It is the true 
government of Christ's kirk, who being faithful 
to him that appointed him, yea, and faithful as 
a Son ovei his own house, Heb. iii. 2, C. has not 
left his house to confusion, without government, 
but has appointed the same as to be fed by 
doctors and pastors, so to be overseen and 
ruled by seniors or elders, in their lawful assem- 
blies in Christ's name, where he has promised 
to be in the midst of them ; the whole platform 
of which government, erected in Christ's church 
in this nation, as to all the essentials, is so clearly 
wju-ranted in the holy scriptures, that we may 
confidently say, it is the only government accord- 
ing to that pattern showed in the mount. 

Secondly, Albeit in the reformation of religion, 
whether in doctrine, worship, discipline, or 
government, the example of the best reformed 
churches is not to be contemned, but to have its 
due respect ; yet we have good ground to assert, 
that the present government of the church of 
Scotland by presbytery, w<as not inconsiderately 
borrowed from any other as the pattern, nor 
headily obtruded on this kirk, (a calumny fre- 
quently cast on our government by the adversa- 
ries thereof (but that it is the fruit of the many 
prayers, and tlie result of the faithful pains and 
labours of cur pious predecessors, who, by the 
space of six or seven years, did, in free and full 
assemblies, deliberately debate every point and 
article of the said government and discipline, 
and so did in end, by the good haiul of God upon 
them, determine and conclude the same accord- 
ing to the word of God, by the common votes 
and uniform consents of the whole assembly of 
this church. 

Thirdly, This government clear in scriptuie, 
deliberately «'.losed with by our progenitors, has 


ment made upon the judicatory, and took in- 
struments in the hand of their clerk, to which 
all the members adhered. INL% Park protested 


against what was done, as an injury , . 
to a court of Jesus Christ, and 
incompetent to the civil msigistrate. And 

now been fref(uently engaged unto, both, In the 
days of our foretatliorg. by the king's majesty, 
the nobles, and all ranks of people within the 
land, (whose nation;il oath is no less obliging of 
us their offspring, than the oath of Joshua and 
the princes of Isi-ael to the Gibeonites, was 
obliging of their posterity, who were (mir 
hundred yeju's thereafter dreadfully punished 
for the breach thereof,) and also in our own time 
we have solemnly engaged ourselves by the 
sacred oath of God, now thrice, to the said 
government: and wi- maybe sure, that such a 
threefold knot aii<l tie will not be easily taken 
off the conscience upon which it is indispensably 
and indissolvably fistoncd by the divine authority 
of that Almighty God, the searcher of all hearts, 
whose oath it is. 

Fourthly, This government has been ratified 
and established hy many acts of parliament : it 
were impertinent for us to multiply citations; 
yoiu" honours know how clear and full the 114th 
act, pari. 12th, of king James VI. is, both for 
establishing the government and discipline of 
the church, by assemblies national and provin- 
cial, by presbyteries and sessions, and also, for 
abrogating, cassing, and annulling all former acts 
of parliament, against the liberty of the true 
kirk, the jurisdiction and discipline thereof, as 
the same was used and exercised within the 
realm at the time, anno 1592. Neither is it 
needful to mention his late majesty, of worthy 
memory, his ratifying, anno 16-H, the whole 
progress then made in the work of reformation, 
which was matter of much joy to all the godly 
within the land. 

Fiftlily, This government has been attended 
with rich spiritual blessings, such as purity of 
doctrine, the suppressing of popery, error, and 
heresy, the curbing of licentiousness and pro- 
fanity, by the prudence and zealous exercise of 
discipline : so that it has been remarkable, that 
in all the periods of the flourishing of this govern- 
ment, the pulpits have sounded with pure doc- 
trine, speaking the language of Canaan, and not 
of Ashdod ; gross profanity and mocking of 
pifty retired from the streets, and durst not keep 
the causey (the generality studying at le;ist, if 
they attained no more, to walk civilly) and 
popery, error, and heresy, at such times, durst 
never adventure to look out of their cells and 
secret corners ; which things are no small mercies 
to a land. 

On the other hand, if your lordships will 
respect terminus ad quern of this feared, threat- 
ened, and begim change, to wit, lordly episco- 
' pacy : first it is a plant which our heavenly Father 
never planted, here being no ground nor footing 
for it in the word of God, even some of the ablest 
asserters of it themselves being j udges. Secondly, 
After the extirpation of it in the times of refor- 
mation, its regress has never been fair, but 
always through violent intrusion, by the force 
and fraud of corrupt carnal men, minding 
their own things, and not the things of Christ, 
and that contrary to law, reason, equity, 
conscience, solemn oaths and engagements, and 
clear scripture light. Thirdly, It is a govern- 
ment that we are solemrdy bound, as by the law 
of God, so by the oath of God upon us, to extir- 

pate from the foundation. Fourthly, It is a 
government that symbolizes with that in popci-)-, 
and indeed is not different specie froni the popish 
government ; yea, and by the erecting of it, the 
j)apists will be hardened and heartened, as for- 
merly, in the iiourishiug of episcopacy, they 
evidenced themselves to be, by their insulting 
song, Ye come to us, but we come not to you ; 
and, to speak truth, what difference is there 
betwixt iui archbishop in St. Andrews, pooping 
it over all Scotland, and an universal bishop at 
Rome, but a iiiajus and minus, qute non vnricnit 
speciem ? Fifthly, It has been always attentled 
in this land with manifold corruptions in doc- 
trine, ^vorship, and manners. How did j)opery, 
Arminianisni and Socinionism sound in our 
pulpits? Was it not in time of lordly episco- 
pacy ? Then it was that the pure worship of 
God was polluted with the mixture of man's 
muddy inventions, with mimic gesticulations, 
idolatrous geniculations, superstitious cantings, 
&c. Then it was that episcopal licenses in the 
matter of marriage to blank persons, that episco- 
pal connivances at the grossest of scandals, 
and ej)iscopal simony in selling the ordinances, 
and satisfactions, made way and opened the door 
to the slight esteem and profane contempt of the 
Lord's ordinances, and to bold licentiousness. 
Let the legend of the bishops, their life and their 
government, be looked back to with an impartial 
eye, we are confident it will be acknowledged tliat 
the raking them out of the dust, will prove like 
the breaking up of graves, and opening up of rot- 
ten sepulchres. Sixthly, Albeit we lay no weight 
upon the fallacious arguing, from the accidental 
corruptions in government, to the eversion of the 
same, (a calumny most falsely cast upon the 
instruments of the glorious work of reformation 
anno 28,) yet, as they having first struck at the 
root of episcopacy, because not rooted in the 
word of God, did, m the next place, look upon 
the sinful and judicial corruptions attending it, 
as gravamina iutulcrnbiUa ■ so we being convin- 
ced of the unwarrantal)leness of the episcopal 
office, may desire yom- lordships to call to mind 
what was the high swelling pride, and the inso- 
lent actings of these persons, who in this nation 
entered in that office, not only in lording it 
over their brethren and the Lord's inheritance, 
but also in their presumptuous browbeating the 
nobles in the land, and in their ambitious, both 
aspiring unto, and screwing themselves in the 
highest places of public ti'iust in the state. Wliich 
things we look upon not only as having been 
the effects of the men's corrupt hearts, but as 
having been likewise the effects of the right- 
eous judgment of God upon their spirits, for 
entering in that office contrary to the oath of 
God lying on them and the whole nation. 
Neitlier need any to think that they may lie 
now better bounded and regulate : caveats will 
not fetter them, they will soon prove like the 
princes of Judah, that remove the bound ; and 
we have freedom to assert it, that if tliey were 
plagued before with proud, ambitious, presump- 
tuous spirits, they sh;dl be ten times plagued 
more with these and the like spiritual judgments, 
who sliiiU succeed the former in their chairs. 
. Anrl if they did formerly act to the great i)re- 


the ministers would not remove till \ In the synod of Lothian things were car- 


he had prayed, and regularly con- 
cluded their meeting. 

judice of the nobles in the land, (to whom they 
became a terror, and whom they began to tram- 
ple upon and abase) they who enter heir to the 
lormer, shall no less, if not to the double, more 
insolently fict in their time, and that in the 
Lord's righteous judgment, for the punishment 
of such nobles and statesmen as shall be active 
for their reintroduction into this kirk. Take 
good heed therefore unto yourselves, that ye 
love the Lord your God ; else if ye in any wise 
go back, and cleave unto that abjured genera- 
tion, know for a cert;;iiity that they sh;Jl be 
snares and traps unto you, and scourges in your 
sides, and pricking thorns in your eyes, Joshua 
xxiii. 11, 12, 13. 

In the place, we conceive the following 
reasons, relating to the change itself, will be 
obvious to any. First, If it be an axiom ap- 
proved in experience and policy, (as it is) that 
omnis inutatio reipubliccB est periculosa, etiamsi in 
melius, much more will it be assented to, that 
omnis Jtuitatio in ecclesia, quando in deterius, (such 
as this is) est periculosa ; and therefore sound 
reason will conclude that it should be eschewed. 
That the feared and threatened change will be 
in deterius, is evident ; for it is from such a gov- 
ernment, as is conform to the word of God, to 
the best estate of the primitive church, to good 
laws and constitutions, to solemn vows and 
engagements, and conform to the government of 
the best reformed churches from the coruption 
of popery, to a government plain contrary to all 
these ; and so it cannot but prove a change most 
pei'nicious both to the civil estate of the king- 
dom (which we leave to the judginent of juris- 
consults and politicians,) and likewise to the 
church of Jesus Christ, which we may confident- 
ly conclude, both from former sad experience in 
the like case, and from the inevitable bitter con- 
senuences which naturally spring from such a 
sad and sinful change. Secondly, It will be pal- 
pable, not only to ourselves, who are members of 
this church, but to all the nations and churches 
abroad, whether protestant or popish, that are 
in the least measure acquainted with the aft'aii-s 
of the church of Scotland, and the settlement of 
government therein, what they have been now 
these hundred years bygone, since our reforma- 
tion from popery, that this feared and threatened 
change wiU involve persons of all ranks within 
the land, (who shall in any way have accession 
to it) in the dreadful and hori'id guilt of perjury, 
which will ')oth expose the land to the wrath of 
an angry God, who will not hold them guiltless 
that take his name in vain, but will prove a swift 
witnes'S against them that swear falsely, and also 
expose our religion and nation to the insolent 
blasphemy and derision of our adversaries the 
papists, who may justly, with all others that hear 
tell of such a change, change the ignominious 
proverb, Punica fides to Scotica fides, and im- 
bolden the papist to give us (ironically) no sm;ill 
thanks, for that by our perjury we have made 
the Lord angry with us, as did the Grecian 
Agesilaus to the Persian Tissaphernes, when lie 
broke the league he made with him. 

There be none that have the least spark of rea- 
son and foresight, wlio may not say what sad 
loss and hurt wlU spring' from this feared 

ried with a very high hand by our statesmen ; 
they were unmediately under their eye, and 

change, unto the Lord's people under our min- 
isterial charge. \\']1\ not poor souls be in the 
same case and distraction of thought, the people 
in Syria, Arabia and Egypt, were in about the 
600 year, anent the opinion of Eutyches, when 
some denying, some affirming, the poor people 
were so brangled and shaken with contrary doc- 
trines, that in the end they lost ;ill well ground- 
ed persuasion of the true religion; so that with- 
in short time, they did cast the gates of their 
hearts open to receive the vile, devilish, and blas- 
phemous doctrine of Mahomet ? Even so what 
can b.« expected in this land, upon such a change, 
which will unquestionably occasion not only one 
to affirm, and another to deny the same position, 
but one and the same man to affirm what he 
denied, and deny what he affirmed anent one 
and the same position, in matter of religion ? 
The forebreathings of which inconstancy are 
beginning to puff out already. Vv'e say, what 
can be expected in this case through the land, 
but that the generality of the people shall become 
so doubtful and indifferent in the matters of re- 
ligion, that they shall abandon all piety, open 
their hearts to poperj', and what religion, or 
I'ather what ei'ror and fancy instead of religion, 
you will ? So that the blood of their poor souls 
will lie heavy on the authors of the change. 

1. We are aggrieved that ways are taken to 
seal up the lips of the most faithful ministers 
of Jesus Christ within the laud, from delivering 
their Master's message with that freedom and 
plainness that becomes ; while, upon occasion of 
the proclamation at Edinbiu'gh, September 20th, 
1660, men disalfected to, or entertaining gi'ud- 
ges and heart-burnings against ministers, may 
and do take encouragement to delate honest men, 
using freedom against sin, as iniloy.d slanderers 
and trumpeters of treason, sedition, and rebel- 
lion, when they are, in the simplicity of their 
heart, only giving obedience to the Lord's com- 
mands. Isa. Iviii. 1. " Cry aloud, sp;ire not," &c. 
We hope it will be acknowledged, that neither 
private nor public sins, personal nor national 
sins, sins in the state-members or in church- 
members, are excepted in the commission of the 
ministers of the gospel, (if any deny the truth 
hei-eof, we are ready to instruct it i'rom tlie word 
of truth) and it being so, why shoidd the min- 
isters' faithful discharge of duty, in the dis- 
covery of national sins, whether in church or 
state, be charged with the ignominious aspersions 
of railing, slandering, &c. or they staged before 
civil tribunals for the same, seeing that, accord- 
ing to their commission, they are herein only 
aiming at the upstirring of people to repentance, 
and to serious deprecating of the wrath of God, 
that public national sins, and particular faidts in 
rulers ordinarily draw on upon lands ? as ijs clear 
from Jer. xv. 4. and elsewhere. 

2. We are aggrieved that the oath of alle- 
giance does upon the matter carry the oath of 
supremacy fully in its bosom, and that in such 
an absolute, general and comprehensive term, 
without any express limitation or qualification, 
that in our humble conception, there is conferred 
upon the king by it a power to do ecclesiastio 
matters as he pleases; and this is in effect to 
confer the same, or the like headship over tlie 


were treated most insolently. They were 
not suflered so much as to spcMk of any 
testimony, yea, were forced to do what was 


church, upon the king, as that which is taken 
fruui the pope. 

8. We are ayijfieved that the civil sanction is 
taken from the covenant, wlicreujion the iiivi- 
olable obligation of the sacred oath of God 
upon the conscience, is trampled upon with cdii- 
tempt, by very many, wliich cannot but giii-v- 
ously provoke the Lord, who has declared that he 
will be a swift witness against them, that swear 

4. We are aggrieved that there be such sad 
breaches made in the walls of our Jerusalem, 
which once was built a city compact together ; 
we mean, that the church judicatories have not 
only sutiered violent interruption, but also are 
prohibited and discharged, through which in- 
iquity has more insolently faced the rausey these 
three quarters of a year bygone, tlian it did for 
many years before. 

o. Looking upon these but as making a wide 
gap in the walls, the beautiful porches whereof 
denied an entry, we are most of all aggrieved to 
see the Trojan horse now a hauling in over the 
gap, we mean, the reintroduction of lordly pre- 
lacy upon this church and kingdom, which being 
once execrate, and the whole nation solemnly 
sworn before the Almighty God to its extirpa- 
tion, it makes our ears to tingle, when we think 
of what may be the sad tokens of God's displea- 
sure against the lands, for endeavouring to give 
rooting again to that plant which our heavenly 
Father never planted. And this being the ag- 
grieving evil which does most sadly atfllct our 
spirits, for exoneration of our own consciences 
before the Lord, and that it may appear that we 
are not aggrieved without cause, we do in all 
humility offer unto your lordships, these few 
subsequent reasons against the change of our 
long established government by presbytery, 
unto that abjured hierarchical government by 
lordly prelacy. 

Besides the foresaid reasons drawn from the 
terminns a qrio, the terminus ad quern of the 
change, and from the change itself, we do in all 
himiility beg leave to add two experimental con- 
siderations, which we desire to express with that 
simplicity and singleness of heart, in the sight 
of God, that becomes the ministers of Jesus 
Christ, who are looking to give shortly an ac- 
count of their stewardship unto their Lord 
and Master. And the first is this : we do find 
in our experience, that when the Lord at any 
time is graciously pleased to grant unto any of us 
more near and familiar access unto himself, and 
to put our spirits in a more lively, spiritual, and 
heavenly frame, then arc we also tilled with 
more perfect hatred, abhorrency, and detestation 
of that prelatlcal dominion we plead against, and 
in our souls, at such times, we are encouraged 
and strengthened in the Lord, to set our faces 
as riint against that course and w?y, whatever 
the hazard be we may incur; and when fears 
of hazard, in opposing that course, lo creep up- 
on our spirits, we do ingenuously confess it is 
but then, when we are at a greater distance from 
God, and in a more common and natural frame. 
The next is this : we do find in our experience, 
that when at any time, any of us are summoned 
with the messengers of death, or w^hen free of 

very much contrary to the inclina- ,„„. 

tions of many. Some members of 

the synod, fully ripe for a change, and ready 

these, we fall upon the serious thoughts and 
meditations of death, presenting, as in God's 
sight, to ourselves, what is the course in the pro- 
fession, avowing, and maintaining whereof we 
durst venture upon death, upon eternity, and 
upon the last judgment; and upon the other 
hand, propose to ourselves what is the course in 
the profession, avowing, and maintaining where- 
of we durst not venture upon death, upon eter- 
nity, and the last judgment ; we do as of sincer- 
ity, as of God, in the sight of God, declare, that 
we durst not, for ten thousand worlds, venture 
upon eternity, and face the great Judgo of the quick 
and the dead, with the guilt of being instrumental 
to re-establish, or with the guilt of embracing or 
conforming unto re-established lordly episco- 
pacy, lying upon our consciences ; where:is, upon 
the other hand, oiu- desires and endeavours to be 
faithful and constant in the received and establish- 
ed government by presbytery, according to the 
scripture pattern, is a mean of gladdening and 
rejoicing our hearts, when we look and hope for 
the coming of the Lord. 

And now, right honourable, having "In itie 
simplicity of oiu- hearts, opened up our giiev- 
ances in part to your lordships, we do in the 
last place, for remedy, in all humility, prostrate 
ourselves before your lordships, most humbly 
and earnestly begging, in the name of Jisus 
Christ, that your honoin-s would be pleased to 
intercede with the king's most excellent majesty, 
First, To take off the restraint laid upon the 
exercise of the government of the church, in 
her assemblies, by the late proclamations, with- 
out which profanity will abound. Next, 'Ihat 
his majesty would be graciously pleased to free 
and deliver his faithful and loyal subjects of 
this his ancient kingdom, under our respective 
charges, and the godly through the whole land, 
from all fears of innovating and changing the 
government of the church, by sessions, presby- 
teries, synods, and general assemblies, which is 
ratified and approven by king James \T. of 
blessed memory, as is evident, pari. 114-, June, 
1392. Thirdly, That his majesty would be 
pleased to ratify all former acts of parliament in 
favours of the church and her said government, 
that she may fully exercise the power granted 
to her by Jesus Christ, with freedom and 
liberty. Fourthly, That his majesty would be 
pleased to ratify all acts both of parliament and 
the general assemblies, against papists and poji- 
ery, against prelates and jirelacy, that aspiring 
men get not the church of Christ in this land 
fetched under bondage again. Fifthly, 'ihat 
his majesty would be graciously pleased to 
renew the national covenant of this land, fir^st 
subscribed by king James VI. of worthy mem- 
ory, and then taken by persons of all ranks and 
degrees throughout the nation ; and also that he 
would be pleased to revive the solemn league 
and covenant, subscribed by his majesty's self, 
and that he would be graciously pleased, by his 
royal mandate, to ordain that "both these cove- 
nants would be renewed, sworn to, and sub- 
scribed to, by persons of all ranks and degrees, 
within his majesty's three kingdoms of Scotland, 
England, and Ireland, and the dominions there- 
to belonging. Thus will there be a strong hiS 



to fall in with the manager's designs, 
proposed that the synod should be- 
gin at censuring and sentencing the brethren 
who had been for the protestation, even 
though it had been agreed among the re- 
solutioners and protesters in the year 1658, 
that none of either side should be questioned 

drawn in the way of popery, and prelacy which 
ushers the way to popery, that neither of them 
sliall have a regress to a replanting in these 
lands : thus shall there not an evil beast be left 
to push in all the mountain of the Lord ; and 
thus may we confidently expect that the Lord 
shall be one, and the name of the Lord one, in 
all his majesty's dominions. 

Having, in the zeal and fear of God, with all 
humble and due respect unto your honours, 
ofiFered these considerations against a change, 
we humbly beg, that your honours would lav 
them (with many more that cannot but be 
obvious to your lordships) seriously to heart, 
and in the pensitation of them, and the whole 
matter in hand, sist yourselves as in the sight 
and presence of the all-seeing God, who stand- 
eth in the congi-egation of the mighty, and 
judgeth amongst the gods, and will arise to 
judge the earth ; weigh the matter (we beseech 
you) in the balances of the sanctuary, and not 
of carnal reason and policy: remember that 
God has set you up not to be stepfathers, but 
nursing fathers of his liirlj, not to be crossers, 
but promoters of purity and piety, not to be 
destroyers of that which many of yourselves 
have builded, (and so makers of yourselves 
transgressors) but to be accomplishers and on- 
putters of the cape-stone upon the building of 
the Lord's house; acquit yourselves zealously 
and faithfully in this so honourable and reason- 
able service; and beware, above all things, 
to strive against God with an open and dis- 
played banner, by building up again the walls 
of Jericho, (we mean lordly prelacy, the very 
lalr-stone of antichristian hierarchy) which the 
Lord hath not only casten down, but also laid 
them under a terrible interdiction and execra- 
tion, that they be not built up again. These 
walls in this land, by the power of God. have 
been once and again demolished : they now lie 
under the Lord's terrible interdiction and exe- 
cration , ^ea, w» have all of us, with uplifted 
hands to the most high God, sentenced ourselves 
to this dreadful curse, if we re-edify these walls 
again: assuredly, if there be amongst your 
lordships, or within the land (which the Lord 
forbid) an Hiel, one or more, as was in the days 
of Ahab, to re-edify cursed Jericho, they shall 
not miss the dreadful execration, and the judg- 
ment threatened. 

Therefore, we do once again, with all due 
and reverend respect prostrate at your honours' 
feet, humbly sujiplicate, First, That your hon- 
(HU's would ratify all foi-mer acts of parliament, 
'n favours of the work of reformation, in fav- 
ours of presbyterial government, in favours of 
the freedom and privileges of the church, and 
particularly of the ministers of the gospel, in 
their faithful and free dispensing of the word ; 
and that your lordships' would cass and annul 
all acta in the contrary. Next, We humbly 
supplicate, that your honours, in your wisdoms, 
would draw such a bar in the way of episcopacy, 


in their judicatories for their different prac- 

This unaccountable proposal, IMr Robert 
Douglas, Mr. Daxid Dickson, and many 
others of the best note in the synod, endea- 
voured to wave, and p'lobably would soon 
have warded off, had not the two commis- 

that this kirk may be fully delivered from the 
feai-K and evil thereof, and that corrupt and 
carnol-mludc'd churchmen, who have the pre- 
eminence, may be for ever put out of the hopes 
of lording it hereafter any more over the Lord's 
inheritance. Howe^•er it shall please the Lord 
to incline your honours' hearts to hearken unto 
these our just and lawful desires, it is the firm 
resolution of our hearts, to live in all dutiful 
obedieni'e unto oui" dread sovereign the king's 
most excellent majesty, whom we pray the 
Lord long to preserve under the droppings of 
his grace, and overloadiugs of his best benefits, 
and special blessings. Yet wo crave liberty, 
first, in all humility, to say, that it will tend 
much to the cheerful quieting of our hearts, 
and the hearts of the Lord's people we laboiu- 
among, that your honours f;ivourably grant our 
foresaid desires, for which the present and suc- 
ceeding generations shall call you blessed. But 
next, if your lordships proceed, (which we pray 
the Lord forbid) to act any thing to the preju- 
dice of the work of reformation, to the prejudice 
of the government of this church, and to the 
freedoms and liberties thereof, or to do any 
thing less or more, directly or indirectly, in 
favours of episcopacy, or tending towards the 
change of our present church government, by 
sessions, presbyteries, synods, and general assem- 
blies ; then, and in that case, we crave liberty to 
except and protest : likeas, by these presents, 
we do, in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ, 
who shall hold that great court of parliament, 
to judge both the quick and the dead, at his 
glorious manifestation, and in the name of our 
mother kirk, so richly blessed of God these 
many years bygone, under the government we 
plead for, and in the name of the synod and 
respective presbyteries and sessions we are 
members of, and in the name of the particular 
congregations we labour among, for discharging 
of our necessary duty, and disburdening of our 
own consciences, except and protest against 
every thing of the kind aforesaid, done or to be 
done to the prejudice of reformation, of presby- 
terial government, and of the liberties of the 
church, and against all and every thing done or 
to be done for the advantage of episcopacy, or 
any way tending to the introduction, erection, 
confirmation or ratification thereof, at this pre- 
sent parliament; earnestly beseeching the Lord, 
that yoiu- honours, this whole nation, and our- 
selves, may be kept free of the hon-id guilt of 
such a sinful change of Christ's government, and 
encroachments upon his royal crown, and free 
of all the sad inconveniences ensuing inevitably 
thereupon, both to kirk and state ; and most 
humbly craving, that this our supplication and 
protestation may be admitted by your honours, 
and registrated among the acts and statutes of 
this present parliament, in case (as God forbid) 
any thing be done to the prejudice of Christ's 
government, and advantage of episcopacy. Your 
honours' refreshing answer humbly we expect. 


sioners appointed for this synod, the earl of 
Callendar, and Sir Archibald Stirling of 
Carden, come in, no doubt by concert with 
the corrupted members, just when tliey vrere 
reasoning this matter, and required the mo- 
derator to purge the synod of rebels, mean- 
ing ministers of the protesting judgment : 
yea, they threatened plainly, that if this was 
not presently fallen in with they would dis- 
solve them, and stage them before other 
judges. The synod were so far forced in 
with the proposal, that they suspended Mi-. 
Alexander Livingstone, minister at Biggar, 
Mr. John Greig, minister at Skii'ling, Mr. 
Archibald Porteous, and Mr. James Don- 
aldson, ministers in Biggar presbytery, and 
Mr. Gilbert Hall, minister at Kirkliston ; 
all of them ministers of great piety, and some 
of them persons of great ability in the church, 
I find that at this synod, Mr. William Weir, 
minister at Linlithgow, and Mr. William 
Creighton, minister at Bathgate, were like- 
wise removed from their charges, upon ap- 
plication of some malignant and disaffected 
persons in their parishes. After this sad 
work, the commissioners proposed some 
overtures in favour of prelacy, which the 
plurality of the synod very briskly opposed, 
and thereupon were dissolved in the king's 
name, and obliged to dismiss without prayer. 

There seems to have been at this time a 
formed design to bear down such ministers 
as had not been for the public resolutions : 
and therefore in the northern synods I find 
some harsh dealing with the few there of 
those sentiments. One instance may suf- 
fice, and it is of that extraordinary person 
we shall meet with frequently afterward, Mr. 
Thomas Hogg, minister at Kilteam, in the 
synod of Ross. The date is not sent me by 
the reverend minister who gives me the in- 
formation, which he hath from Mr. Hogg 
himself, and Mr. Fraser after mentioned; but 
the fact itself leads us to this synod in the 
beginning of this year. 

Mr. Murdoch Mackenzie was moderator 
of this synod of Ross, and now gJ^jing after 
the bishopric of Murray, though he had 
shown a particular liking to the covenants, 
and sworn them, some say ten, others fourteen 
times. Mr. Hogg was one from whom the 



and therefore a tash must be put on 
him at this synod ; and he, not being 
to be reached in any point of practice, must 
be stciged for his opinion, and that upon the 
protestation. When Mr. Hogg appeared be- 
fore the synod, the moderator interrogate 
him what he thought of the protestation, and 
the assemblies of St. Andrews, Dundee, &c. ? 
he modestly replied, that living at a great 
distance from the places where those things 
were agitate, he never meddled much in that 
matter. And being further asked, if he 
thought the protestation a just and reason- 
able deed? Mr. Hogg declined to give an 
answer, knowing what improvement was de- 
signed to be made of it, and therefore he 
would neither own nor disown it judicially. 

Mr. Hogg being removed, the moderator 
had a discourse to the synod, to this effect, 
that the brother they had before them, was 
known to be a great man : notwithstanding, 
the king having espoused the defence of those 
assemblies against which the protestation 
was given in, it behoved them to go on in 
their work. Therefore Mr. Hogg was called 
in, and required judicially to disown and 
disclaim the protestation. This he refused 
to do, and thereupon the synod passed a 
sentence deposing him from the ministry. 
Mr. Hogg, in giving account of this, my in- 
former tells me, observed, the sentence was 
pronounced with a peculiar air of venera- 
tion, and looked rather like their conse- 
crating him to a higher office, than a depo- 
sition ; and that the moderator, in a kind of 
consolatory discourse after the sentence, 
spoke very near nonsense. Among other 
things he was pleased to remind Mr. Hogg, 
that our Lord Jesus Christ had suffered 
great wrong from the scribes and Pharisees. 

At that same synodical meeting, a motion 
was made for deposing Mr. James Fraser, 
of Liny, from his office as ruling elder, for 
the very same reasons on which they pro- 
ceeded against Mr. Hogg ; but the moderator 
opposed the proposal, and expressed his re- 
gard to him, as an honomable gentleman, 
and not so far engaged in that way as some 
others ; therefore he moved that they might 
suspend Mr. Fraser from officiating for some 
time, and appoint some brethren to confer 

greatest opposition to prelacy was expected | with him, for reclaiming him from his mis- 




ship's own hand, and copies of others. From 

takes. A brother rose up and 
professed himself against that pro- 
posal, for this reason, that he was more 
afraid the gentleman would draw to his side 
those who should converse with him, than 
he could entertain hopes of their prevailing 
on ^im. What the issue was, my informer 
does not remember. 

This is but a short swatch of the unprece- 
dented force, violence, and heavy oppression 
of ministers, in their ministerial and judica- 
tive capacity ; the parallel of which, I doubt, 
if it can be given, as to any of the reformed 
churches, or in any well ordered government ; 
especially when laws authorizing their meet- 
ing, were yet standing, and they had the 
king's promised protection. I might name 
many other aggravations of this surprising 
procedure, but the naked narrative of facts 
sufficiently exposeth it. From these the 
reader will have some view of the oppression, 
I might say overturning, of our church estab- 
lishment, the essays used, and testimonies 
given against this melancholy change, and 
the attacks made upon church judicatories, 
while the parliament sat. Those I thought 
good to give some account of, before the 
sufferings of particular persons, which I now 
come to. 

Of the stiffenngs and martyrdom of the noble 
Marquis of Ar gyle. May 21th, 1661. 

In giving the narrative of the hardships par- 
ticular persons underwent this year, we shall 
find many attacked in their name and repu- 
tation, others in their liberty, and others in 
their estates and lives. I shall begin with 
the last : and the excellent marquis of Argyle 
deserves the first room, and after him, the 
reverend Mr. James Guthrie j each of whose 
Bufferings will fill a section by themselves. 

The case of the marquis of Argyle, con- 
taining his indictment for high treason, with 
his large answers, having been several times 
printed, the less needs be said here concern- 
ing this great man. It is pity the whole of 
this eminent person's management, speeches, 
and petitions to the lords of articles, and the 
parliament, cannot now be recovered ; some 
of them I have before me, under his lord- 

those, and other memoirs of this period, I 
shall essay as short and distinct an account 
of this noble peer, his treatment and trial, 
with what followed upon it, as I can. 

When the king came home last year, the 
marquis was very much solicited to go to 
court, and some say, he had assurances of 
welcome. No doubt he was inclinable to 
wait upon a prince, upon whose head he had 
set the crown. Indeed several of his best 
friends were against his going up to court, 
till matters were come to some settlement ; 
and particularly Mr. Robert Douglas used 
manj' arguments to dissuade him : he was 
forewarned of a change in his majesty's af- 
fections towards him, and acquainted that 
he wanted not enemies at London, who had 
taken pains to raise calumnies upon his per 
son and conduct. All those prevailed with 
him to delay his journey for some time : at 
length he resolved to vindicate himself; and 
knowing he was able, upon his access to the 
king, soon to remove whatever dust, a set 
of people, for their own base ends, had raised 
against him, he took journey, and arrived at 
London, July 8th, and with a confidence 
flowing from the testimony of a good con- 
science, entered Whitehall, to salute his ma- 
jesty. I am told that his enemies had so 
prepossessed the king against him, that even 
whUe upon his road to London, orders were 
given to seize him, and carry him back 
prisoner to Scotland : if so, he escaped the 
messengers, and got safe to court. But as 
soon as the king was told he was come to 
Whitehall, he ordered Sir William Fleming 
to go and carry him straight to the Tower of 
London. The marquis lu-ged much to be 
allov/ed to see the king, but our Scots man- 
agers took care to prevent that ; and he was 
hurried away in the greatest haste possible. 
In the Tower he continued under close con- 
finement, until he was sent down to Scot- 

The springs of such surprising treatment 
of this great man, are either a secret, or not 
very fit to be propaled. * This much may 

• The following passage in Kirkton's History 
of the Church of Scotland, appears to ivo to 
throw considerable light upon what aie here 

CHAP. 11. j 

bs said, he was the head of the covenanters 
in Scotland, and had been singularly active 
in the work of reformation there; and of any 
almost who had engaged in that work, he 
stuck fastest by it, when most of the nation 
(juit it very much. He had kept his power 
and influence in Scotland under the various 
turns of affairs, and stood when many Of his 
rivals fell : and tliis attack upon him was a 
stroke at the root of all that had been done 
in Scotland from the (year) 1G3S to the 
usurpation. It is not improbable, besides 
the emulation of our Scots noblemen about 
court, and the peculiar spite of the highfliers 
in England, against the marquis, for his 
known principles in church government, and 
eminent appearances for civil liberty, that 
general Monk, and others about the king, 
knowing his great abilities and experience, 
and how much the king once valued him, 
might be afraid of his soon coming to have 
such interest with his majesty, and making 
such discoveries ofaffliirs, as were not agree- 
able to their present circumstances and pro- 
jects. What holy freedom the marquis had 
used in reproving some vices, and what pro- 
mises had been made him, which were not 
now to be performed, I shall not say : but 
some of those, if not all, concurred to begin 



passed over, as the concealed motives of this 
prosecution. " This [Charles'] unsuccessfulness 
la all his other attempts, prevailed with him to 
close with the Scots more than all the arguments 
their commissioners could use of ane episcopal 
man, [a papist he should have said] to become 
a covenanted presbj-terian. And the marquis 
of Argyle, being all that time almost dictator of 
Scotland, to make all sure for himself being in 
great danger from the envy of his enemies, 
thought good to strike up a match betwixt the 
king, and his daughter lady Anne, to which the 
king consented with all a-ssurance, though all 
that poor family by the bargain was a dis- 
appointment, so grievous to the poor young lady, 
that of a gallant young gentlewoman, she losed 
her spirit and turned absolutely distracted. So 
unfortunately do the back wheels of private 
design, work in the puppet plays of the public 
revolutions in the world." After this, no man 
at all acquainted with human nature, will be in 
the least surprised when the historian goes on 
to say that, " the first clap of royal indignation 
fill upon the marquis of Argyle who, upon the 
news of his majesty's return, and, as it was 
believed, upon good encoiu^agement to expect 
hearty welcome, when he had posted to London 
with the rest, ctitering Whitehall with confi- 
dence to salute his majesty, had only this for 
his eutertaiument, that so soon as ever the king 


and help forward this violent storm 
now come upon him. 

While in the Tower, he made application 
for liberty to have the affidavits and declara- 
tions of several persons in England, taken 
upon some matters of fact, when he was con- 
cerned in the public administration, before 
the usurpation ; but thie piece of justice was 
flatly refused him. From the Tower he was, 
toward the beginning of December, sent 
down to Scotland in a man-of-war, to abide 
his trial before the parliament. Sir John 
Swinton came down prisoner with him, and 
they had a severe storm in their passage, in 
which the ship before mentioned, with the 
records of the kingdom, was lost. December 
20th, they landed at Leith, and next day, 
Swinton being a quaker, and excommunicate, 
was carried up the street of Edinburgh, dis- 
covered, and guarded by the town officers ; 
and the marquis walked up the street covered, 
betwixt two of the bailies of Edinburgh, to 
the castle, where he continued till his trial 
came on. 

By the minutes of parliament formerly 
mentioned, I find, January 18th,. the lord 
Cochran, president of the committee for 
bills, reported to the parliament, that a sup- 
plication was presented to them by the laird 

heard he vras there, with an angry stamp of the 
foot, he commanded Sir William Meming to 
execute his orders, who, thereupon conveyed the 
marquis straight to the Tower there to lie, till 
he was sen' down to Scotland to die a sacrifice to 
royal jealousy and revenge." The above it is 
probable was one of the reasons, which our his- 
torian did not think " very fit to be propaled ;" 
but there was another, which could not surely 
esciipe his observation, though he has omitted to 
record it, Middle^^on and his associates who had 
now got into their h.inds, the administration of 
Scotish affairs were very poor, and they were 
equally avaricious; the estate of the marquis of 
Argyle was a large one ; and there appears to be 
no reason for misdoubting Burnet, when he 
says, " they had a desire to divide it among them- 
selves." This we may well believe, they suppos- 
ed, after having cut off the marquis, would net 
be a matter of much difiiculty. Differences 
among themselves combined with other causes, 
however, after they had committed the crime, 
prevented them from reaping those happy re- 
sults they had anticipated ; and Widdleton, who 
unquestionably hoped to have had the ■»vtoole to 
himself, was in the issue completely disappointed. 
Vide Kirkton's History of the Church of Scot- 
land, jm. 50, 69, 70. Burnet's History of his 
Own Times, Edin. Ed. vol. i. pp. 149, 150, 177» 




,«„, of Lawmont, cravin? warrant to a 

1661. ■ , ■ c 

messenger to cite the marqms ot 

Argj-le, and some others, to appear before 
the parliament, to answer to the crimes con- 
tained in the bill. Some opposition was 
made to this ; but it was carried, by a vast 
plurality, to grant warrant. This gentleman 
was hounded out by the managers, to bring 
in this charge of severities against the mar- 
quis ; from which he vindicates himself in his 
printed defences. 

When thus cited, upon the first of Feb- 
ruary he gives in two petitions to the parlia- 
ment, the one craving advocates to be al- 
lowed him, and the other that the day of his 
compearance might be delayed. After much 
debate in the house, both were referred to 
the lo.ds of articles, where the managers 
were sure to carry their point as they pleased. 
What their answer was, I have not seen. 
February 5th, I find it represented to the 
house, that the lawyers, given in list by the 
marquis, being heard before the articles, did 
prevail to be excused ; and a new petition, 
with a nev/ list, being presented, the parlia- 
ment granted the desire of it, leaving room 
for the advocates to plead their excuses be- 
fore the articles. All this looks like a trick, 
to deprive him of the benefit of advocates, in 
a cause which so nearly concerned him ; or 
at least, so to protract the time, that there 
should be very little room for drawing of 
answers. The names of his advocates were, 
judge Ker, Mr. Andrew Birnie, Mr, Robert 
Birnie, Mr. afterwards Sir George, Macken- 
zie of Rosehaugh, Mr. afterwards Sir John, 
Cuningham, and IVIr. George Norvel. The 
day of his compearance was ordered to be 
February 13th; and till then terrible stories 
were buzzed about of the marquis's horrid 
barbarities used against the gentlemen of 
the name of Lawmont, M'Coul of Lorn, the 
laird of Appine, the gentlemen of Clanron- 
ald, and others, from which there lies a full 
vindication in his printed defences. But this 
was necessary, to prepare members of par- 
liament, and the nation, for the barbarous 
tragedy that was now shortly to be acted. 

Upon the 13th of February, the marquis 
was brought down from the castle in a coach, 
with three of the magistrates of Edinburgh, 
attended with the town guards, and pre- 


sented at the bar, where Sir John Fletcher, 
the king's advocate, accused him, in common 
form, of high treason, and presenting an in- 
dictment, craved it might be read. The 
marquis humbly craved, that he might have 
liberty to speak before the reading of his 
dittay, (indictment) promising that he should 
not say any thing to the matter therein con- 
tained. WTien the advocate opposed this 
with violence, the mai-quis was removed, and 
after some debate, the house refused his rea- 
sonable desire, and ordered his dittay to be 
read. When my lord was called in, and this 
intimate to him, he moved that a bill he had 
by his advocates given in to the lords of the 
articles, might be now read in the parlia- 
ment ; the desire of it was, a precognition, 
with many reasons why this ought to be 
granted. The lords of articles would not 
transmit this bill to the parliament, and the 
marquis had no other method left him, but 
to move the reading of the petition in the 
house; this was likewise peremptorily re- 
fused. This petition, not being printed in 
the common copies of his case, and giving 
considerable light to this trial, I have added 
in a note, * 

• Marquis of Argyle's petition, with reasons 
for a precognition, February 12th, 1661. 

That forasineikle as the petitioner canj with 
a safe conscience, affirm, and solemnly protest, 
that whatever his actings or accession hatli been, 
in relation to public business, since the hegin- 
ning of the troubles, tiU. his majesty's departure 
hence in the year 1651, though he wiU not 
purge himself of eiTors, failings, and mistakes, 
both in judgment and practii-e, incident to 
human frailty, and common to him, if not witlt 
the whole, at least the gi'eatast part of the na- 
tion ; yet, in one thing, thougli he were to die, 
he would still avouch and retain bis innocency, 
that he never intended any thing treasonably, 
out of any pernicious design against his majes- 
ty's late royal father, of ever glorious memory, 
or his present majesty, (whom God may long 
preserve) their persons or government, but en- 
deavoured always, to his uttermost, for settling 
the differences betwixt their majesties and their 
people. And as to any actings before the year 
1641, or since the said j'car, till his majesty 
being in the parliament at Perth and Stirling, 
your petitioner did, with a full assurance, rely 
upon his gracious majesty, and his royal father, 
their treaties, approbation, oblivion, and indem- 
nity, for what was past, and firmly believed, 
tliat the same should never have risen in judg- 
ment, or that the petitioner should have been 
dra^vn in question therefore ; and during his 
majesty's absence, and being forced from the 
exercise of his royal government by the late 


Being overruled thus in every thing, the 
indictment was read. The reader hath it in 
his printed case, and I would most willingly 
insert it in the appendix, were it not very 
large, and the answers to it necessarily much 
larger, so that this volume would swell ex- 
ceedingly were they added. I shall only 




then point at the heads thereof 
as brieHy as I can, that the reader 
may have some view of the unaccounta- 
ble injustice of this procedure. In the 
general it may be noticed, that this libel 
was more months in fonning, than the mar- 
quis had days allowed him to frame his an- 

without any prejudice, passion, or prcliraitation, 
or precipitation. Likens, by the said declara- 
tion, there was a freedom for all the people 
interested, to make their application to the par- 
liament, or in the meantime to the committee, 
from whom only his majesty is pleased to declare 
he would receive address and information ; and 
seeing it was the petitioner's misfortune, during 
the sitting of the said committee, to be prisoner 
in England ; whereas if he had been prisoner 
here in Scotland, he ■would have made applica- 
tion to them, and would have craved, and in 
justice expected, that precognition might have 

usurpers, and long after that the nation, by 
their deputies, had accepted of their authority 
and government, and they in possession, the 
petitioner was forced to capitulation with them, 
being in their hands, and under sickness; and 
the same was, after all endeavours used, accord- 
ing to the duty of a good subject, and, upon the 
petitioner's part, so innocent, and necessary for 
self-preservation, without the least intention, 
a(;tion, or etfect, to his majesty's prejudice; that 
albeit, upon misinformation, (as tlie petitioner 
humbly conceives) his actings and compliance, 
both in their designs and quality, have been 

misrepresented, as particularly singular and } been taken by them to whom the preparing and 
personal, stating the petitioner in a degree of ordering of that affair (to wit, anent the subjects' 
guilt bej'ond others, and incapable of pardon; trials during the troubles) was recommended, 
the same have so fur prevailed upon his majesty, j that the petitioners absence, which was his 
aa to cloud and damp the propitious and com- punishment, not his fault, may not be preju- 
fortable rays of his royal grace and favour, and dicial, seeing the petitioner has lately received 
have strained his gracious inclination bej-ond two several dittays, wherein there be many 
its natural disposition of clemency, expressed to ' crimes grossly false, with all the aspersions and 
his other subjects, to commit the petitioner's 
person, and give way to the trial of his carriage 
and actings : yet, so firmly rooted is the petition- 
er's persuasion of his majesty's justice and 
clemency, and that he intends the reclaiming, 
and not the ruin of the meanest of his subjects, 
who retain their loyalty, duty, and good affec- 
tion to his person and government; that, upon 

aggravations imaginable laid to his charge, im- 
porting no less than the loss of his life, fame, 
and estate, and the ruin of him and his poster- 
ity, which, he is confident, is not intended by 
his majesty; and that by the law and practice of 
this kingdom, consonant to all reason and equi- 
ty, the petitioner ought, upon his desire, to have 
a precognition, for taking the deposition of cer- 
true and right representation of the petitioner's | tain persons, which being fre(iuently and usually 
caiTiage and actings, he shall be able to vindi- j practised in this country, when any person is 
cate himself of these aspersions, and shall give i defamed for any crime, and therefore incarce- 
his majesty satisfaction, at least so far to ex- ! rate, before he was brought to a trial, at his 
tenuate his guilt, as may render him a fit object I desire precognition was taken in all business 
of that royal clemency, which is of that depth, i relating thereto; which the petitioner iu all 
that having swallowed and past by, not only | humility, conceives ought much more not to be 
personal, but national guiltiness, of much more 
deep die as <iny the petitioner can be charged 
with, or made out against him, and so will not 
strain to pass by and pardon the faults and 
failings of a person who never acted but in a 

denied to him, not only by reason of respect to 
his quality, and of the importance and conse- 
quence thereof to all his majesty's subjects, of 
all quality, in all time coming, but also iu 
regard it has been so meaned and intended by 
l>ublic joint way, without any sinistrous or I his majesty's declaration foresjiid. Likeas, the 

treasonable design against his majesty, or his 
royal father; and against which he can defend 
himself either by acts of approbation and obliv- 
ion, iJi verba principis, which he conceives to be 
the supreme, sacred, and inviolable security, or 
which he was forced to much against his incli- 
nation, by an insuperable necessity. And albeit 
his majesty's grace and favour is strictly tied to 
no other rule but his will and pleasure, yet his 
majesty's so innate, essential, and insuperable a 
quality of his royal nature, that the petitioner 
is persuaded, in all human certainty, that the 
leaving and committing to his parliament, (as 
i« expressed in his majesty's declaration, October 
)2th, last bypast) the trying and judging ot the 
carriage of his subjects, during the late troubles, 
as indeed it is in its own nature, and ought to 
be so accepted of all, as an undoubted evidence 
of his majesty's affection to, and confidence ia 
his people ; so no other trial oi- judging is therein 
meant, but a fair, just, legal, and usual trial, 

manner of the crimes objected, being actings in 
times of wars and troubles, the guilt thereof 
was not personal and particular, but rather 
national and universal, and vailed and covered 
with acts of indemnity and oblivion, and so 
tender and ticklish, that if duly pondered, after 
a hearing allowed to the petitioner, in prudency 
and policy, will not be found expedient to be 
tossed in public, or touched with every hand, 
but rather to be precognosced upon by some 
wise, sober, noble, and judicious persons, for 
these and several other reasons in the paper 
hereto annexed ; nor does the petitioner desire 
the same animo protdandi, nor needs the same 
breed any longer delay, nor isit sought without aa 
end of zeal to his majesty's power, and vindication 
of the petitioner's innocency, as to many particu- 
lars wherewith he is aspersed ; and it would be 
seriously pondered, that seeing cunctatio miHa 
longa, ubi agitur de vita humtids, far less ca:i 
this small delay, which is usual, and iu this case 


,„„, swers to it. Besides ordinary form, 
the indictment consisted of fourteen 
articles, wherein a heap of slander, perver- 
sion of matters of fact, and misrepresenta- 
tions are gathered up against this good and 
great man ; all which he abundantly taJkes 
oiF in his answers. He is indicted, that he 
rose in arms in opposition to the king's good 
subjects, the anticovenanters, and said to 
Mr. John Stewart, " that it was the opinion 
of" many divines, that kings, in some cases, 
might be deposed." 2. That he marched 
with armed men against the house of Airlie, 
and biu-ned the same. 3. That in the year 
IG-tO, he laid siege to his majesty's castle of 
Dumbarton, and forced it to render to him- 
4. That he called, or caused to be called, the 
convention of estates, 1643, and entered into 
the solemn league and covenant with Eng- 
land, levied subsidies from the subjects, 
raised an army, and fought against his ma- 
jesty's forces. 5. That in 1645, he biu-ned 
the house of Menstrie. 6. That in 1646, he 
or those under his command, besieged and 
took in the house of Towart and Escoge, 
and killed a great many gentlemen. 7. That 
he marched to Kintyre, and killed 300 men 
of the name of M'Donald and M'Coul, in 
cold blood, and transported 200 men to the 
uninhabited Isle of Jura, where they perished 
by famine. 8. That he went up to London, 
and agreed with a committee there, to de- 
liver up the king to the English army at 
Newcastle, upon the payment of 200,000/. 
pretended to be due for the arrears of 
the army, treasonably raised, 1643. 9. 
That 1648, he protested in parliament 
against the engagement for relieving his 
majesty, and convocated an army to op- 
pose the engagers, met with Oliver Crom- 
well, commander of the English army, and 
consented to a letter writ to him, October 
6th, 1648, and to the instructions given to 

most expedient, if not absolutely necessary, be 
refused, iibi agitur, non solum de vita, sed de fama, 
and of all worldly interests that can be dear or of 
value to any man. 

Upon consideration of the premises, it is 
humbly craved that your irrace and the 
honourable estates of parliament, may 
grant the petitioner's desire, and to give 
w^arrant to cite persons to depone before 
your grace and the estates of parliament, 


Sir John Chiesly to the parliament of Eng- 
land, and in May following signed a warrant 
for a proclamation, declaring the lords Ogilvie 
and Rae, the marquis of Huntly, John, now 
earl of Middleton, their wives and families, 
to be out of the protection of the kingdom. 
10. That he clogged his majesty's invitation 
to his kingdom of Scotland, 1649, with many 
unjust limitations, and consented to the mur- 
der of the marquis of Montrose, to obstruct 
his majesty's resolution of coming to his 
kingdom ; that he corresponded with Crom- 
well, without his majesty's knowledge ; that 
he contrived and consented to the act of the 
West Kii-k, August 13th, 1650, and the de- 
claration following thereupon. 1 1 . That in the 
years 1653 and 1654, he abetted and joined 
with, or fm'nished arms to the usurper's forces 
in the Highlands, against the earls of Glen- 
cairn and Middleton, and gave remissions to 
such as had been in the king's service. 12. 
That he received a precept from the usur- 
per of 12,000 pounds sterling, and did consent 
to the proclamation of Richard Cromwell ; 
accepted a commission from the shire of 
Aberdeen, and sat and voiced in his pre- 
tended parliament. 13. That he rebuked 
the ministers in Argyle, for praying for the 
king. 14. That he positively gave his ad- 
vice to Cromwell and Ireton in a conference 
1 648, that they could not be safe till the king's 
life were taken away, at least did know and 
conceal that horrible design. 

After reading the indictment, the marquis 
was allowed to speak, and discoursed at con- 
siderable length to the parliament. This ex- 
temporary speech was taken from his mouth 
in shorthand, and is insert in his printed 
case; and the reader will find it full of 
close reasoning, and strong sense. " After 
he had declared his joy at the restoration, 
and his trust in the king's goodness, and the 
justice of his judges, he says with Paul in 

upon such interrogatories as your petitioner 
shall give in, for clearing of several things 
concerning his intention and loj'alty dur- 
ing the troubles ; and for such as are out 
of the country, and strangers, residenters 
in England, commissions may be directed 
to such as your grace and the pai'linment 
shall think fit, to take their depositions 
upon oath, and to return the same : and 
your petitioner shall ever pray, &c. 


another case, the tilings alleged against him 
cannot be proven : but this he confesses, 
that in the way allowed by solemn oaths 
and covenants, he served his God, his 
king, and country. He complains he had 
neither a hearing, nor pen, ink, or paper, al- 
lowed him, until this heavy charge was given. 
He notices in Sir Walter Raleigh's words, 
that dogs bark at such as they know not, 
and accompany one another in those clam- 
ours : and though he owns he wanted not 
failings common to all engaged in public 
business in such a time, yet he blesses God, 
he is able to make the falsehood of every ar- 
ticle of liis charge appear. That he had 
done nothing with a wicked mind ; but with 
many others had the misfortune to do several 
things, the unforeseen events of which 
proved bad." 

After this he comes to obviate the prin- 
cipal calumnies in his indictment. " As to 
the king's murder, he declares, that if he had 
been accessary to the counsel or knowledge 
of it, he deserved no favour ; but he was the 
first mover of the oath in parliament, 1649, 
to vindicate the members, and discover the 
viilany. And in a latter will made 1656, he 
entirely made it appear he was free of that 
execrable crime, the original copy whereof 
was ready to be produced. That he never saw. 


would have prevented much hurt 



afterwards, and it was none of 
their faults matters were not then compro- 

" As to his dealings with the English after 
Worcester, he offers to prove he laid out 
himself with his vassals to oppose the Eng- 
lish ; and a strong force being sent into 
Argyleshire, and he under sickness, he was 
made prisoner, and at all hazards refused in 
the least to join with them. This he shows 
would have been contrary to his interest, as 
well as duty ; and evidences, that all along 
he did oppose a commonwealth. He com- 
plains that the advocate had dealt very un- 
generously and unfairly, in forming his 
libel ; and as to other things, refers to his 

When the marquis had ended, the advo- 
cate subdolously (artfully) endeavoured to 
bring him to speak upon some heads, which 
he declined, and referred to his defences; 
and yet when he came in, after he had been 
removed, while the house were fixing the 
time of his next appearance, he spoke to 
what the advocate had cast up, as to his op- 
position to the engagers at Stirling, 1648, 
and made it appear, that he was attacked by 
Sir George Monro, several of his fi-iends 
killed, and he himself hardly escaped. The 

or had the least correspondence with Crom- lawyers for the marquis took a protest, " that 

ivhat should escape them in pleading, either 
by word or writ, for the life, honour, and 
estate of their client, might not thereafter be 
obtruded to them as treasonable ;" and took 
instruments. When the pannel and his ad- 
vocates were removed, the king's advocate, 
in order to intimidate and frighten the mar- 
quis's lawyers, got the parhament to refuse 
to record their instrument: yet common 
rules obliged the house to permit them to 
speak as freely as is usual in such cases. 

The parliament fixed the 26th of Febru- 
ary, for the day of the defender his giving in 
defences in writ. A very short diet indeed, 
for replying to a charge which contained so 
many particulars, and related to persons and 
times at such a distance, and an indictment 
contrived in so general and cajitious terms*; 
all which is better represented in the printed 
defences, than I can pretend to do. Wien 
this was signified upon the party's being 

well, till sent by the committee of estate; 
1648, to stop his march to Scotland; and 
that he declined corresponding with the 
sectarian army, which he offers instantly to 
make appear. 

" He next asserts his regard to the late 
duke of Hamilton, and owns that he declined 
to compliment Cromwell in his behalf; 
which if he had done, would have been an 
article of his indictment. He declares he 
used his utmost endeavours to preserve the 
marquis of Huntle}', and that he never had 
any thing out of his estate, but what was 
absolutely necessary for his own rehef, and 
that he was of very great use to that family. 
As to the marquis of Montrose's death, he 
appeals to many of the members' knowledge, 
that he positively refused to meddle, either 
in the matter or manner of it ; and declares, 
that in the (year) 1645, the marquis and 
himself had agreed upon a treaty, which 



. „ „ . called in, the marquis, with his advo- 
cates, craved again, that his bill for 
a precognition might be read, and granted 
by the house. To which the chancellor 
replied, " that it had been formerly refused 
at the articles, and that it would not be 
granted." Thus we see, whatever the com- 
missioner pretended, in pressing the nomi- 
nation of the lords of articles, they were an 
illegal and unreasonable bar to the affairs of 
the kingdom, their coming under the cogniz- 
ance of the parliament, and so most justly 
complained of in our claim of right, and hap- 
pily taken away at the revolution. 

By a petition the marquis applied (to) the 
parliament, February 26th, that he might 
have a further time to form his defences, be- 
cause his advocates were strangers to the 
process, till put into their hands ; and the 
matter of his indictment was of such extent : 
and they granted him until the 5th of March ; 
which day, I find him before the lords of 
articles, desiring the continuation of his affair, 
till the meeting of parliament to-morrow. 
This short delay was not allowed him ; but 
by tvi'o or three votes he was peremptorily 
appointed to produce his defences ; where- 
upon he had a most pathetical speech, and 
when he ended it, gave in a very mo\ing sup- 
plication, remitting himself to the king's 
mercy, and beseeching the parliament may 
intercede for him. This speech is printed 
in his case, and he acquaints them, " that 
this trial nearly concerns him, and is a pre- 
parative to the whole nation, themselves, 
and posterity ; and wishes them to talie heed 
what they do ; for they judge not for men, 
but the Lord, who is with them in judgment. 
He observes, there are many of them young 
men, who, except by report, know not what 
was done since the (year) 1638, and are ig- 
norant of the grounds of the procedure of 
this church and kingdom, in that time: 
Therefore he desires their charity, till the 
circumstances be heard and weighed, and 
proposes several important maxims to their 
consideration. That circumstances chang- 
ing sometimes, make what is lawful appeal 
unlawful. That when an invading usurper 
is in possession, making former laws crimes, 
the safety of the people is certainly the su- 
preme law. That necessity has no law. That 

[book I. 

inter arma silent leges. That of two evils, 
the least is to be chosen. That no man's 
intention must be judged by the event of 
the action, there being a vast difference be- 
twLxt the condition of a work, and the in- 
tention of the worker. That it cannot be 
esteemed virtue to abstain from vice, but 
where it is in our power to commit the vice, 
and we have a temptation." 

Unto those maxims he subjoins the fol- 
lowing considerations : " That subjects' ac- 
tions are to be differently considered, when 
their lawful prince is in the exercise of his 
authority, and when there is no king in 
Israel ; yea, even when the sovereign is in 
the nation, and when forced to leave his 
people under the power of a foreign sword. 
That subjects' actions are likewise mightily 
altered, when a usurper is submitted unto by 
the representatives of a nation, and for some 
years in possession of the government. That 
submission to a usm'ping invader, in this case, 
when after assisting the lawful magistrate to 
their power, they are made prisoners, and 
can do no better, softens the case yet more, 
especially when they continue prisoners upon 
demand, and are particularly noticed and 
persecuted for their affection to their sover- 
eign. That a great difference is to be made 
between a thing done ad lucrum captandmn, 
and that done only ad damnum evitandum. 
That all princes have favourably considered 
such, as in such circumstances voluntarily 
cast themselves upon their clemency. That 
his majesty's natural clemency, evidenced to 
all his EngUsh subjects, cannot but be dis- 
played to his subjects in Scotland, who suf- 
fered, even by them whom he pardons, for 
their affection to his majesty. 

" Upon the whole, knowing his majesty's 
good nature, and his declared incUnations in 
his speech to the English parliament, ' con- 
juring them to abolish all notes of discord, 
separations and differences of parties, and to 
lay aside all animosities, and past provoca 
tions ;' he hopes their lordships will concur 
in following so worthy a pattern ; and for 
this end he humbly presents his submission 
to them." 

Accordingly the marquis gave in a signed 
supplication and submission, which I have 
insert here. 

To my Lord Commissioner his Grace, and 
High Court of Parliameut. 

" Forasmuch as I, Archibald, marquis of 
Argyle, am accused of treason, at the in- 
stance of his majesty's advocate, before the 
hiijh court of parliament; and being alto- 
gether unwDUng to appear any way in oppo- 
sition to his sacred majesty, considering also 
that this is the first parUament called by his 
majesty, after his happy return to his king- 
doms and government, for healing and re- 
pairing the distempers and breaches made by 
the late long troubles ; I have therefore re- 
solved that their consultations and debates 
about the great affairs and concernments of 
his majesty and this kingdom, shiJl have no 
interruption upon occasion of a process 
against me. 

" I will not represent the fatality and con- 
tagion of those times, wherein I, with many 
others in those three kingdoms, have been 
involved, which have produced many sad ef- 
fects and consequences, fai" contrary to our 
intentions : nor will I insist upon the de- 
fence of our actings in this kingdom, before 
the prevailing of the late usurpers ; which 
(if examined according to the strictest inter- 
pretation, and severest censure of law) may 
be esteemed a trespass of his majesty's 
royal commands, and a transgression of the 
law : but notwithstanding thereof, are by his 
majesty's clemency covered with the vail of 
obUvion, by divers acts of parliament, and 
others to that purpose, for the safety and 
security of his majesty's subjects ; and that 
my actings since, and my compliance with 
so prevalent a power (v.hich had wholly 
subdued this, and all his majesty's other do- 
minions, and was universally acknowledged) 
may be looked upon as acts of mere neces- 
sity', which hath no law. And it is known, 
that during that time, I had no favour from 
those usurpers ; it was inconsistent with, and 
repugnant to my interest, and cannot be 
thought (unless I had been demented and 
void of reason) that I should have had free- 
dom or affection to be for them, who being 
conspired enemies to monarchy, could never 
be expected to tolerate nobility. 

" And whereas that most horrid and 
abominable crime of taking away the preci- 
ous life of the late king, of ever glorious 



memory, is most maliciously and 
falsely charged upon me; if I had 
the least accession to that most vile and 
iieinous crime, I would esteem myself most 
unworthy to live, and that all highest punish- 
ments should be inflicted upon me : ' but 
my witness is in heaven, and my record on 
high that no (such) wicked thing, or dis- 
loyal thought, ever entered into my heart.' 

" But choosing to shun all debates, rather 
than to use any words or arginnents to rea- 
son with his majesty, ' whom, though I were 
righteous, yet I would not answer, but make 
supplication ;' and therefore (without any ex- 
cuse or vindication) I do in all humility 
throw myself down at his majesty's feet and 
(before his majesty's commissioner, and the 
honourable estates of parliament) do submit, 
and betake myself to his majesty's mercy. 
And though it be the great unhappiness of 
these times (the distempers and failings ot 
these kingdoms being so epidemic and uni- 
versal) that his majesty should have so much 
occasion and subject of his royal clemency ; 
yet it is our great happiness, and his ma- 
jesty's high honour, that he hath expressed 
and given so ample testimony thereof, even 
to those Avho did invade his majesty, and this 
nation, for no other cause, than their faith- 
ful and loyal adherence to his majesty, and 
his just royal interests ; which rendereth his 
majesty's goodness incomparable, and with- 
out parallel ; and giveth me confidence, that 
his grace, his majesty's commissioner, and 
the honourable parliament, of their own 
goodness, and in imitation of so great and 
excellent a pattern, will compassionate my 

" And seeing it is a special part of his 
majesty's sovereignty and royal prerogative, 
to dispense with the severity of the laws; 
and that it is a part of the just liberty of the 
subjects, that (in cases of great extremity 
and danger) they may have recourse to his 
majesty, as to a sanctuary and refuge ; it is 
in all humility supplicated, that the lord com- 
missioner's grace, and the honourable par- 
liament, would be pleased favourably to re- 
present my case to his majesty ; and that 
the door of the royal mercy and bounty, 
which is so large and patent to many, may 
not be shut upon one, whose ancestors for 


,p„, many ages (without the least stain) 
have had the honour (by many sig- 
nal proofs of their loyalty) to be reputed ser- 
viceable to his majesty's royal progenitors, 
in defence of the crown, and this his ancient 
kingdom. And if his majesty shall deign to 
hold out the golden sceptre of his clemency, 
as an indehble character of his majesty's 
royal favour, it will lay a perpetual obliga- 
tion of all possible gratitude upon me, and 
my posterity, and will ever engage and de- 
vote us entu'ely to his majesty's service : and 
the intercession of this honourable parlia- 
ment in my behalf to his gracious majesty, 
will be a real evidence of their moderation, 
and they shall certainly be called a healing 
parliament ; and God, whose mercy is above 
all his works, shall have the honour and 
glory which is due to his great name, when 
mercy triumphs over justice." 

Next day, March 6th, the marquis being 
brought before the parliament, it was re- 
ported from the articles, that he had been 
before them, and offered a submission to his 
majesty, with a desire the parliament might 
transmit it to the king. Whereupon, after 
long reasoning, and much debate, the ques- 
tion was put, if the submission was satisfac- 
tory or not ? It carried in the negative. 
When the marquis was called in, he spoke 
as follows : " 

" May it please your grace and lordships, 
my lord chancellor, and this honourable as- 
sembly, to consider his majesty's proclama- 
tion to Scotland, October 12th, 1660, com- 
pared with his gracious declarations and 
speeches in England, manifesting to his 
people his inclination to clemency, and com- 
manding, requii'ing, and conjuring them, to 
put away all notes of discord and separation, 
and to lay aside all form6r animosities, and 
the memory of bypast provocations, and to 
return to unity among themselves under his 
majesty's government ; for he never intended 
to except any from the benefit of his bounty 
and clemency, but the immediate murderers 
of his royal father. 

" I desire, therefore, your lordships to ob- 
serve, as all other subjects do, the two con- 
ditions only in his majesty's declaration. 
1st, The vindication of his majesty's honour, 
and that of his ancient kingdom. 2dly, The 


asserting of his ancient royal prerogative. 

Those two being done, he promiseth a full 
and free pardon, and act of indemnity to all 
his subjects in Scotland. 

" I confess, my lords, it is all subjects' duty 
to concur in those ; and this oiFer of my sub- 
mission is all I can contribute to it at this 
time. It is his majesty's royal honour, not 
to question what himself and his royal father 
hath done to his subjects by their former 
acts, especially such persons who have done 
and suffered so much for him ; and it cannot 
be misconstructed in me, not to desire to 
dispute the same, but to fly to that privilege 
of the subjects in their distress, his majesty's 
clemency and mercy, whereby I may have 
share of the benefit of his majesty's preroga- 
tive, which, as his royal father saith, ' is best 
known and exercised, rather by remitting 
than exercising the rigoiu- of the laws ; than 
which there is nothing worse :' and Solomon, 
the wisest of kings, saith, ' mercy and truth 
preserve the king, and his throne is upholden 
by mercy.' The same way the two most 
righteous kings (being of God's own choos- 
ing) practised, to wit, David and Saul : 
David, after a most horrid and unnatural re- 
bellion; and Saul, towards the sons of 
Belial, (which is, wicked men) who refused 
to admit him for their king. 

" So I humbly desire a larger time to con- 
sider what I can do more to give your lord- 
ships satisfaction; that I may have your 
lordships' conciu-rence, that the door of his 
majesty's mercy may not be shut upon me 
alone, of all the subjects in his majesty's do- 
minions ; for a dead fly will spoil a box of 
precious ointment." 

This affecting discourse had no influence 
at all ; and the chancellor, without so much 
as removing my lord, and before he had fully i 
ended what he had to say, gave him for an- ' 
swer, that the parliament commanded him 
next day to give in his defences to the lords 
of articles. Accordingly, March 7th, being 
called before the articles, to give in his de- 
fences, he told them, " he had seen their 
lordships' order, that he might forbeai' his 
coming, if he would produce his defences : 
therefore he acquainted their lordships, that 
if he had them in readiness, he would neither 
have troubled them, nor himself; but hav- 


ing a petition ready to desire a delay, he 
thought it his duty to come and propose it 
himself, hoping their lordships would con- 
sider, that his presenting his defences, either 
wanting somewhat, or blotted, so as they 
could not be well read, was a very great pre- 
judice to him, and a delay of a few days was 
no piejuchce at all to any thing my lord ad- 
vocate could say : and therefore he hoped 
their lordships would not refuse him some 
competent time to get them ready." When 
my lord was removed, and, after some de- 
bate, called in again, the chancellor told him, 
in name of the committee, that he was or- 
dained to give in his defences before Mon- 
day, April 9th, at ten of the clock, to my 
lord advocate; otherwise the lords would 
take the whole business before them, ^vith- 
out any regard to what he had to say. The 
advocate added, that the marquis must give 
in his whole defences. To which his lord- 
ship answered, that was a new form, to give 
in peremptory defences before the discussing 
of relevancies. Sir John Gilmor rose up, 
and said, he was commanded to inform his 
lordship, that there was a difference betwixt 
a process in writ, and the ordinary way be- 
fore the session or justiciary. The marquis 
answered, he was very ill yoked with so able 
men, but he behoved to tell them, he had 
once the honour to sit as chief justice in this 
city, and he knew the process before them 
was in writ, and yet the relevancies were 
always first answered, before any peremptory 
defences were proposed, since relevancies 
are most to be considered in criminals. 
Both of them urged, that it was his lord- 
ship's interest to give in his defences as 
strongly as he could, othenvise the advocate 
might refer the whole business to the judge, 
and make no other answer. My lord re- 
plied, he would follow the advice of his law- 
yers, and hoped any order of their lordships 
at present, was without prejudice to his of- 
fering more defences afterwards, since he 
was so narrowed in time, and commanded to 
give what was ready. He added, that if 
their lordships and the parliament had been 
pleased to grant his desire of a precognition, 
which, as he hiunbly conceived, was agreea- 
ble both to law and practice, and his majes- 
ty's proclamation, which he acquiesced in, 




it could not but have been the readi- 
est way for trying his carriage dur- 
ing the late troubles ; whereas now he must 
of necessity in the process (which he hopeth 
will not be refused) crave a way for an ex- 
culpation in many particulcU"s ; for he both 
was, and is resolved to deal very ingenuously 
as to matters of fact. And if that had been 
first tried, which he was most desirous of, 
both from the committee and the parliament, 
he is hopeful there would not remain so 
much prejudice against him, in most part of 
things of greatest concernment in the libel. 
For his own particular, he desired nothing 
but the truth to have place. They might do 
with his person as they pleased, for by the 
course of nature he could not expect a long 
time to live, and he should not think his life 
ill bestowed, to be sacrificed for all that had 
been done in those nations, if that were all. 

The lords, in nothing moved by any 
thing of this nature, told him, if his defences 
came not in against Monday, they would 
take the whole business before them, with- 
out any regard to what he should after- 
wards say. His defences, for any thing I 
can learn, were given in the day named. 
They are printed in his case, and in them, 
at great length, the marquis's management 
is vindicated from all the falsehoods, 
calumnies, and misrepresentations malici- 
ously cast upon him; and they contain 
one of the best accounts of the transactions 
of those times pointed at in his libel, that 
I know of. Being thirteen sheets of small 
print, I cannot take upon me to give an 
abstract of them : but the most considerable 
perversions of fact in the indictment being 
already taken off, by what I have above 
inserted from the marquis's discourses, little 
more needs be added ; yet, for the setting 
this affair in its due light, and as the best 
abstract I can give of the large defences, 
I shall here insert a paper, drawn up by 
a very sufficient person at this time, which 
contains the substance of what is more 
fully cleared in the defences, which I must 
still refer the reader to. 
Information for viy Lord Argi/le, agaitui 

the dUtat/ given in against him bj/ the 

King^s Advocate. 
" The deeds alleged done, either before his 



,gg, majesty left Scotland, 1651, or 
since, are either deeds of public 
concernment, or private, relating to private 

" As for the public, he never acted with- 
out the approbation of parhament, and 
general assemblies, which were ratified by 
his majesty's royal father, and his majesty 
who now reigns. And as for things relating 
to particulai" persons, he never had any 
accession to any thing, but what is warranted 
by acts of parliament, approven by his 
majesty, and his royal predecessors. 

" As for actings, after his majesty left 
Scotland, 1631, the marquis was still a 
prisoner upon demand, and did never capit- 
ulate till August 1652, being surprised in 
his house, lying sick, and that long after 
the deputies had taken the tender, and 
gone to London, and all others in arms 
had capitulated, and the whole kingdom 
were living peaceably, under the power and 
government of the usurper. 

" 1. The first deed is a speech, 1640, at 
the Ford of Lyon, in Athole, where it is 
affirmed, that he said it was the opinion 
both of divines and lawyers, that a king 
might be deposed for desertion, vendition, 
or invasion ; and said to Mi\ John Stuart, 
that he understood Latin; from whence, 
treason against the king, and the murder 
of the said IVIr. John is inferred. This is 
plainly against law, for speeches against the 
king, by Scots law, go not above the pain 
of death. 2do, It is not relevant to infer 
any crime, though those words had been 
spoken in the abstract terms related, no 
more than any should speak the tenet of 
the Sorbonne or Canon law, upon the 
pope's power. 3tio, To infer the murder 
of the said Mr. John is absurd, seeing the 
said Mr. John was, upon his own con- 
fession and witnesses' depositions, con- 
demned, having slandered not only my 
lord Argyle, but the whole committee of 
estates. 4to, This deed is 1640, and the 
act of oblivion 1641. 

" 2. The second deed is the slighting [dis- 
mantling] the house of Aii'lie, and burning 
of Forthar in Glenyla. It is answered, 
those houses were kept out in opposition 
to the committee of estates, and so might 


be slighted and destroyed; which is clear 
by acts of parliament yet in force, act 4tb, 
parliament 3d, king Charles, June 24th, 
1644, and 35th act, 2d parliament king 
Charles. By which it is expressly acknow- 
ledged, that holding out of houses against 
the estates, is a crime. And by act 35th, 
parliament, anno 1640, the same is made a 
crime. 2do, Oppones the act of oblivion, 
1641. 3tio, The said service is ratified and 
approven in parliament, 1641. Jtege prce- 
sente, unprinted acts, number 70, bearing 
ratification, exoneration, and approbation, 
in favours of the marquis of Argyle. 

" 3. The third deed is, the taking the 
castle of Dumbarton. It is answered, this 
was done by order of the committee of 
estates ; and the act of oblivion was after 
this. As to the taldng of cannon, there 
were only two of them gifted to the marquis 
by the late duke of Lennox, then lying 

" 4. As to the calling of a convention of 
estates, and going into England with an 
army. It is answered, this was done by 
the conservators of the peace, secret council, 
and commissioners of common burdens, 
appointed by the king's majesty for govern- 
ing the country, and ratified in parliament 
since ; and the general assembly went along 
in all the steps. 2do, It was allowed by 
the king, in his agreement at Breda, and 
by his act of oblivion 1651, at St. Johnston 
and Stirling. 

" 5. As to the burning of Menstrie by his 
command. It is answered, Imo, he denies 
any command. 2do, Whereas it bears by 
men under his command, there is no law to 
make that treason, nor is it relevant or 
reasonable, for noxa caput sequitur, ct 
delicta suos tenent authores. 3tio, It is 
remitted by the act of oblivion 1651. 4to, 
General Bailie had the command, whose 
service in that expedition, is approven m 
the parliament 1646, and though he had 
done this, he had commission from the 
parliament 1644. 

" As to the taking of Towart and Escoge, 
and murdering a number of men after capit- 
ulation. It is answered, the marquis was 
not in the country, but in England in the 
time of the said deeds. To the murdering 


of 200 men, after the taking of Dunavertie, 
it is answered, that David Leslie had the 
command there, and what was done, was 
by a council of war, and Lesly's service was 
approven by the parliament IG48. And 
whereas the said article beai's, that my lord 
Argyle caused take 200 persons from Ila to 
Jura, where they perished : this is false 
against him ; for he knew nothing of it, nor 
ever heai'd of it, till he received his dittay. 
But the truth is, that David Lcsly was with 
his army in Ila, against old Coil M'Gilles- 
pick, who held out a fort there, called 
Dunivaige ; and by the continuing of his 
army there, the isle w;is spoiled of meat : 
but Coil being taken, and the fort sur- 
rendered, David Lesly came home with his 
army, and the iu"my left the pestilence in 
the country. And shortly after the removal 
of the army, the captain of Clanronald, with 
Angus M'Donald, son to old Coil, came 
and destroyed all that was left in the isle, 
^whereupon the sickness being among the 
inhabitants, and all their food destroyed, it 
was a joint resolution of the gentlemen in 
that isle, belonging to the laird of Caddel, 
that those people should go, some to 
Ireland, some to Argyle, some to Jura, for 
their safety, and meat, of which there was 
abundance in Jura, and if they wanted, it 
might be had in Lorn and Argyle. But 
this is a most false and base aspersion on 
the marquis, who was neither there at that 
time, or had the least accession to it. The 
gentlemen of Ila can clear this. 

" To the giving up of the king at New- 
castle. It is answered, it was a parliament 
deed, which cannot come upon him ; for by 
law divine and human, a voice in parliament 
is still free, and cannot be censured. Likeas 
by act of parliament 1641, rcgc prcesente, 
members of parliament are sworn to give a 
true judgment to their light : but the tnith 
in fact is, that my lord Argyle was not in 
Scotland, when the king's majesty came to 
the Scots army at Newark ; and the king's 
majesty had emitted his declaration to both 
houses of parliament in England, dcclaiing 
his resolution to settle matters, by advice 
of his parliaments. Neither ever did the 
marquis meddle in that business, but in the 
parliament 1647. 


" As to the protest in parliament .„.. 
1648, calling in the sectarian army, 
writing to Cromwell, that none of those who 
engaged should be put in places of trust, 
and emitting a proclamation against certain 
families. It is answered, that there was no 
protestation, but a declaration before the 
vote, that the general assembly ought to 
be consulted anent the engagement, and 
that the articles of the large treaty might 
be kept by previous dealing by all fair 
means for peace ; and that if all fair deal- 
ing were refused, that there might be 
a due warning. As for the letter, no an- 
swer can be given, till the letter be seen ; 
and though there were a letter in the terms 
libelled, yet it is an act of the commit- 
tee; and as matters went, the army being 
lost at Preston, and the enemy lying on the 
border, if they had demanded the strengths 
of the kingdom, and pledges, or any thing 
harder, it would scarce have been refused, 
the Scots army being lost, and a strong one 
lying on the border. Besides, he never saw 
Cromwell tUl 1648, and he was called in by 
the committee; and the marquis did what 
he could to stop his career. As to the 
alleged proclamations, nothing can be said 
till they be produced, and indeed they were 
neither proclaimed, neither did any thing 
follow upon them. 

" 10. To the clogging of his majesty's pro- 
clamation, murdering Montrose, correspond- 
ing with Cromwell, and his accession to the 
act of the West Kirk, and declaration. It 
is answered, that it was the act of the par- 
liament then sitting, by which the first alle- 
gation was done, and the king acknowledged 
any thing of that kind done good service, 
by admitting the marquis to places of trust 
afterwards, accepting the crown from him, 
and granting a general oblivion. As to 
Montrose ; he had no accession to his death, 
or the manner of it, but endeavoured to 
have him brought ofl^ to prevent effiision of 
blood, 1645, as colonel James Hay can yet 
witness. His corresponding with Cromwell 
is scandalously false, and one Hamilton, 
who was hanged at Stirling, and had said 
this, declared at his death, that report to be 
a false calumny. As to the act of the West 
Kirk ; the mai-quis was at no committee of 


,„-, the kii'k, after his majesty's happy 
arrival, until they came to Perth, 
nor did he know of the same : but when the 
word came to Dumfermline, where the king 
was, his advice was, to obviate the same, 
that the king should draw a declaration, and 
go as great a length as he might safely do; 
but for all the world would not advise the 
king to sign the said declaration against his 
mind, seeing it did reflect, as his majesty 
thought, against his majesty's father, and 
was against his majesty's conscience, and 
desires the duke of Buckingham and the earl 
of Dumfermline's depositions may be taken 
herein, and his sacred majesty consulted 
anent the verity hereof. 

" 11. To the opposition to Glencaii'n and 
IVIiddleton, when appearing for the king, and 
his joining with the English, at least giving 
them counsel. It is ansvvered, that their 
commission was never intimate to hun, either 
by letter or message ; that he sent an ex- 
press to Mddleton to have a conference 
with him, but received no answer ; that in- 
deed the defender did express his dislike 
with their enterprise, as a business which 
could not frame, [succeed] and that it had 
been wsdom to have stayed all mo\dng till 
the event of the Dutch war had been seen, 
or that the kings of Spain and France should 
agree, or the English army divide among 
themselves : but the rising in the liills made 
the English stick faster together. As to 
joining the English in their expedition to the 
hills ; he denies any joining with them, to 
oppose the Scots forces : but he being a 
prisoner, and required to be with them, durst 
not refuse; and denies any kind of acting, 
either by counsel or deed. The selling of 
the cannon out of the castle of Dumbarton 
to Dean ; it is false that they were taken out 
of Dumbarton : but Dean being informed of 
the cannon, told he would either have them 
at a price, or take them. As for taking pay 
from the usurper for a foot company ; the 
practice of all the Highlands in Scotland is, 
in troubles for safety of their country goods 
from robbers and limmers, [villains] to keep 
a watch, which the sheriffdom of Argyle 
could not do, by reason of the payment of 
.heir cesses, and other great burdens and 
'astations sustained of late by them • and 

[book I. 

therefore general Monk allowed pajTnent 
for one hundred soldiers to keep the coun- 
try, as said is; and because they did not 
oppose the forces in the hills, the gen- 
eral discharged payment. The keeping of 
watch was the practice of all the High- 
lands during the last troubles, and was 
practised during the usurper's power, in 
Perth, Inverness, Mearns, Aberdeen, Stir- 
ling, and Dumbarton; and all got allow- 
ance, less or more. 

" 12. As to the assistmg at Richard Crom- 
well's proclamation, his receiving a precept 
of 12,000/. sterling, and sitting in the parlia- 
ment of England. It is answered, he was 
not at all at Richard's proclamation, but by 
command indeed he was at Oliver's, but not 
at Dumbarton, being in Edinburgh, Monk's 
prisoner, he was commanded to come to the 
English council, and assist at the proclama- 
tion, and could not refuse, without being 
made a prey in life and fortune. No law 
can make this a crime, fai' less treason ; and 
it cannot be instructed from any history, 
that a people overcome by an enemy, and 
commanded to do outward deeds of subjec- 
tion, were questioned by their lawful prince, 
when he hath pardoned the invader, or that 
the subject should be prosecute, for doing 
what he, being a prisoner, could not refuse, 
without hazai-ding life and fortune. The 
12,000 pounds is falsely adduced. The par- 
liament of Scotland gave the marquis in pay- 
ment of just debts half of the excise on wine 
and strong waters for a time : he having, by 
his capitulation, his fortune safe, procured 
a warrant that he might have a yearly duty 
forth of the said excise, but never received 
a sixpence of it. And this can no more be 
censured, than the whole kingdom's taking 
their just debts one from another, during the 
usurpation. As for his sitting in the parlia- 
ment of England, after so long an usurpa- 
tion ; no case or precedent can be shown in 
any age in this country, whereby this was 
made a crime, far less treason. The cases 
adduced in the proposition, relate only to 
peaceable times, the righteous king being in 

" 13. To his forbidding to pray for the 
king, and the rest of the alleged speeches. 
It is answered, they are false and calumni- 


ous. His parish minister and chaplain did 
always pray for the king in the time libelled, 
and that in face of the English. The story 
of what he said at London, is basely false, 
and he desires gentlemen, without distinction, 
with whom he conversed, may be asked. 
And the passage alleged in Masterton's 
house, it is false, and craves depositions may 
be taken, by which it will appear, that he 
has been of a contrary judgment. 

" 14-. The last head, it is basely fidse, and 
oppones thereto the Marquis's oath given 
in parliament, 1649, and leaves it to all to 
judge how unlikely and improbable it is, that 
he would speak any thing contrary to the 
oath that he had sworn. From this infor- 
mation, some tolerable view may be had of 
the marquis his defences against the calum- 



nious libel given in. Those and the 
reasonings before the lords, took 
up all the time the parliament had to spare 
I to this matter, for some weeks. 

April oth, I find the parliament pass a 

I certification, that the marquis of Argyle shall 

' have hberty to propound no more in his de- 

' fence after Monday next. Accordingly Tues- 

j day, April 9th, he is brought before the par- 

I liament, where he had a very pointed and 

pretty long speech, wherein he goes through 

the different periods, from the (year) 1G33, to 

the restoration, and ■vindicates his conduct ; 

and earnestly desires his supplication and 

submission to his majesty,may be considered, 

and recommended to the king. This speech 

not being in print, I have annexed at the 

foot of the page. * When his bill was read. 

• ^larquis of Argyle's Speech, April 9th, 

" My regard to parliaments is well known, 
and my regard to this cannot be doubted, having 
his majesty's commissioner upon the throne, 
and so many rvorthy members in the same ; 
therefore I hope it will not be mistaken, that I 
show that parliaments have in them two differ- 
ent inherent powers or qualities, the one legisla- 
tive, the other executive, or judicial. The legis- 
lative consists in the making and repelling laws ; 
the executive, or judicial, in judging according 
to law, whether it be betwixt subject and sub- 
ject, or in relation to any particular person ; 
which I doubt not but your lordships will seri- 
ously and wiiely consider in all your actions ; 
whereby all parliaments, and this in particular, 
Trill be the more acceptable to the people : and 
for this purpose his majesty indicted the sane, 
that therein all his subjects' carriage during the 
troubles, might be tried, his honour and the 
honour of this his ancient kingdom vindicated, 
and the ancient prerogatives of the crown assert- 
ed ; which being done, his majesty declareth he 
will grant such a full and free pardon and act 
of indemnity, as may witness there is nothing he 
more desireth, than that his people should be 
blessed with the abundance of happiness, peace, 
and plenty, under his government. Your lord- 
ships' care and endeavour in these things is not 
doubted, neither have I been wanting, according 
to my present condition, to witness my submis- 
sion and concurrence with the same, by offering 
myself and all I have, at all occasions, to be dis- 
posed of as his majesty should think fit. And 
although his majesty's proclamation be general, 
for trying all his subjects' carriage during the 
troubles, yet (without envy or prejudice to any 
I speak it j no laick man's carriage is brought in 
question but mine own, whereby ray actions, 
however public and common, may be the worse 
liked, when singly looked upon ; which if seen 
otherwise, Tvould appear less censurable : and I 
am so charitable as to concede the main reasons 
are these two, which I take from the libel, my 
alleged being a prime leader and plotter in all the 
pablie defences from the beginning, vrhich a 

short narration of affairs, I hope, will easily 
clear. The next, my being an enemy to his 
majesty, and his royal father, which are both 
most unjustly charged upon me : therefore I am 
confident, when these are cleared, I shall find 
more charity and less prejudice from this hon- 
ourable meeting of parliament. And for satis- 
fying your lordships and all men in these things, 
I shall say nothing but truth : that in all the 
transactions of affairs wherein I ever had my 
hand (I thank God for it) I was never led in 
them by any private design of advantage to my- 
self, either of honour or benefit, which are the 
main things that sway the most part of men's 
cictions : so far was I from desiring benefits, 
that I never had pay as a committee-man or 
soldier in Scotland, England, or Ireland : few 
men can say the like who were in employment. 
And sure if I had aimed at honours, I wanted 
not opportunities, if I durst have forsaken other 
things wherein I was engaged by very strict 
obligations, more binding upon me nor particular 
ends. Another observation I have from the 
libel, which is this, that alter such an inquisi- 
tion, the like whereof was never known in 
Scotland, there is not one particular crime found 
of my maleadministration in any public trust, 
though I had the honour to be in public 
employment since the year J626, neither any 
ground for a challenge in my private conver- 

" But to return to the narration of affairs, for 
vindicating myself from being the prime plotter 
and leader of affairs during the late troubles; 
as I forbear to mention the particular gi-ounds 
and reasons of the kirk and kingdom of Scot- 
land's proceedings, which might readily be mis- 
taken, as many things concerning me have been, 
and are; neither shall I mention any man's 
name, because I intend no reflection, some of the 
prime actors being already with the Lord ; I 
shall, for clearing the more easily to your lord 
ships, comprehend all my actings during the late 
troubles, in three periods of time. First, be- 
twixt the years 16:33 and 1641 ; secondly, be- 
twixt that and 1651 ; thirdly, betwixt that and 
the year 1660, in which it pleased the Lord, in 


, „ „ I and he removed, the chancellor gave 

him for answer, when called in 

again, that the pai-liaraent, after consider- 


inj^ the relevancy and probation, would 
take his bill to their consideration, and 
urged him presently to give in his du- 

his mercy, to restore his majesty to the posses- 
sion of his just rif^ht, to the great comfort of all 
his people, and of myself in particular. 

" Now, in the first period, from 1633 (at which 
time tlie differences first appeared) until the year 
1638, (thoutjh I amnotto judge any other man's 
actions) there are none who then lived, but know 
that I had no hand during that time, in any of 
the public differences; neither, after that, did I 
subscribe the covenant, until I was commanded 
by his majesty's special authority ; and it was in 
council then declared, that the subscribing of it 
was with the same meaning which it had when 
it was first taken, in the years 1580 and 1581. 
I may add likewise, that I was at that time very 
earnestly dissuaded by some then called covenant- 
ers, who are now dead, from subscribing the 
same by his majesty's command; not that they 
disliked the covenant, or the king's command for 
subscribing of it, but fearing a contrary inter- 
pretation upon the covenant, because it was 
thought, that oaths were to be understood ac- 
cording to the meaning of the giver, and not of 
the taker of them. Notwithstanding whereof, 
I subscribed, according to the meaning given by 
the council, which was cleared afterwards in the 
general assembly of Glasgow, whereupon many 
supplications were sent to his majesty, for ap- 
probation, but without effect : yet thereafter, I 
did not so much as subscribe any of the national 
covenants, until the year 1639, when there was 
an English army upon the border, and the 
Scottish army at Dunse. And at that time, 
my endeavours were not wanting to my power, 
for a settling betwixt the king's majesty and his 
people, which was then effectuate. And vvhat- 
soever I had acted, from my first taking of the 
covenant, until his majesty being in Scotland, in 
the year 1641, was not only warranted by pub- 
lic commissions, but all my service is approven 
by his majesty in his parliament, which, with 
his majesty's act of oblivion at that time, put a 
close to that period. 

" From that time thit his majesty left Scotland, 
in the year 1641, until the year 1644, what I acted 
in the fields or counsels was by public commis- 
sions, and the service approven by the triennial 
parliament indicted by his majesty, who met in 
the year 1G44. And though in that interval, 
betwixt 1641 and the parliament 1644, there was 
a meeting of the convention of estates, appointed 
by the council, commissioners for conserving the 
peace, and these for common burdens : which 
council had power by themselves to call a con- 
vention of estates, in which convention the 
league and covenant with England was agreed 
unto, and thereafter approven in the parliament 
1644, yet it is very well known, and I can make 
it very evidently appear, that I was one of the 
men in Scotland who had least correspondence 
iri England. There are yet some of the com- 
missioners alive who were at that time in Eng- 
land, who may evidence the truth of this : where- 
by it is manifest I was no prime plotter in such 
& business. 

" And from the year 1644, until his majesty's 
coming unto Scotland, 1649, I never acted in 
relation to the late troubles, but by virtue and 
command of the parliament and their commit- 

tees, as I shall instruct by their commissions, 
and ratifications of my service. I shall forbear 
here to repeat what I spake formerly, concern- 
ing my proceedings with JMontrose, Mr. Mac- 
donald, and the Irish rebels, and of my agree- 
ment with Montrose, which 1 could not get ra- 
tified by the committee of estates, and therefore 
it broke off again ; but one thing I may say, 
that from the year 1638 until 1648 there was 
never any considerable difference (in public 
offices) among all these, of kirk or state, w^ho had 
once joined together, except a few who went to 
Montrose after Kilsyth. And any dif